Training Educators to Design and Develop ODL Materials/Types of Assessment in ODL/Content
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PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT
The Role of Assessment
Assessment: a general term that includes the full range of procedures used to gain information about student learning...and the formation of value judgments concerning learningprogress...(Linn and Gronlund, 200, 31-32).
In its broadest sense, e-assessment is the use of information technology for any assessment-related activity. This definition embraces a wide range of student activity ranging from the use of a word processor to on-screen testing. Due to its obvious similarity to e-learning, the term e-assessment is becoming widely used as a generic term to describe the use of computers within the assessment process. E-assessment can be used to assess cognitive and practical abilities. Cognitive abilities are assessed using e-testing software; practical abilities are assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. See more information in E-assessment
It is generally accepted that assessment will propel student learning. Therefore there must be a match between what is assesed (content) AND how this content is assessed (format) in order to make assessment meaningful and meet the instructional goals.
Modes of Assessment
Types of Assessment in ODL
Remember that the learning style (of the learner) is also a major consideration. See Types of Online Assessment.
Handout is provided on Types of Assessment
Issues Related to Validity and Reliability
There are two other factors that contribute to the effectiveness of assessment. Namely:reliability and validity
In order to ensure a high degree of reliability and validity there are several approaches the facilitator can utilize.
- How can the facilitator improve Reliability?
- Avoid ambiguous questions and directions or instructions.
- Sample more items with similar content.
- Use well defined scoring/marking schemes.
- Train raters/markers in an effort to standardize marking or interpretation of students’ work
- How can the facilitator improve Validity?
- Design a table of specifications.
- Test only what is taught.
- Consider ‘for whom’ and ‘for what’.
- Ensure that instructions are clear.
- Use item types that enhance reliability of tests – both subjective and objective items.
- Ensure appropriate sampling content.
- Determine which low discriminating items to discard after item analysis.
- Pay attention to scoring procedures and test administration.
Gronlund (2000) points out: “The degree of validity is the single most important aspect of a test”. Furthermore, the teacher must be aware of the many factors which may influence the validity of tests measurement, or evaluation results at any given time in the assessment process. Therefore, the teacher must pay attention to:
- the test;
- administration and scoring;
- pupil’s responses;
- the group and the criterion.
Activities and Reflections
|Assessment in ODL|