Talk:Ipyet/ICTs in Businesses

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Discussions for ICTs and Enterprise Sustainability will take place here as moderated by Brian Sikute.

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Tip: participants should NOT start a new discussion. They should only reply to discussions started by the moderator and to replies already given by other participants.

--Victor P. K. Mensah 15:13, 14 March 2011 (UTC)


Thread titleRepliesLast modified
Technology at Work - Open Solutions2609:14, 21 April 2011
ICTs and Enterprise Sustainability3206:20, 15 April 2011

Technology at Work - Open Solutions

The availability of technology does not necessarily guarantee its use for sustainable enterprise development. Cite ways, including example technology solutions (hardware/software) we can employ to improve ACCESS, COLLABORATION and COMMUNICATION in Enterprise Sustainability?

  • List at least one non-commercial product you would use
Brian.sikute (talk)08:31, 18 March 2011

Yes I totally agree that ICT alone cannot sustain the business. It is matter of supply and demand mechanism. If ICT needs are well aligned with the business needs, the business can pay for the services .Therefore apart from the technology design, we need to think about local ICT contents and proper information plan. For example we can take some interesting example of E-Sewa in India and Kotmale ICT initiative in Srilanka. Therefore, sustaining the ICT and businesses, the development plan, technology plan and information plan should go together

Ekanath (talk)21:16, 18 March 2011

Hi All,

Ignorance on the benefits of ICT, lack of information, lack of finance to obtain technological know- how, poor access of majority of people in the business locality, are some of the reasons why available technology may not be used to promote business sustainability.

Access is a major problem in most developing countries in Africa, especially in the rural areas where majority of the population reside and so the benefits of ICT in business continues to elude majority of people in these countries. Finance is also a problem, big business have little challenges in financing their ICT needs, but most small business are unable to pay for the services of setting up a website for instance and other services such as software development.

A non-commercial product which I would recommend to small business owners is the free Microsoft Office live services that offers small business owners free website design and hosting services. With this product small business owners can design their website using the free software provided by Microsoft and also have their website hosted for free or at a minimal cost for those who may want a domain name not linked to Microsoft office live

Shining Star (talk)23:41, 18 March 2011

Hi Brain,

Yes, availability of the technology is not the total solution to ICT but having knowledge of it for enterprise development is vital and important. Another point of consideration is access and fund for the youth to make use of the availability of the ICT. However, i want to suggest the use of a software by microsoft office for youth to start with.

Ubandoma (talk)03:06, 19 March 2011

Hi Ubandoma, while the need to use Microsoft software is appreciated due to it's commonality and abundance, I would recommend that from the onset open source software is used to avoid users experiencing a "learning curve" when they have to move from Microsoft software to open source.

GabKon (talk)06:48, 19 March 2011

Perfect. teaching people how to use software when they do not understand the basic identification of icons can be a disservice. So the basic Microsoft is a good starting point. But let discuss how one could acquire the right software. It is important young entrepreneurs choose the right software, from the right vendor, at the right time, at the right price.

Agyapongdan (talk)09:14, 21 April 2011
  • OpenOffice if for example I use Microsoft office for my enterprise and once it phases out I may not be able to repace or upgrade for me to avoide the hastle of paying for licences and renewals I have to go for Oprating System UBUNTU - it takes 100 hours to download were can I get this from, here in Zambia. your office Brian? <Smile>
  • WebBlogs - building and hosting websites is expensive but today you can use a blog there are many wordpree, etc

hosting is free you can do it youself at no cost, all you need is Internet

RABROD (talk)04:01, 19 March 2011

The statement above is very true. For example there laptops and personal computers in Zambia are cheaper than before. However, there is need to consider the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) which evaluates all costs, direct and indirect, incurred throughout the life-cycle of an IT asset, including acquisition and procurement, operations and maintenance, and end-of-life management. There is need to bear in mind that once a PC is nought it has to be maintained which adds to the original cost price. For computers if a firm needs to use 5 - 10 PCs, I would propose that they consider solutions that allow for sharing the hard drive of one PC among many users where each one has a virtual PC.

[N.B. To continue later. I came back from a work trip out of town today and in the process ate something that made my stomach "angry", so I need to do something about that]


One non-commerical product that I would use is Skype (

Skype allows a use to make phone calls using the Internet at no cost except Internet browsing charges. This means that a youth entrepreneur can communicate with suppliers and clients at almost no cost when they have downloaded Skype (free of charge) on their computers or some mobile phones.

GabKon (talk)05:51, 19 March 2011

Gabriel, How's your stomach? Is it now ok? Yes, skype is so wonderful phone calls, chats, conference calls etc.

Kafuiaheto (talk)07:16, 19 March 2011

Kaf, I bought some medicine from the Chemist and have taken some Aloe Vera Juice so am feeling much better. Indeed Skype is very useful especially in African nations where international and local calls are very expensive.

GabKon (talk)09:40, 19 March 2011

Gab,it`s unfortunate that in Africa or I can say in Zimbabwe to be more specific, set up cost for ICT is too high for an ordinary entrepreneur hence most small businesses are still lagging behind. Majority of small businesses in Africa do not yet prefer use of skype, facebook and other social sites. It is also equally important that entrepreneurs are advised on scams associated with these. But ICT social tools are great if properly handled.

Tatenda (talk)03:40, 21 March 2011

Tatenda, it's good to hear from the challenges faced in Africa and in Zim specifically. I hope with time that a number of Africans will see the usefulness of using Skype, Facebook and other social network sites. In Zambia at the moment one of the mobile phone providers has a facility where subscribers can access Facebook for free. Imagine how much of a boost this is for business? But I also know that in Zim you are now able to access Internet on mobile phones. That is a great way forward for easing communication among entrepreneurs.

GabKon (talk)09:45, 21 March 2011

It is very true that the availability of technology does not necessarily guarantee its use for sustainable enterprise development. One way is to encourage people to start using open source software and to also encourage governments to teach ICT with open source software. We normally try to depend mostly on programmes such as microsoft which must be bought before its utilisation or at worst use a cracked version which is a "back door" way of using it. In Ghana, the Teaching Syllabus for ICT prepared by the Ministry of Education uses microsoft programmes to deliver instruction. It does not have any free software for it's instruction.

Civil organisations can also sponsor programmes for the public on the use of such programmes including its development. We have been trained so much to depend on the technology that costs.

Example of some non-commercial products I will use is Ubuntu, linux mint, open office, etc.

Kafuiaheto (talk)07:13, 19 March 2011

Hi Brian I agree with you that the availability of technology does not guarantee that every person in business will use this technology for sustainable enterprise development. There is need for institutions involved in the promotion of enterprise development to marry the availability and the use of this technology in best way possible that meets the demands of any business person for sustainable enterprise development.


Samipyet2011 (talk)21:00, 19 March 2011

Hello friends,

Thank you for the great discussion and wonderful contributions/comments you made. We must endeavor to use the available technology in the best way possible to yield maximum retains. ICT ACCESS through website, blogs, social networks, live chats, Internet voice and video calls, and more are available and for 'free'. Providing hardware alone does not bridge/close the 'gap'. Capacity building in terms of use and maintenance of equipment is key.

Other than using costly commercial and often pirated copies of software, use of free and open source solutions should be explored.

Though i would not necessarily promote one distribution over another, i strongly recommend Ubuntu. It comes with all the needed applications plus its has a great interface too. Its amazing how much you can do with it and for free. Yes! For FREE!!

Brian.sikute (talk)22:00, 21 March 2011

Hi All

Thanks for the discussion, to me i think the starting point on the discussion on the use of ICT in enhancing youth participation in sustainable enterprise development is the access of ICT related skills, equipment and infrastructure.most of the use are not even accessible on to the basic ICT infrastructure e.g internet, computers e.t.c

Sang (talk)05:38, 25 March 2011

Hi! Brian , Kaf ,Gab Tatenda,Samuel and the rest of the team that i did not mention by name .

I strongly agree with Brian that the availability of technology does not guarantee that every individual in business will use this technology for sustainable enterprise development.

In order to utilize all these technologies towards sustainable enterprise , I believe there is need for a three way partnership , that is the government to bring in its infrastructures, then NGOs bring in skills that they have in ICT and then private sector should bring in funding towards ICT projects which involve the promotion of enterprise development.

I turn to believe that as much as there is a lot of technologies that comes in everyday ,so business people are left behind because some are not well informed about them and some don't know the whereabouts of utilizing these technologies towards sustainable enterprise.

Just like Gab I would use and I am using skype


Koziba (talk)06:03, 2 April 2011

hello cheer,

I cant agree with you more. There are so many ways of communicating these days. However some of the means are expensive. There is thereefore need for collobotaion with diffrent players govt, csos and private sector tomake technology access cheaper for young people. During the last ICT conference in Zambia there was a show by an NGO in Chama wchich is doing a lolt of good work for the community. WE can facilitate information sharing regarding these issues.--Smauye 13:28, 15 April 2011 (UTC)

Smauye91 (talk)02:28, 16 April 2011

Smauye, I am glad you recognise the presence of the different types of communicating. About their prices being expensive, it is quite through. Most of these technologies have been designed and provided by expatriates and MNCs who would want to make profits even to beat the foreign exchange rate risks.

Agyapongdan (talk)08:52, 21 April 2011


I agree with you Brain because the availablity of technogy is much dependent on the knowledge of the user otherwise it is usesless for instance pastel for accountants it is comprehinsive sortware but can be tricky to use.

Wmbongwe (talk)00:33, 11 April 2011

Wmbongwe, you are right. But for the simple applications like Excel one requires basic introduction and masters by constant practice and use. Excel is a powerful tool you know.

Agyapongdan (talk)09:04, 21 April 2011

Indeed the availability of technology does not necessarily guarantee its use for sustainable enterprise development. Many SMEs lack knowledge and awareness of the benefits of technology. I believe if they appreciated its usefulness for sustainable enterprsie development, they would apply it wherever possible.

Some of the technology solutions include skype, facebook and mobile phone messaging

Mulakom (talk)21:48, 12 April 2011

Hello every one, As the saying goes, "a book can not read itself" so is any material that is intended to add value to live. The Entrepreneure must get up and utilize the Technology solutoions available to him/her by constantly interacting with such gudgets. He/she needs to move around by communicating online, accessing the internet and other relevant materials to knaw about needs, availability of raw materials, markets and risk involved in evrey business in order to succeed.

Luckyluka (talk)06:32, 15 April 2011

hi, Indeed availability does not necessariuly lead to use. I had a good telephone with possibility for internet access but for years I never connected it. It is the same with technology. Most enterprenueers young people included use a computer as a type writer. They fail to use excel for thier financial management and wait for software like pastel. We can impproves accesss by using what is already available, while we can use cellphone to imptove collaboration through email messaging, creating communities and improving general communication. --Smauye 13:24, 15 April 2011 (UTC)

Smauye91 (talk)02:24, 16 April 2011

dear friends, Open source platforms seem to provide affordable solutions to youth enterprise development as they provide free software which has all the features required in enterprise. It has provisions for email-chat, access to facebook and is very accessible. However, I am not very sure about the availability of the skills to install and manage it.--Smauye 13:07, 16 April 2011 (UTC)

Smauye91 (talk)02:07, 17 April 2011

Technology has aided in the keeping and tracking of stocks, customer accounts, filing, exchange of information between the venture owner and the suppliers. It has aided in the minimization of time spent, money and energy in all these activities, promoted growth and possible business survival. Technology has changed the face of operating business today.

Agyapongdan (talk)08:45, 21 April 2011

In our use of technology, we need to be mindful that it can not make decisions for us. Also if we put in the wrong input it will give us wrong output.

Agyapongdan (talk)09:07, 21 April 2011

ICTs and Enterprise Sustainability

  1. What is your understanding of the role of ICTs in Enterprise Sustainability?
  2. What available software solutions are sustainable for Business Enterprises? Please give examples in the following classes:-
    • Collaboration Suites
    • Web Browses
    • Office Suites
    • Desktop Publishing and Graphic Design
Brian.sikute (talk)08:01, 17 March 2011

Dear Brian,

I failed to open the module, so I am a bit lights out in this. Kindly send me the module in a lower version if there is something like that.--Smauye 06:03, 17 March 2011 (UTC)

Smauye91 (talk)19:03, 17 March 2011

Dear Brian & Colleagues

Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) as they are commonly known have not only bridged the gap between the worlds but also improved the way in which businesses are run. In this age of technology, ICTs play a very important role in the sense that it one can be said to be doomed if they do not make use of these ICTs. Some examples of ICTs that can be use in enterprise sustainability include computers, printers, telephones, cellphones, the World Wide Web or internet, radios among the few. These technologies have improved the way in which we do business as they have helped in:

1. The efficiency. 2. Advertising and promotions of technologies. 3. Increased access to where we can locate and find goods. 4. Improved the record keeping and management of information within the organization 5. Increased sales and profits 6. Improved employee input & output

No. 2

Web Browsers Under web browsers

• Firefox • Yahoo • Internet Explorer • Google • Ajax

Office Suites

Some of the examples under office suites include:

• • KOffice • LibreOffice • WPS Office • Ability Office • SoftMaker, • Easy Office • Microsoft Office

I am yet to research on Collaboration suites and Desktop Publishing and Graphic Design

Mwaba (talk)04:50, 18 March 2011

Hi Mwaba, an interesting point you have brought concerning the bridging the digital gap or divide. There have been arguments as what exactly this 'gap' is with some saying the gap does not exist. i wont go into that but what i always think about when is comes up is the fact we should be talking about 'closing' and not 'bridging'. But for ICTs to be fully exploited other enablers are necessarily like availability of electricity.

The internet explorer web browser is a commercial product just like MS office. Licenses fees for these can be very expensive.

Brian.sikute (talk)07:11, 18 March 2011

Hi Sibongile, i sent you mail earlier today with a PDF Version of Module 4.2. Hope you got it.

Brian.sikute (talk)06:59, 18 March 2011

The role of ict in Enterprise sustainability cannot be overemphaised. One need ICT to advertise and market hers or his business products. Need ICT to collaborate and above more need ICT for value chain addition.

Iam however short of knowing the type of enterprise software solutions available besides SPSS and ArcGIS for those entrepreneurs who are trading as consultants in Monitoring and Evaluation, analyzing spatial data and map objects among others.

I would be interested to learn those specific products that addresses other business desplines Regards

Isaac.fwemba (talk)23:01, 17 March 2011

COLLABORATION!! there is no limit to what you can do when you exploit the available technology

Brian.sikute (talk)07:47, 18 March 2011

In the current business world, ICT is playing a very important role .The access to information is the most and has been considered that it one of the most powerful BDS service to the business (small medium and large business ) . We can take some example of mobile banking services that allow people to make secure transactions and secure small business loans. ICT is the best and fastest alternative to access market information required by the small scale entrepreneurs / farmers etc. Basically the following approaches would be effective Web Browses B2 B inactive sites Local information kiosk/ centers

Ekanath (talk)23:33, 17 March 2011

Hello Ekanath,

I like your contribution, but what do you mean by BDS service?

Ubandoma (talk)02:48, 18 March 2011

Thanks Janet for appreciation on my contribution. BDS service meant for Business development services. There are numbers of BDS services are required to grow business like access to finance, access to information , provision of technology , inputs supply , access to markets

Ekanath (talk)04:22, 18 March 2011

I like the way that everyone is highlighting the word ACCESS.

Brian.sikute (talk)07:27, 18 March 2011

Thank you Ekanath.

Brian.sikute (talk)07:23, 18 March 2011

In the discussion paper, sustainability was defined as "Investments which continue to produce a return". The role of ICT in Enterprise sustainability is diverse since most enterprises need to move with the current and modern way of doing things. Some of the roles are that:
1. Enterprises through ICT can be promoted to be more
i. efficient,
ii. profitable,and
iii. thereby creating or safeguarding jobs.

Enterprise development does not only concern marketing and sales, but all other areas which constitute its value chain and requires effective communication and co-operation within the enterprise. Some of the other areas that ICT can play a great role in Enterprise Sustainability are creating networks with other colleagues in the same enterprise,out-of office working (automation), finance (software for all the financial and accounting processes) and maximising of work inputs and outputs with lots of professionalism.

Some available software solutions for Business Enterprises.

Most of the softwares are generic  but I feel they can also be used for Business Enterprises.
A. Collaboration Suites
i. Assembla: Online workspaces for distributed team. Project management and collaboration tools, bug and issue tracking, wikis. Includes a real-time Team Room.
ii. CodeBeamer: Includes project management, wiki, document management, issue tracking and version control management.
iii. Central Desktop: Includes project management, wiki, file upload, review and approve, calendar, document management
iv. dotProject
v. eGroupWare
etc. Source

B. Web Browses

    i. Opera

   ii. Firefox

C. Office Suites

   i. Open Office
D. Desktop Publishing and Graphic Design

  I do not have any vivid idea about softwares under this heading that can be available for sustainable Business Enterprises.

--Kafuiaheto 13:01, 17 March 2011 (UTC)

Kafuiaheto (talk)02:01, 18 March 2011

technology enables us to do business faster and greatly improves the accuracy with which we work and perform tasks.

Brian.sikute (talk)07:42, 18 March 2011

 Brian you have reminded me of Bill Gates book "Business at the Speed of Thought". Surely business must be done at the speed of our thoughts or click of a mouse or pushing of a mobile phone key.

GabKon (talk)09:53, 19 March 2011

Hey guys, mwaba and kafuiheto, thanks very much for that infor....i was really in the dark

Isaac.fwemba (talk)02:34, 19 March 2011

ICT is playing a vital role in the world today and practice of socioeconomic development, like in terms of communication between buyers and supplier and friends, Internet make it is very easy in transfer of information, data processing, online job search and E banking. It has also enhances opportunities and businesses.

In software solutions for business enterprises am very much interested in knowing more about it

Chichi (talk)02:30, 18 March 2011

Chichi, you hit the nail right on the head.Internet really make it is very easy to transfer information, process data , make online job search and do E-banking.

Kafuiaheto (talk)03:13, 18 March 2011

COMMUNICATION is another word that stands out. Businesses that are doing very well often employ some of the best and latest technologies available.

Brian.sikute (talk)07:31, 18 March 2011

I like your comment that "ICT is playing a vital role in the world today and practice of socioeconomic development". Socio-economic development the process of social and economic development in a society (Wikipedia, 2010:1). The use of ICTs in enterprises should lead to that for the benefit of society.

GabKon (talk)10:37, 21 March 2011

Hello Brian,

This is an interesting topic and the fastest growing business in the world which the youth can exploit. ICT Substainability is an investment which continue to produce returns, financially through education and social means. The role of ICT in Enterprise Substainability are as follows:

  • To provide access to markets and jobs
  • To promote competition and efficiency
  • It can enable wealth creation and reduction through applications example as price discovery and  marketing assistance
  • To find jobs through online job searching tools.
  • It enable transfer of information faster through  shared electronic files and networked computers
  • It helps in data processing,  documentation and other back-up functions
  • It helps to store information
  • It helps to reduce transaction costs and increasing the speed and reliability of transactions

The only software i have idea on  is the autocad in graphic design and I don't know it very well. I want to know the different softwares, please.

Ubandoma (talk)02:38, 18 March 2011

just today, a read an article that listed the top five growing careers and the first two are technology jobs. its amazing that today, you cant imagine just how we used to live before the dawn of the Internet. the faces of corporation are now websites and you can transact with any business available online in the comfort of your space

Brian.sikute (talk)07:38, 18 March 2011

Dear all,

Thank you for wonderful contributions on this thread. 'Undoubtedly' ICTs have changed the way that we live, communicate, work including and now, the way that we learn. Your comments highlighted:-


Every civilization can be measured by the type of technology developed and employed. This can be seen from the converged and integrated communication networks that they use. Developed countries are associated with the latest technology and so is any great business enterprise.

In terms of enterprise sustainability, no one product can fully address this but rather, it can come from a combination of solutions that yield the required results in the best and manageable way. I have, however, a biase toward the use of open-source solutions as they are freely available and do not require license fees to use them. for example:-

  • Collaboration Suites -[Zimbra, OpenXchange, Evolution]
  • Web Browses -[Firefox, Opera]
  • Office Suites -[Libre Office, Open Office]
  • Desktop Publishing and Graphic Design -[GIMP, Scribbus]

The list of available free and open solutions is endless

Brian.sikute (talk)08:11, 18 March 2011

Hi Brian and Hi All,

Am sorry i was out of reach yesterday. Thanks for all your very intresting comments. In addition, i would like to comment that The use of ICT enhances business operations, in terms of time management and cost effectiveness,It makes business easier and faster.

ICT provides the entrepreneur a platform to provide information and services at the same time and within the same location, in a cost effective manner to both employees and customers .e.g. with ICT an enterprise can share information within and with others outside the firm, market products and conduct business transaction with customers online, publish vital information and get valuable feedback all within the same location with less time than it would have required without the use of ICT.

The role of ICT in enterprise sustainability therefore, lies in the fact that it enhances business operations which results in improved profits and greater efficiency.

Shining Star (talk)22:34, 18 March 2011

Hi all, I will be ok if you can call me Rodgers

Though late, still I have been going through the contributions from my fellow participants and the facilitator. am facinated with the topic as it sounds to me as if its new. the reasons for this is that it is really opening my eyes am also into ICTs but at some low levels. The role of ICTs in entreprise Sustainability is that ICTs have come to stay, as this have come to contribute on the efficience, and effectivenes of doing business in terms of easy and fast communication, for example; writing a letter and posting could take a lot of effort and time.

  • even communicating to international partners in order that they do business in your country was something you have to wait for months. but now for instance am able to do business with someone trying to support a school with school desks, and finds us through a website and contacts us and make payments without him from that country travelling to Zambia.
  • also we able to discuss the designs and make sample of the particular product and they also contribute to how the product should look like at the end of it all the desks are supplied to the school without any of the persons dealing in this business.
  • thanks to Email
  • Skype
  • for learning and teaching tools such as eXe
  • Wikis
  • Web Blogs
  • spreadsheets excel etc etc.
RABROD (talk)03:46, 19 March 2011

1. What is your understanding of the role of ICTs in Enterprise Sustainability?

The role of ICTs in Enterprise Sustainability can be seen from two angles:

  • Economic sustainability: achieved when a given level of expenditure can be maintained over time.
  • Social sustainability: achieved when social exclusion is minimised and social equity maximised

2. What available software solutions are sustainable for Business Enterprises? Please give examples in the following classes:-

  • Collaboration Suites: Google groups, Blogs
  • Web Browsers: Firefox, Opera
  • Office Suites: Productivity Suite
  • Desktop Publishing & Graphic Design: Scribus, Avery DesignPro
GabKon (talk)09:48, 19 March 2011

Collaboration Suites:Blogs,User groups such as google groups Web Browsers:Opera,firefox. Office suites: Products suites Desktop publishing:Avery Product Design program.


Samipyet2011 (talk)20:40, 19 March 2011

Hi Friends, Enterprise sustainability cannot be complete without the use of ICTs,this is simply because we live in a global village,and therefore,ICTs have provided a platform for easy and fast communication to would be suppliers and customers,efficiecy and effectiveness where doing business is concerned,Your Friend Samuel. Sa

Samipyet2011 (talk)20:31, 19 March 2011

My understanding of the role of ICT in Enterprise Sustainability

ICT plays a very important role in Enterprise sustainability. i agree with Chichi that ICT has a role communications between customers and business people.

I will give an personal example

I have been running my business part time and now I am planning to venture into it full time. But before when I was still working due to work commitments , I have always done my orders via internet and these orders are delivered right by my door.

I advertise my products and services to my clients , friends through skype, yahoo chart, google chart.

I have some of my orders which come as far as from China , UK, USA but I still do my business like any other person who travels to all these countries to order their stuff.

I can't say much about the example classes, I am really still learning about them and most of them I only learnt about them few days back when I was reading through the discussions.

Koziba (talk)06:15, 2 April 2011


The role of ICT in enterprice suatnability include among otheres, through shared electronic shared fies and networked worked computerr increeass of busuness processes, it allows information sharing, promotes marketing in areas of competetion and contacts of byuyers and suppliers

Collabortion- google, yahoo

Web broweses - fire fox

Office siutes

Desktop -

Graphic design

Wmbongwe (talk)00:22, 11 April 2011

ICTs play a critical role in enterprise sustainability. Although the initial cost of acquiring the equipment may be high, it reduces the cost of doing business in the long term. With the use of ICTs, businesses can reach many more customers, across boundaries.

Mulakom (talk)22:04, 12 April 2011

I am not conversant with the software solutions for sustainable business enterprises. Would like more infrmation on these

Mulakom (talk)22:15, 12 April 2011

Dear Moderator and colleagues, I understand the role of ICT s in enterprise sustainability is that it offers unlimited range of information to entrepreneures on how to start, manage and sustain thei bussinesses from any where in the world.

Luckyluka (talk)06:20, 15 April 2011