Community Media/ICT4D JAMAICA/Draft Curriculum Media Training Workshop Jeffrey Town/Workshop Curriculum In Use

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Thursday, July 17 , 2008

Objectives: To identify priority learning needs of the Jeffrey Town Community To explore ways in which community media can address these needs.
Facilitators: Valerie Gordon & Rosamond Brown

Morning Session: 10:00am – 1:00 pm Facilitated discussion • Identification and characterization of main target groups, strategies to reach this group, what else do we need to know about them? • Identification of gaps or opportunities in existing knowledge attitude and practices (how is the problem addressed now – or not?) • Filling the gaps and identifying the objective (i.e learning skills motivation, information sharing, building knowledge, changing attitudes etc.) • Identification of internal and external resources required and support systems.
Lunch: 1:00pm – 2:00 pm
Afternoon session: 2:00pm -4:00 pm Facilitated discussion (continued) • Measuring the impact of the intervention – How do we know we are reaching our target and what effect has the programme had? • Defining subject matters and topics

Introduction to Community Media – Approaches that work • Activity: 15 minute interactive visual presentation featuring multi-media centres around the world at various stages of development and their programming focus including examples of good radio Featured projects: Radio Toco (Trinidad); ROOTS FM/Zinc Link Café (Jamaica); Radio Galibe (Suriname); Radio Hamalali (Belize); Container Project (Jamaica).

Break: 4:00 – 4:15 pm
Afternoon Session: 4:15 – 6:00 pm
Introduction to Community Media

• Activity: Assessing audio presentations from prison radio (FREE FM) and ROOTS FM.
Facilitated discussion How can the learning needs of the community be met in a style that captures the interest of the target group(s)? What are some of the station’s challenges that impact programme development?

Friday, July 18, 2008

Objectives: Identifying the shape and sound of the programme To develop competency in using improvisation as a tool for content development. Facilitators: Patrick Prendergast, Rosamond Brown, Valerie Gordon

Morning Session: 10:00 – 1:00 pm Technique development • Activity: Interviewing skills - conversation with KRUU FM

Facilitated discussion Brainstorming new programme content; name, frequency, format and production elements; who does what; how will the programme be sustained; Activity: Interactive presentation on group dynamics; small group break-out sessions; defining segments; developing segment themes; production elements; developing work plans

/>Teleconference Call (12 noon) with KRUU FM, Iowa, USA - Leader in Open Source Radio.

Lunch: 1:00 – 2:00 pm
Afternoon Session: 2:00 – 4:00 pm

Creating radio drama
Developing characters and storylines; improvisation; using drama to stimulate discussion • Activity: Small groups use drama techniques to demonstrate thematic areas
Break: 4:00 – 4:15 pm
• Activity: Presentation of pieces and discussion of effectiveness Friday July 18 Objectives: Identifying production teams Identifying planning elements
Facilitators: Valerie Gordon; Rosamond Brown; Patrick Prendergast

Morning session: 10:00pm – 1:00 pm Working groups • Activity: Small groups will research content; set-up programme schedules; brainstorm resource persons; prepare script framework for Programmes 1-5

Afternoon session: 2:00pm – 6:00 pm • Activity: Field recordings; participants will use this time to conduct and package interviews, prepare scripts and other pre-recorded material)

Monday, July 21

Objectives: Producing a pilot Pilot review and evaluation
Facilitators: Valerie Gordon, Rosamond Brown

Morning session: 10:00am – 1:00 pm
Facilitated discussion Review and evaluation of field work, challenges, discussion of solutions; (time is allowed here for final show preparations; editing; scripts etc)
Lunch: 1:00pm – 1:30 pm
Afternoon session: 1:30pm – 4:00 pm Test run • Activity: the team produces the pilot live on-air 2-4pm
Break: 4:00pm – 4:15 pm Evaluation: 4:00 – 6:00 pm
Facilitated discussion Review and Evaluation; the design may be revised and/or tweaked depending on the experience of the pilot.

Section 1- Day 1

Getting on the same page (10mins)
An overview of the purpose and flow of the workshop will be given, together with the learning outcomes for participants. Clarifications can be sought and provided here.
Exercise 1
Ice breaker-Who are we anyway? The ice breaker will have participants describe something about themselves that nobody /or very few people know. While the exercise will get people comfortable with themselves and others in the workshop, it will also start the thinking process on topics persons can be interviewed on later. 20 mins
Exercise 2 Setting ground rules (10 mins) Review example of Basic rules (below) • Everyone participates • Begin and end on time • Create an agenda and stick to it • Speak one at a time • Seek solutions Add more if necessary.
Exercise 3
Participant Expectations (10 mins)
Participants will be asked to write down 3 expectations they have of the workshop. These will be grouped into categories and pasted on the walls, to be reviewed at the end of the workshop, to assess to what extent these were fulfilled.
Down to brass tacks (1hr)
Identification and characterization of main target groups. The session will focus on identifying the main groups to whom the radio programming is being focused. A review of feedback from listeners, existing survey findings /suggested themes and perceptions of participants will be undertaken with the group. Participants will be asked to characterize the target group based on their knowledge of their community and answer these questions: How does this group presently get information and communicate information? Who do they listen to- role models etc? What else do we need to know about them? How are they best reached?

Exercise 4
In 3 groups, each focusing on one theme, determine the following: • What are the information and communication gaps or opportunities in existing knowledge, attitude and practices (how is the problem addressed now – or not?) • What changes do we want to see in communication, information availability and transmission, knowledge and attitudes; • What is the message that needs to be transmitted on this issue? • Where do we find the resources to; i) fill the information gap. List resource persons, institutions, and other sources.. ii) transmit the information Classify these resources as internal or external (to the community) • Make note of any additional support that may be needed

Measuring impact
The problem with impact-
Impact implies
Cause & effect
Positive, intended results
Focus on ultimate effects Credit goes to a single contributor Story ends when program obtains success Courtesy of International Institute of facilitation and change (IIFAC) But development interventions involve Development Implies Open system Unexpected positive & negative results occur Upstream effects are important Multiple actors create results & need credit Change process never ends

There are many approaches to measuring change/ impact, many of which visualize change as linear, based on a cause-effect relationship Outcome mapping recognises and makes allowances for the fact that Change is ✓ Continuous ✓ Complex ✓ Non-linear ✓ Multidirectional ✓ Not controllable

Introduction to Outcome Mapping Methodology-

- a method for planning and assessing the social effects and internal performance of projects, programs, and organizations

Definition • an integrated, participatory method for planning, monitoring and evaluation • focused on changes in behaviour of those with whom the program or project is working directly • oriented toward social and organizational learning

Three dimensions of OM

✓ Continuous

Planning questions in OM Why? Vision Who? boundary partners

What? outcomes challenges and progress markers

How? mission, strategy map, organizational practices

Key ideas in OMM Keep your eyes open Being attentive along the journey is as important as reaching the destination Focus on direct partners ✓ Identify the individuals, groups, and organizations you work with directly and try to influence ✓ Develop a strong relationship with them ✓ Find the best way to support their contribution to the vision

Recognize your sphere of influence and Other spheres Diagram

In the face of complexity How can we know if we made a difference? How can we reduce the unknowns regarding our contribution? How can we share the credit?

Answer: CONTRIBUTION NOT ATTRIBUTION • change processes involve complex interactions • you can influence but not control change in your partners

In OMM the focus is on • sphere of influence: the specific perspective from which OM tells the story of change • outcomes as changes in behaviour


Radio Interviewing Handout Developed by: AMARC

Radio Interviewing Handout 1
About this document 1
Copyright information 1
Introduction 2
Preparing the interview 2
Choosing a topic 2
Choosing whom to interview 2
Contacting the interviewee 3
Planning the interview 3
Location 3
The interview 3
On and off the record 4
Other types of interviews 5

About this document
These materials are part of the Multimedia Training Kit (MMTK). The MMTK provides an integrated set of multimedia training materials and resources to support community media, community multimedia centres, telecentres, and other initiatives using information and communications technologies (ICTs) to empower communities and support development work.
Copyright information This unit is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. To find out how you may use these materials please read the copyright statement included with this unit or see


Interviewing is a very important part of journalism. It is often a primary source of information, whether it be for news production or in-depth topics.

Some consider interviewing to be an art. Certainly, it is not a highly theoretical topic but rather a skill that develops with practice and experience. This unit attempts to give workshop participants basic techniques and tips for successful interviews.
Preparing the interview Choosing a topic To perform proper interviews, one must first pick an appropriate topic and familiarize oneself with the subject. One also needs to choose an angle to the topic.
Choosing whom to interview The better you know your topic, the easier it will be to choose an appropriate person to interview. Not knowing your topic in enough depth may leave a bad impression on your guest.

The impact of the interview depends on whom you interview and who will be listening to the interview.

Make sure your audience can relate to your source/interviewee.

Let's imagine a radio program about a new agricultural technique, aimed at farming populations. It would be much wiser to interview some farmers who have used the technique than to interview a foreign technical expert.

On the other hand, imagine a story about the economy, aimed at educated urban listeners. The choice of an articulate economist might be more appropriate than “person on the street” mini interviews.

The closer your audience feels to the interviewee, the more the interview will arouse their interest.

There are of course exceptions. Certain topics require interviewing people directly involved with the event.

It sometimes helps to share your choice with colleagues. You may sometimes get a different perspective on the person you intend to interview. A colleague may have interviewed that person before and may be in a position to give you some tips and hints.

Contacting the interviewee Once you have chosen your source(s), you will contact them to request the interview.

Make sure the topic of the interview is clear.

You can take advantage of this contact to ask one or two questions to help you further your research. This generally shows interest in the topic and will be appreciated. Planning the interview Once your interview is set up, you need to prepare your questions and notes.

You must always prioritize the most important questions because you never know how long the interview will take and how far down the list you will get.

Avoid trying to obtain as much information as possible - rather pick a precise angle and try to keep your questions around it.

Avoid "closed-ended" questions that can be answered by yes or no.


Closed-ended: Do you think that this event is significant ? Open-ended: What, according to you, is the significance of this event ?

Ask questions in relation to what you will do with them. That is, if you are interviewing for the daily news, ask only as many questions as you reasonably need to have material for editing. Asking 25 questions and using only one may annoy your source and s/he may be reluctant to agree to further interviews.

You need to give your source the feeling that you know exactly where you are going.

Even though your questions are prepared in advance, be prepared to improvise if the situation requires. Your questionnaire is just a guide. Be ready to ask questions that arise from your interviewee's answers and which are not prepared in advance. Location Choose a calm, comfortable location. Noisy environments should be avoided. You should choose somewhere where you will not be interrupted at all.
The interview Immediately before going to the interview, test your equipment. Better take those extra five minutes before you are with your source! Take extra batteries just in case.

Be on time. Being late conveys the impression that you are not all that interested.

If you are meeting the source for the first time, take the time to introduce yourself.

Take the time to explain the context of the interview and what you intend to do with it. This will help your source feel at ease.

Initially ask your source to introduce himself/herself. This will allow you to adjust the sound levels on your recording device.

Don't rush your source. Some people need more time to adjust than others. The time you spend chatting builds a link and will help ensure that you can contact the person after the interview for clarifications.

Try to seem as present as possible and to show interest for your source's answers. Occasional nods convey interest and attention.

Your body language conveys how you feel and can help make your source more relaxed.

If you stumble when asking a question, it is probably better to ask from the start again. Everybody makes mistakes.

Do not hesitate to reformulate questions that have not been answered properly or which received an off-topic answer.

Prepare some diversion in case you need a short break to mentally re-organize your ideas. For instance, you could tend to the recording device.

Give your source some freedom but make sure you guide and control the conversation.

Do not hesitate to interrupt if you do not understand something. Chances are your listeners will not understand either. This is especially true for technical topics.

You can be firm but never aggressive.

Try to understand your source and make sure you never give the impression that you want to trap them or that you are “out to get them"!

At the end of the interview, you can ask your source if you have forgotten to ask a question or whether they have anything to add. Depending on the topic, you can also ask them to sum up what they have spoken about.

If you plan on pursuing the same topic on another occasion, you can ask your source if they can recommend other people who can help you.

If you need sound effects, take them separately from the interview and mix them back at the studio. On and off the record During an interview, your source may speak on and off the record. You should strictly respect this and never quote a source on something that was said off the record.

In general, the tape recorder is a good indicator of what is on and what is off the record. A safe rule would be to never quote your source if the information hasn't been recorded. The general perception is that what is on tape is on the record and what isn't is off the record.

Always make your source aware of what you consider on and off the record.

Other types of interviews
Field interviews This type of interview is usually done on the spot of an event, be it at the scene of a news event, a live performance etc.

For this type of interview, you may not have as much time to prepare and do background research. It will help if you do jot down some questions before the interview but you will need to improvise more.
Person on the street interviews In this type of interview, people are chosen at random on the street, and asked to voice their opinion about an event or a personality.

Person on the street interviews are usually very short - two, maybe three questions at most.

This type of interview is often used to get the feel of public opinion on a particular topic and eventually inserted in a larger story.
Phone interviews This type of interview differs in that you do not have visual contact with the source being interviewed. You therefore need to try and compensate using voice only.

Since this type of interview can be stopped at any moment, it is better to prioritize questions.


Glossary: Radio Interviewing Developed by: AMARC

CLOSED-ENDED QUESTION Question which can be answered by yes or no.

INTERVIEW A meeting at which information is obtained. Usually follows a question and answer format. An important technique in radio journalism.

ON THE RECORD Information that the reporter is free to use in her or his final work.

OFF THE RECORD Information that the reporter should not use directly or should not attribute to the source.

OPEN-ENDED QUESTION Question which normally requires more than a "yes/no" answer. SOURCE Person who provides information to a reporter. Similar to interviewee.


Exercises: Radio Interviewing Developed by: AMARC

Interview Preparation


Angle: Person to interview:

Will your listeners relate to the source/interviewee? Sources of documentation on the topic:

Advance questions to ask when contacting source/interviewee:

Interview context and planned usage (to give to interviewee):


Questions checklist Yes No Are all your questions open-ended? If not, is this deliberate? Are the most important questions placed first? Is there any repetition? Are you asking more questions than you could reasonably use?

Where will the interview take place?

Required background sounds or effects

Interview Evaluation

Did you take the time to make your source feel comfortable before starting the interview? Yes No Was the number of questions appropriate? If not, why not? Yes No

Did you feel you had mastered the topic sufficiently? Yes No Were you able to improvise questions relating to your source's answers? If not, why not? Yes No

Was the location for the interview appropriate? If not, why not? Yes No

Did you take the time to introduce yourself? Yes No Did you ask your source to introduce him/herself? Yes No Did the source avoid some questions? Yes No If so, were you able to re-formulate them and obtain some kind of answer? Yes No Did you feel “in control” of the conversation? If not, why? Yes No

Did you feel your source was at ease and comfortable? If not, why not? Yes No

Did you ask your source for the names of other people you could potentially interview on the same topic? Yes No Did you ask your source to summarize their ideas at the end? Yes No Did you ask your source if he/she had anything to add? Yes No Other comments on the interview?


Drama as a tool for radio programming and catalyst for community dialogue.

Patrick Prendergast

Introduction: What is the philosophical context of this session? Community media is about finding creative and innovative ways of using communication to mobilize a community around their own issues and around the social and civic education needed to empower a community.

Community media is about ensuring that the community also has a voice on issues and interests such as gender inequities, social decay, economic exploitation, youth unemployment, youth apathy, hopelessness, deteriorating health services etc.

Of significance however, is that the community’s joys, aspirations, and success find a space to be articulated and appreciated. In other words, community media is about having the people set their agenda and from their perspectives – not from that of the traditionally powerful and wealthy.

One of the many creative and innovative ways of presenting the voice of the communities is a blend of education and entertainment –edutainment.

This approach allows for socially valuable and educational messages to be shared via a fun-filled entertaining vehicle such as cartoons, drama, music, community and street theatre, puppetry etc. In this session we want to focus on drama for radio (and hopefully tease you a little about the possibilities of popular theatre) and also to begin an understanding of the question: why is drama such a popular format?

Learning Objectives: At the end of the session participants should be able to: 1. identify the elements of drama 2. apply the dynamics of character building and storytelling to the radio experience 3. distinguish between features of drama as visual and audio experience 4. create an outline for a short dramatic skit which could become 5. use a basic drama outline to develop though improvisation a 10 1- 15 min pilot for a radio drama series on an agreed community issue


Theatre is one of the most popular among the performance arts as an effective channel for combining elements of education and entertainment. This is so because theatre itself is a multi-dimensional activity involving the use of drama, dance, art and music at varying degrees and for varying effect at the cognitive as well as the emotive levels.

In this session we want to focus on what could be considered the most important ingredient in the theatre experience - drama.

Activity 1:
In groups of five and using any topical issue or problem as the topic for discussion: 1. Create a short dramatic skit of no longer than 4 minutes 2. Perform the piece for your colleagues 3. Make note of the following: a. what are some of the things considered in creating the drama b. what did you do to get people’s attention and hold it c. what was the audience’s reaction to your performance

What is drama?
The usual responses to this question include: dressing up in funny costumes and making people laugh; anything that has humour; a good story performed by actors, etc.

Consider these definitions: a man in a mess; finding solutions to a dilemma; the action taken to get oneself out of a problem/situation; what happens on the path taken to resolving a conflict.

Serious consideration should lead you to see two points: 1. Drama has specific elements 2. Drama has specific structure

So what are these elements? Drama involves conflict (two or more forces pulling against each other), storytelling (every good story has a beginning, middle and end), role playing (characters in the story have different personalities which are known through some external or internal characteristics such as voice, costuming, thoughts etc…who are the main characters), location (the setting or the place or where the story is unfolding), setting objectives (what do these characters want), identifying obstacles (what are the barriers to achieving the objectives), taking action (what steps do the characters take in overcoming these barriers), and presenting solutions (possible end results or outcomes of the action taken to reach their objective).

These are important elements to consider not just in designing your drama but in designing your community initiative – what is the issue you want to let people know about; who are the people, organizations or institutions involved; what specific message do you want to get out or what outcomes do you expect from raising these issues and involving these people; what are the competing forces with which you must become familiar; how best do you tackle these forces; and what would be the most appropriate solution from the many solutions available.

Always remember that this process is not just about entertainment; it is also about education – building awareness, providing useful information, raising levels of consciousness, preparing people to take appropriate action.

The second point has to do with structure. As we have established a good story has a beginning, middle and end. That’s a simple structure. Drama is structured in a similar way. The terms to be aware of are exposition (establishing for your audience the characters in the story, the situation or problem, the setting – everything that is important in having the audience follow the unfolding of the drama), complication (adding the element conflict and tension…what is it that will drive the drama), crisis (a series of complications lead to further deepening of the dilemma in which the characters find themselves), climax (this is the highest point of the drama; the point at which the opposing forces final clash takes place; the point at which the conflict is resolved), resolution (this is the end, the part of the drama or story in which the message, the solution, the way forward is settled).

The important note here is that the drama builds from a low point to a high point and then settles but a good story always ends at a higher point than which it started. Note also that the beginning and end of the story or drama (exposition and resolution) are the shorter parts of the structure. The middle on the other hand is longer, wider, deeper with all the levels of complications and crises possible which would lead to an interesting climax.

Imagine taking a trip from Jeffrey Town to downtown Kingston. Your start and end points are clear but all kinds of twists and turns could take place between Jeffrey Town and down town Kingston. It’s in the twists and turns that you will find the real interest of the drama.

Consider these two diagrams:



Activity 2:
Revisit the presentation from Activity 1. Extend the dramatic skit to no longer than 10 minutes: 1. Identify a single issue and message to be explored 2. Work out the story to be told using the elements and structure discussed 3. Identify all the support material needed for a successful presentation 4. Make note of the following: a. Emphasis must be placed on sound b. What should you do to make the radio audience “see” your characters, setting, actions

DISCUSSION: Creating drama for an auditory medium such as radio.
Patrick Prendergast
July 14, 2008

--Melodyp 17:22, 18 July 2008 (UTC)