|Art Appreciation and Techniques (#ART100)|
|Art and architecture||Overview | Introduction | Methods and materials | Architecture in China and the Far East | Cross-cultural influences | Architecture and the Industrial Revolution | Modern architecture | Postmodern and contemporary architecture | Green architecture | Summary|
Constructivism, a similar philosophy developed concurrently in Russia that used the arts for social purposes. Bauhaus existed for fourteen years, relocating three times, and influencing a whole generation of architects, artists, graphic and industrial designers and typographers.
In 1924, Gropius designed the Bauhaus main building in Dessau. Its modern form includes bold lines, an asymmetric balance and curtain walls of glass. Its painted in neutral tones of white and gray accented by strong primary colors on selected doors.
Frank Lloyd Wright is considered one of the 20th century's greatest architects. He was a protégé to Sullivan and extended these new design ideas to architectural forms all his own. Wright designed buildings, churches, homes and schools, but is best known for his design of Falling Water, a home in the Pennsylvania countryside for Chicago department store owner Edgar Kaufman. His design innovations include unified open floor plans, a balance of traditional and modern materials and the use of cantilevered forms that extends horizontal balance.
Guggenheim Museum in New York City is an example of Wrights concern with organic forms and utilization of space. The main element in the design is a spiral form rising from the middle of the cantilevered main structure. Paintings are exhibited on its curved walls. Visitors take the elevator to the top floor and view the works as they travel down the gently sloped hallway. This spiral surrounds a large atrium in the middle of the building and a domed skylight at the top.
Glass House in New Canaan, Connecticut. Completed in 1949, its severe design sits comfortably in the rural landscape surrounding it. Steel vertical supports echo nearby tree trunks and large glass panels act as both walls and windows. Like Meis van der Rohe, Johnson was a leader in developing and refining an architecture characterized by rectilinear forms, little or no surface decoration and plenty of glass. By the mid 20th century most major cities in the world were building skyscrapers designed in the International Style.
Not all architects shared this enthusiasm for the modern style. Antoni Gaudí realized his own vision in design that gave organic shapes to his structures. The exterior of Casa Batlló (1905, below left) in Barcelona shows a strong influence from the decorative Art Nouveau style with its undulating forms and strong ornamentation.
Gaudí's greatest architectural effort is La Sagrada Familia basilica in Barcelona. Started in 1884 and unfinished to this day, its massive and complex facades, extensive stained glass and multiple towers are bridges across three centuries of architectural design.