|Hands||Omake / Eenyala|
|Toes / Fingers||Ominwe|
|Doctor||Ndokotola / Omupangi|
|Toothbrush||Okati kokomayo / Okakombe kokomayo|
|Dental floss||Ongodi yomayo|
|Razor||Okambi / Okashina|
|Lip balm||Omaadi okomilungu|
|Condom||Okondoma / Ongumi|
|Sick / In pain||Vela (Vele) / Ehama|
|Burn (yourself)||Pya (pi)|
Label the drawing on page 41 using the words in the preceding list.
|What part of you is hurting? / How are you sick?||Oto vele shike/peni?|
|When did you get sick?||Owa tameka okuvela naini?|
|Can you call ... for me?||Kwafe nge u dengele ...?|
|I want to go to the hospital.||Onda hala okuya koshipangelo.|
|I want to see the doctor.||Onda hala okumona Ndokotola.|
|The doctor said I have to go to Windhoek.||Ndokotola okwa ti ondi na okuya kOvenduka.|
|I need a condom.||Onda pumbwa okondoma.|
|Use a condom.||Longifa okondoma.|
|Take some condoms.||Kufa(mo) eekondoma.|
As you see from the previous word list, vele is the Oshikwanyama word for being in pain. So, to express pain in a certain part of the body, you do as follows:
- headache: Ohandi vele omutwe.
- stomach ache: Ohandi vele medimo. (i.e., “in the stomach”)
- back ache: Ohandi vele ombuda.
- Caution: If you say, Ohandi vele momutwe, you are saying "I am sick in the head", i.e. "I am crazy."
Read the dialogue.
Answer the following questions in Oshikwanyama.
Jeff: Wa lele po nawa, meme?
Meme: Heeno, Jeff. Ove wa lele po nawa?
Jeff: Ayee Meme. Ohandi vele.
Meme: Oto vele shike?
Jeff: Ohandi vele medimo.
Meme: Owa tameka okuvela naini?
Jeff: Onda tameka onghela.
Meme: Owa pumbwa shike?
Jeff: Onda hala okumona Ndokotola.
Meme: Eewa, tuye koshipangelo.
- Jeff oku li ngaipi? Omolwashike?
- Jeff ota vele peni?
- Jeff okwa li e udite nawa onghela?
- Jeff na Meme otava ka ninga shike?
- Otava ka ya peni?
OMUKWANYAMA TA TI:
~ Ou ta ti fya. Ou ta ti kala ko.
~Someone says die, another says stay.
(Everyone has friends and enemies.)
Grammar Corner: Feelings
In English, we say “I am sick.” In Oshikwanyama, as we have seen, we say ohandi vele. Ohandi is a subject concord, linking the (unstated) subject to the verb, which in this case is vele. It seems that “to be sick” is a verb in Oshikwanyama. As it turns out, most statements about one’s state of being are expressed with verbs in Oshikwanyama.
Where in English you would use the verb “to be”, in Oshikwanyama it is unnecessary.
To express other feelings, such as “happy” or “angry”, we use the past tense subject concord.
For example, onda hafa means “I am happy”.
It may be helpful to think that these “feeling verbs” express an idea of becoming: because handuka means “to become angry”, onda handuka means “I have become angry”, or more simply “I am angry”.
Therefore, when talking about how someone feels in the present, we use the past tense.
It is possible to use other tenses. Oho handuka can be translated as “You (always) get angry” and Tate ota ka hafa means “Tate will be happy”. The past tense of these verbs is similar to that of stative verbs: “I wanted a beer” is said as onda li nda hala obiila. “He was angry” is okwa li a handuka.
Here are some examples of the sort of verb that is used in this manner:
|Happy||Hafa / Nyakukwa|
|Full / Satisfied||Kuta|
|Angry / Mad||Handuka|
|Need (to be lacking)||Pumbwa|
|Dying (of)||Fya (Fi)|
|Sleepy||Fya (Fi) emofi|
|Hungry||Fya (Fi) ondjala|
How are you feeling today?
Example: I am hungry because I did not eat today => Onda fya ondjala shaashi inandi lya nena.
OMUKWANYAMA TA TI:
~ Etembo olufo.
~Moving (eg to another house) is chance.
(Have sympathy for someone in difficult times – next time it might be you.)
Grammar Corner: Conversational Words
|If (unreal situations)||Ngeno|
|Maybe||Mbela / Kashimba|
|It’s possible||Otashi shiiva / Otashi dulika|
|After / Behind / Backwards / In the back||Konima|
|Forward / In front||Komesho|
|Before / While||Manga|
|Because||Shaashi / Osheshi|
|But||Ndee / Ndele / Ashike|
Some of these words are used differently than they are in English, so we should look at them one-by-one.
For positive statements, the conditional part of the sentence is placed in the past tense, but the verb is in the present-tense form:
|If I eat meat, I will be sick.||Ngeenge onda li ombelela, ohandi vele.|
|For negative statements, the verb is also in the past tense:|
|If I do not speak, it is okay.||Ngeenge inandi popya, oshi li nawa.|
Ngeno is used to talk about unreal or improbable situations. You have to put the word ngeno in both parts of the sentence.
|If you had studied, you wouldn't have failed.||Ngeno owa leshele, ngeno ino dopa.|
|If it were me (ie if I were you), I would...||Ngeno aame, ngeno ohandi...|
Used as in English.
|Maybe we will be rained on.||Mbela ohatu ka lokwa.|
Otashi dulika / Otashi shiiva
Also used as in English:
|Will you go to Ongwediva?||Oto i kOngwediva?|
|It’s possible.||Otashi shiiva.|
If you want to say it's possible that something will happen, you have to use the subjunctive voice (see Grammar Corner: Subjunctive Verbs)
|It's possible that I'll go.||Otashi shiiva ndi ye.|
|omu- (person) okwa|
|Kombinga Used as in English, but with a twist: the word is really ko + ombinga, literally “to the side”. To make a full phrase, you must say “to the side of”, and that “of” translates as y-. Some examples:|
|Is he talking about school?||Ota popi kombinga yofikola?|
|I am talking about you.||Ohandi popi kombinga yoye.|
|We are talking about Tate.||Ohatu popi kombinga yaTate.|
|Also used in the sense of “this side” or “that side”:|
|I stay somewhere that side.||Ohandi kala kombinga kwii.|
|Konima||ola / olya|
|Same as kombinga, this one is literally “to the back”:|
|I will go after church.||Ohandi ka ya konima yongeleka.|
|We will go later (after time).||Ohatu ka ya konima yefimbo.|
|The opposite of kombinga with regards to space, but not used for time. Literally, “to the eyes”.|
|Sit in front, Tate.||Inda komesho, Tate.|
|Go forward, Tate.||Inda komesho, Tate.|
|This word translates better as “while”, although it is used for “before”. The phrase after manga must be given in the negative past tense. Look carefully at the following examples:|
|I went home before I went to Ondangwa.||Onda ya keumbo manga inandi ya kOndangwa.|
|I bathe before I go to school.||Ohandi likosho manga inandi ya kofikola.|
|Shaashi / Osheeshi These are used as they are in English (see exercise 3).|
|Ndee( But / Then) / Ashike Used as in English. Sometimes the Afrikaans-derived maala (but) is used instead. See exercise 4.|
|I wanted to go, but I didn't get the money.||Okwa li nda hala okuya, ndee inandi mona oimaliwa|
|I went to Endola, then I went to Oshakati.||Onda ya kEndola ndee onda ya kOshakati.|
Hafeni just came home and is telling you about a problem he has. Translate what he is saying into English. “Ooooh, meme. Ohai ku lombwele kombinga yokakadona kange. Okwa hala tu hombolwe, ndee ame onda hala okuya kOmbaye ndi ka kale novakulunhu vange. Uuh, onda tila, man. Otashi shiiva ina hala okuya naame nondi mu hole unene. Mbela ohandi ka kala apa, ngeenge ina hala okuya.”
Grammar Corner: Object Pronouns
Consider the following translations:
|He bought tomatoes.||Okwa landa omatama.|
|He bought them (tomatoes).||Okwe a landa.|
|I am eating porridge.||Ohandi li oshifima.|
|I am eating it (porridge).||Ohandi shi li.|
The first statement of each pair states the object of the sentence directly: “the porridge”, “the tomatoes”.
In the second statements, the noun objects are replaced with their corresponding object pronouns: “it”, “them”.
In English, object pronouns must agree with the kind of noun they replace (“her”, “it”, “them”).
Object pronouns in Oshikwanyama agree with the class (prefix) of noun they replace.
A complete table of prefixes and object pronouns can be seen below:
|Noun prefix||Object pronoun|
|omu- (not people)||u|
|olu-||li / lu|
|o- (group 5 singular)||i|
|ee- (group 5 plural)||di|
As we see from the first examples, the object pronoun goes between the subject concord and the verb. If the last vowel in the subject concord is a, it changes to e. For example, ota changes to ote in ote shi mono (he/she sees it). For commands, the object pronoun goes before the verb:
|Don’t beat it! (the dog)||Ino i denga! (ombwa)|
|Bring it! (a thing)||Shi eta! (oshinima)|
Like in English, personal pronouns have special object pronouns:
|Her / Him||mu|
|Nge, as a special case, is always put after the verb, even for commands.|
|You make me sick.||Oto ehameke nge.|
|Don’t accuse me! ?||Ino lundila nge!|
|For positive commands with nge, the last a in the verb changes to an e.|
|Help me! ?||Kwafe nge!|
|Tell me! ?||Lombwele nge!|
Grammar Corner: Demonstratives
“This”, “that”, and “the other” all answer the question, “Which one?”.
They demonstrate to the listener which object out of a group the speaker is referring to, and so we call them demonstratives. T
here is a different set of demonstratives for each noun class; the suffixes are the same, but the prefixes vary.
Listed below are the prefixes for the different noun classes:
|omu-||ou||oo||winya / wii*|
|ova-||ava||ovo||venya / vee|
|omu- (not people)||ou||oo||winya / wii|
|e-||eli||olo||linya / lii|
|oma-||aa||oo||enya / ee|
|oshi-||eshi||osho||shinya / shii|
|oshi-||eshi||osho||shinya / shii|
|oi-||ei||oyo||inya / ii|
|olu-||olu / eli||olwo / olo||lwinya / lwii / linya / lii|
|oka-||oko||aka||kenya / kee|
|ou- (plural)||ava||ovo||venya / vee|
|ou- (singular)||ou||oo||winya / wii|
|oku-||oku||oko||kwinya / kwii|
|o- (group 5 sing.)||ei||oyo||inya / ii|
|ee- (group 5 pl.)||edi||odo||dinya / dii|
|pa / pu **||apa||opo||penya / pee|
|ku **||oku||oko||kwiinya / kwii|
|mu **||omo||omo||mwiinya / mwii|
* The second version of "yonder" is used for extra emphasis. ** Pa / pu, ku, and mu are not prefixes, but actual nouns.
A few examples might be necessary:
|This goat||oshikombo eshi|
|That person ?||omunhu oo|
|That thing ?||oshinima osho|
|This place ?||apa|
|That donkey over there ?||ondoongi inya / ii|
It’s probably frustrating to see the massive prefix list. Don’t worry about it. Just remember eshi and osho for unnamed things, ou and oo for people (singular), and ei and oyo for class 5 nouns, and you will be understood.
Fill in the demonstratives for the words in the table below. The first one has been completed for you.
|Rag / Cloth||Elapi|
Translate the following sentences into Oshikwanyama.
- What is this?
- Who is that?
- Did you see that goat?
- I want those books over there.
- This porridge is delicious.
- I love you.
- I want it (the thing).
OMUKWANYAMA TA TI:
~ Waa na mutanda ku na ngombe.
~If you don’t have a calf, you don’t have a cow.
(You must plan for the future. / If you don’t have children, you have no nation.)
Grammar Corner:The Passive Voice
Consider the following examples:
|Koto is greeting Ndahafa. ?||Koto ota popifa Ndahafa.|
|Ndahafa is being greeted by Koto.||Ndahafa ota popifwa ku Koto.|
|Sylvia told me.||Sylvia okwa lombwela nge.|
|I was told by Sylvia.||Onda lombwelwa ku Sylvia.|
|The boys are going to ask theteacher.||Ovamati otava ka pula omulongi.|
|The teacher is going to be asked by the boys. ?||Omulongi ota ka pulwa kovamati.|
The second statement in each pair is in the passive voice. The subject of those sentences is the person or thing being acted upon. For most Oshikwanyama verbs, simply take off the final vowel and add -wa to form the passive voice.
Thus, pula (ask) becomes pulwa (be asked).
For one syllable verbs, add the ending -wa to the present form of the verb. For example, pe (give) becomes pewa (be given):
|I was given fat cakes.||Onda pewa oukuki.|
|The meat will be eaten up. ?||Ombelela otayi ka liwa po.|