Introduction of survey method-
Differential method is used to study individual differences among the all person. Studies in the field of educational psychology make extensive use of the statistical survey which is based on the sampling by direct observation. This method makes use of various techniques of collecting data such as tests, questionnaire, observation, interview and use of statistics in analyzing the data.
There are three broad categories of survey method which share the common features of carrying out their observations on samples of individuals which are regarded as representative of the larger population to which they belong. The three categories are as follows:
- THE FIELD STUDY: A field experiment may be defined as a scientific investigation carried out in the field which involves the direct manipulation of some independent variables. The field study is conducted in natural classroom teaching learning situation spread over a wide area. Developing programmed material can be cited here for an example. The programmed material at its initial stage is tested on individual and small group of students for whom it is developed. After two try – outs it is tried out in actual classroom situation for final validation which is generally called field try out. Generally in a field experiment steps are the same as those used in laboratory experiments.
- DEVELOPMENTAL SURVEY: The developmental survey and developmental clinical case study though appear to be alike but they differ in their purpose. Clinical method (case study) does it for the individual whereas developmental survey studies do it for the typical patterns of change in the growth and decline of behavior over a specific period of life span of a group or whole population. Developmental surveys may be longitudinal or cross-sectional. We can study the development of intelligence in culturally disadvantaged children from birth to five years using either longitudinal or cross-sectional method of study.
- DIFFERENTIAL SURVEY: O’Neil refers two examples of differential surveys which he describes as “Those concerned with establishing typical differences between individuals and between classes of individuals “.The study conducted by Kline berg into differences in intelligence between racial and national groups in Europe comes under differential survey.