ACTION RESEARCH IN RELATION TO OTHER TYPES OF RESEARCH
LET US DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH
It deals with ‘what is’, describes and interprets what exists at present. The researcher is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist; practices that prevail, processes that are going on; influences that are being felt and trends that are developing. The purposes of descriptive study include
- studying the present phenomena-their status and trends,
- providing a basis for planning and formulation of policies,
- providing a basis for fundamental research.
Major steps in descriptive study are the same as that of scientific method.
It deals with ‘what will be’ when all conditions are carefully controlled. In an experimental study two situations which are alike in every respect are considered. Then one element is added or removed from one of the situations. The result of this operation is studied. Any difference that arises as a result of this operation is attributed to the adding or removing of the material. The two situations are compared under controlled conditions. The group on which the experiment is done is called the experimental group. Various steps in a simple experimental Research can be represented thus:
|CONTROL GROUP||EXPERIMENTAL GROUP|
|No treatment||Application of the experimental factor|
|Post test||Post Test|
P. V. Young describes that case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit, a person, a family, an institution, cultural group or even the entire community. Case study has its roots in clinical observation. It is diagnostic in nature. It is a form of qualitative analysis involving a very careful and complete observation of a person, a situation or an institution. For recording what is being observed a case-study sheet is developed which documents the identity of the subject, the problem, observations made, planning of remedial action and findings.
Methodology of Research
Whatever the type of research, it is an indepth study of a problem. Such an analysis has to be done in an objective and systematized manner. Only then the findings of a research would have a universal application. The findings should also be verifiable. The objective way of thinking about a problem is scientific thinking.
The method of science consists of the following steps:
- Identification and definition of the problem
- Formulation of a hypothesis; a human assumption -locating variables - establishing relationships
- Collection, organization and analysis of data
- Formulation of conclusions
- Verification, acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis
Educational research also employs the same steps in order to study problems specific to education.
Classification of research
There could be two broad groups in research as the physical sciences.
- The fundamental/basic/pure research.
- Applied research –> action research
Educational research is essentially looked upon as Applied research. Various aspects of education, curriculum, tests and evaluation, teacher behavior, methodology and such other areas are examined scientifically in an experimental or descriptive manner. The areas of growth and development are also taken up as case studies.
Kurt Lewin (1946), Stephen Corey (1953) advocated a scientific and reflective approach to several local problems in the school set up. This is “action research”. Most of the researches useful and adaptable to classroom practices are in the form of Action Research.
Let us try to know what action research is.
Scope of Action Research
Action research is focused on immediate application, not on the development of a theory, not upon general application. It has placed its emphasis on a problem here and now in a local setting. Many Action Research projects are carried out in a classroom by a single teacher. As it becomes more extensive it becomes more similar to other types of educational research. The emphasis is Action Research, not on obtaining generalisable scientific knowledge about educational problems but on obtaining knowledge concerning a specific local problem.
The function of action research therefore, is to combine the research function with teacher growth in such qualities as objective thinking, skill in research processes, ability to work harmoniously with others and develop professional spirit. Quite often, many teachers will not have the time, resources, or technical background to engage in formal research activity but more teachers can be involved in action research activity and model studies may be undertaken for the purpose of trying to improve local classroom practices.
Let us differentiate them…..
The difference between the fundamental or basic research and action research can be summarized as given below against certain criteria.
|Criteria||Basic Research||Action Research|
|Objectives||Develop and test educational theory and derive generalizations.||To find solutions to problems in a specific context.|
|Training||Intensive training is needed in Research Methodology.||Limited training is needed.|
|Selection of a problem||A wide range of methods are used to select a problem.||Participating teacher identify problems during the teaching-learning processes.|
|Hypothesis||Highly specific hypotheses are developed.||Specific statement of the problem serves as hypotheses.|
|Review of Literature||An exhaustive and thorough review of literature is required.||No such thorough review of literature is needed.|
|Sample||Considerably large sample size is required.||Students studying in the class of a teacher forms sample.|
|Experimental Design||Well thought experimental design is developed to maintain comparable conditions and reducing error and bias.||Procedures are planned only in general terms.|
|Analysis of Data||Complex analysis is often called for.||Simple analysis procedures are usually sufficient.|
|Conclusions||Conclusions may be in the form of generalizations and developing theories.||Findings are local specific.|
|Application of results||The generalizations have broad applicability||Findings are used immediately in the classroom situations by participating teachers to improve their own practices|
Four issues in which action research is different
- It is not the usual thing teachers do when think about their teaching. Action research is more systematic and collaborative in collecting evidence on which to base rigorous group reflection.
- It is not simply problem solving. Action research involves problem –solving, not just problem solving. It motivated by a quest to improve and understand the word by changing it and learning how to improve it from the effects of changes made.
- It is not research done on other people. Action research is research by particular people on their own work, to help them improve what they do, including how they work with and for others. Action research treats people as autonomous, responsible agents who participate actively in making their own practices to be more effective. It does not treat people as objects for research , but encourages people to work together as knowing subjects and agents of change and improvement.
- It is not ‘ the scientific method’ applied to teaching. Action research is not just about hypotheses-testing or about using data to come to conclusions. Action research is not just about hypotheses-testing or about using data to come to conclusions. Action research is concerned with changing situations, not just interpreting them like in historical sciences. Action research is systematically evolving, a living process changing both the researcher and the situations in which he/she acts; neither the natural sciences nor the historical sciences have their double aim.
ಸರ್ವ ಶಿಕ್ಷಣ ಅಭಿಯಾನ ನೀಡುವ ತರಬೇತಿಗಾಗಿ ತಯಾರಿಸಿದ ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತಿಯನ್ನು ನೋಡಲು ಇಲ್ಲಿ ನೀಡಿರುವ ಲಿಂಕ್ ಕ್ಲಿಕ್ಕಿಸಿ. ಈ ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತಿಯನ್ನು ಸ ಶಿ ಅಭಿಯಾನ ತಯಾರಿಸಿದ ತರಬೇತಿ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಅನುಗುಣವಾಗಿ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಪಡಿಸಿದೆ.
ಕ್ರಿಯಾ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆಯ ಪ್ರಕ್ರಿಯೆ
ಕ್ರಿಯಾ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆಯ ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳು ಹಾಗೂ ಕ್ರಿಯಾ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆ ಕುರಿತಾಗಿ ಇರುವ ತಪ್ಪು ಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳ ಕುರಿತಂತೆ ಇರುವ ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತಿಯನ್ನು ನೋಡಲು ಈ ಕೆಳಗಿನ ಲಿಂಕ್ ಕ್ಲಿಕ್ಕಿಸಿ.
ಕ್ರಿಯಾ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆಯ ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳು ಹಾಗೂ ಕ್ರಿಯಾ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆ ಕುರಿತಾದ ತಪ್ಪು ಪರಿಕಲ್ಪನೆಗಳು
ಕ್ರಿಯಾ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆಯ ದಾಖಲೀಕರಣ ಹಾಗೂ ಮಾಹಿತಿ ಹಂಚಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವಿಕೆ ಕುರಿತಂತೆ ಇರುವ ಪ್ರಸ್ತುತಿಯನ್ನು ನೋಡಲು ಈ ಕೆಳಗಿನ ಲಿಂಕ್ ಕ್ಲಿಕ್ಕಿಸಿ.
ಕ್ರಿಯಾ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆಯ ದಾಖಲೀಕರಣ ಹಾಗೂ ಮಾಹಿತಿ ಹಂಚಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವಿಕೆ
Other relevent web sites
- Image Diagrams of Action Research
- Improving Teaching through Classroom Action Research
- Teacher Action Research
- Five Phases of Action Research
- STARTING POINTS
- Reasons to Do Action Research
- Techniques for Gathering Data
- Guidelines for Developing a Question
- Guidelines for Data Collection
- Sample-Improving School Attendance: Organizing a Team Approach.