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What can you expect from this section?

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After reading this material and performing the activities, you will be able to

  1. appreciate the need for writing reports
  2. learn about the reporting format
  3. appreciate the need for re-planning and re-conducting the action research.

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After conducting the action research you under take the analysis of the information you have gathered. What will you do after you arrive at some conclusion? Are the conclusions only for your consumption? Could they be of some use to others?

This chapter describes the need for reporting and gives you a format for the same.


Action Research, you have learnt is an approach to inquire about a problem of concern in the school setting and try to find alternative solution. An individual or a small group of people can do this research on several aspects of school/class room concerns and cause change. Such endeavors of scientific nature, collaborative efforts are necessary to be recorded for future reference as well as for sharing and rethinking. Kurt Lewin regards Action Research as the development of self-reflective spiral: A spiral of cycles of Planning, acting (implementing plans), observing (systematically collection of data), reflecting and then replanning for further implementation.

Let us recollect the Action Research Spiral

The cycle of inquiry should continue and hence it is necessary to document all that happened and the results. Such a report should certainly be disseminated. Such a sharing would bring out more concerns/ themes/ problems to surface for further research. Thus Action Research is reflective.


  1. It could be brief running matter/ essay with sub-headings of introduction, needed for the study, the plan of Action-the findings/results-an organized write up and a brief one.
  2. The report could be a fairly one under the following heads and focus points :


The Research Report could be a brief story like the one given below with not many/ no statistical analysis. But such brief reports are useful for dissemination only. It is better a small procedure/ monograph type of report is written for further use as indicated in the format above.

Summary format as given by (Stiffen Kemmis 1988)

  1. A woman teacher interested in gender issues in her classroom asked a trusted colleague to keep a record of to whom she talked to. In half an hour session, she discovered that she talked twice as often to boys as to girls, though the class was roughly half boys and half girls. She changed this pattern, through Action plan only gradually. She had to ask the students themselves change their expectations and therefore to gender questions in the classroom.
  2. A Primary School environmental education teacher was dissatisfied with his pupils’ controversial environmental issues. He changed his pattern of teaching from teacher-led-class discussion to a “town meeting” (chaired by himself) of several small groups. Pupils began to question each other statements about environmental issues to a greater extent and asked the teacher not to interfere. The teaching issue for the teacher now became, ‘Can I occupy a management position without influencing the character of the debate’?

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  1. An Action Research Project Report should clearly describe all aspects of the project.
  2. An Action Research Report will help in

The dissemination of information Self reflection Re-planning and reacting

Remember that Action Research is a reflective cycle.

The Key points are:

(i) To identify a problem of concern

(ii) To develop a plan of critically informed action to improve what is already happening.

(iii) To act to implement the plan.

(iv) To observe the effects critically informed action in the context in which it occurs, and

(v) To reflect on these effects as a basis for further planning, action, through a succession of cycles. – Stiffen Kemmis (1988)

In addition to these points, it is necessary to clarify some of the often-felt doubts. It is better we ponder over the popular notions and know what Action Research is not.

  1. It is not a casual thing teacher does but a process of serious reflective thinking and scientific way of studying issues.
  2. It is about the felt concerns aimed at the improvement of individual or groups. Action Research is conducted not as a broad, deep-rooted developmental issue that requires research. It uses only simple analysis and excludes testing hypothesis with significance, variable analysis or such interpretative statistical analysis.
  3. Action Research is not a research done on other people. AR is research by particular people on their own work, to help tham improve what they do; including how they work with and for others. DIET faculty are concerned about Primary school teachers, the school, children and the village set up. Hence Research seems very appropriate for them.
  4. Action Research is not “Scientific method applied to either ”teaching” or just“hypothesis testing” or even using data to come to conclusions. Action Research is based on Social Science Researches and is distinct from the natural/pure sciences. Action Research has the theme of improving a social situation or individuals in the school set up (Teachers, Headmaster, and Pupils). It is a systematically evolving living process changing both the researcher and the situations in which she or he acts. Action research is for growth/ improvement /better living/ better relationship and the like. Unfortunately, the educational researchers have not focused on these points and mix up issues of Pure Research with that of Action Research. Hence the caution.

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The following list contains several aspects that might be included in an action research report. Prepare a sequential format from the list given below. You may even add areas, which might have been left out.



Plan of action






Books referred



{{Reading| Here are a few action research reports conducted in Gujarat. Select any three of the studies and compare the style of reporting done by different researchers.

  1. [1]
  2. [2]
  3. [3]
  4. [4]
  5. media:Creating_Nalikali_Classroom_-_A_Report.pdf‎