Child labour in your context

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Dear participants, Now that there is a general common understanding and agreement on what child labour is, please share some examples of common forms of child labour around you. Have you noted any differences in levels of type of work and geographic concentration? Are there any youths among them and how do you think it affects them?

Lungowe (talk)11:32, 3 March 2011

Hi Everyone,

The most common forms of child labour in Nigeria are hawking and having children serve as domestic helps to relatives in return for the education and upbringing of the child. Poverty is a major reason for this. Children in some cases are also hired as deomestic helps to non-relatives for financial renumeration to their families. Hawking and domestic labour are the most common forms of child labour in the cities while in the rural areas common forms of child labour are children working on farms.

Traditional beliefs is an underlying factor in child labour in Nigeria, because children supporting their parents in their economic activities after school by hawking or children serving as domestic helps to a more financially stable relative are often not considered as child labour, traditionally. However, with the passage of the Child Rights Act, which is a domestication of the Convention of the rights of the child In Nigeria, since the year 2003, awareness is growing on the need to prevent these common forms of child labour and other worst forms such as child trafficking.

Youths are not victims of child labour in Nigeria, because the age definition of youth is 18-35years. A most common form of exploitative labour among youth in Nigeria is the Human Trafficking problem. Youth are often victims of Human Trafficking to countries in Europe. Trafficking in persons is illegal in Nigeria and the government has an agency to deal with issues of human trafficking, but still youth fall victims because of poverty and unemployment.

Most times the youth are trafficked for prostitution, and so it affects their health and moral well being and they often have problems of reintegration into the society when they return either voluntarily or when they are repatriated.

Shining Star (talk)12:00, 3 March 2011

Hi Shining Star. Indeed, much of child labour incidences are linked to the family 'enterprise' and this is where we see the concentration of child labourers in agricultural activities, vending and domestic work. It is however interesting to note that countries with similar poverty levels have varying magnitudes of child labour. While poverty is almost always associated with child labour, it is not necessarily the main cause. This is why it is important to determine other factors which lead families to send children to work or to the children themselves taking that step (e.g. low value attached to education).

Lungowe (talk)14:25, 3 March 2011

Hello, I believe that forms of child labour in Africa is the same in that children are usually involved in street vending or hawking, agriculture, prostitution, stone crushing, domesticate child labour (maids, doing house chores fit for adults, children minding fellow children). These forms of child labour is dependent on the geographic setting (Rural or Urban), the economic status of the family and belief. For example, in Zambia, it is believed that they are teaching the child to be a responsible adult or playing their role in bringing income so as to help the family.

Mwaba (talk)21:44, 16 March 2011

Agricultural Child labour is a common form in Zambia according to Child Policy of 2006, The statistical survey conducted by ILO statistical information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour in 2001 estimated 600,000 childrren that are economically active and that 87% of these children were where found in agricultural related occupations and mostly liveed in rural areas als that t5he majority of the working children 97% were working as unpaid family workers and 75.7% combined work with schooling.

I also found this one common in Zambia in urban areas stone crushing, in my community this at one time was so heavy, that the children who were invlved in the work could not attend schools, there was some interventions through Jesus Cares Ministry through ILO to put back these children in school. it was both garl child and boy child.

Yes there are youths among them and what we did in our community was to work with Jesus Cares Ministy through ILO's support to empower Youths with Livelihoohs or skills that would enable these youths who have not been to school and some who drpoed from school, I remember one parent who came to my office bring her son so we could train him in carpentry, the father is a security guard and during day time he and the wife crashes stone just to make ends meet so we enrolled their son who was at 15 yrs old this son was adropout from school in grade 3. so what I did was I recommende for a training of two years since the boy could not read or write. but was able to get instruction. so we trained about 10 of these 2 we retained them in our carpentry department some have been employed as they come to my office they regard me as a second parent. Now those who have not such an opportunity end up in streets and sometimes in child labour which at the end of their lives affect them as they beggin to leave in the streets and can not contribute to the grouth of our economy.

RABROD (talk)14:33, 3 March 2011

Hi Rabrod,

Thanks for the elaboration on the situation in Zambia. You may also be interested in looking at the CSO child labour survey report of 2005 and the Understanding Children's Work report of 2009 which was shared with JCM. There was a subsequent survey by CSO in 2008, the results of which we are all anxiously waiting to be released. The experiences from your direct interventions will be of particular interest in further discussions to come. For now, please join in the next discussion.

Lungowe (talk)08:37, 4 March 2011

Dear all,
I believe that the most common form of child labour in Kenya is where the children (read young girls) are "employed" by relatives as househelps but no pay is forthcoming, sometimes it is channeled to the parents and in other times none at all.
Another major form of child labour is in the agricultural industry and especially in the flower sub sector. Child prostitution cannot be downplayed and I agree that this is perhaps the most disgracing form of child labour that robs off the dignity of the child.
There seems to be some pattern in the distribution of child labour with the rural areas leading in agricultural related child labour while the urban areas are notorious for domestic related child labour and child prostitution. Of course there has been a lot of effort by the government to wipe off this vice, especially child prostitution, but there have been major obstacles especially surrounding tourism.
By definition, youths are not subject to child labour but there is a new challenge at this age........underemployment. This is where the employer simply takes advantage of the high unemployment rates to pay "peanuts" to the workers, especially the new workers in teh market who happen to be the youth.--Marcosmburu 15:05, 3 March 2011 (UTC)

Marcosmburu (talk)15:05, 3 March 2011

Dear Marcosmburu,

These are indeed serious challenges that communities and countries at large are grappling with. Please also refer to my comment to Leah yesterday on the worst forms of child labour. Do you know of any policies in place in Kenya to tackle child labour? On the aspect of the youth, if the national definition covers any ages below 18 years, then one would look out for hazardous working conditions which would place them in the category of child labourers.

Lungowe (talk)06:23, 4 March 2011

There is a very clear policy on children in Kenya and of course it is meant to protect the Kenyan children from exploitation. Please have a look at the Children Act 2001

Marcosmburu (talk)16:14, 7 March 2011

Lungowe, I do not know whether if the countries where this thing is going on as has been mentioned by the other participants have no policy on the right of the child nor are not signatories certain UN convention on the right of the child. the issue is about its implementation and who supervises the implementation process. I think of it as more of educating and persuading people to change such attitude than go strictly according to laws.

Agyapongdan (talk)19:01, 20 April 2011

My colleague from Zambia RABROD has aptly summarised the most common forms of child labour in Zambia.Let me add a few more. These are:

  • Working as porters around the Central Business Districts and in various communities;
  • Selling various items either as street vendors or in markets;
  • Being bus conductors or call boys and
  • Girl prostitution.
GabKon (talk)18:49, 3 March 2011

Gabriel, It is very true that most of the practices are very common to most of the countries.--Kafuiaheto 06:55, 4 March 2011 (UTC)

Kafuiaheto (talk)06:55, 4 March 2011

Child labour is serious in the cocoa production process around the cocoa producing areas in my country. Fishing, mining, prostitution and drug peddling cannot be left out. Circumstances beyond the control of children are what force them into these forms of labour. Most of them work for very long hours for just little or no money or acknowledgements.--Kafuiaheto 06:37, 4 March 2011 (UTC)

Kafuiaheto (talk)06:37, 4 March 2011

I believe the forms of child labour are largely dependent on the economic activities a particular community is involved in. For instance in Zambia's Lusaka city, stone crushing is one of the most common forms of child labour. In the other provinces, most children, especially in villages are involved in the agricultural sector while those living around townships are involved in trading.

Zambia has different pieces of legislation aimed at protecting the child but with different age definitions of a child, some of which overlap with the age definition of a youth. In this regard, it can be said that the youth are equally affected

Mulakom (talk)10:20, 4 March 2011

Hi Mui and my colleaques oncemore!

Some forms of child labour prevelant in Nigeria include:street hawking, farming, househelp, street begging, casual labourers at construction sites,automobile mechanics, etc. Child labourers engaged in farming are more noticeable in rural settings while the other forms are more prevelant in urban settings.

Luckyluka (talk)14:08, 4 March 2011

Hi Mui and my colleaques oncemore!

Some forms of child labour prevelant in Nigeria include:street hawking, farming, househelp, street begging, casual labourers at construction sites,automobile mechanics, etc. Child labourers engaged in farming are more noticeable in rural settings while the other forms are more prevelant in urban settings.

Luckyluka (talk)14:08, 4 March 2011

Hi colleaques,

Very sorry, was away to attend family issues. The type of child labour which is common in Nigeria are :street hawking, , force labour, child exploitation farming, househelp, street begging, casual labourers,prostitution and most of them lead to HIV/AIDS etc

Ubandoma (talk)11:03, 7 March 2011

Hi Mui & all,

Most forms of child labour I have witnessed around (Lusaka, Zambia) are concentrated in the illegal settlements. I have seen children helping their parents at the expense of their education. These are children who take their blind parents by the hand and go begging in the street. Close to where I live, I have noticed a lady in a wheelchair who comes pushed by a boy going from car to car by the traffic lights asking for money. This boy looks to be about 9 or 10 years old. This has been going on for close to 2 years. Sometimes I wonder what goes through his mind when he sees his peers in uniform going to and from school as they pass him by. I fear to think how this boy’s youth will be affected.

Kasonde (talk)10:53, 8 March 2011

=wilson j mbongwe= Hellow to all

Apology . I have not been effectively participting becsuase of the network problem. The notable type of child labour in Botwana is that affecting Basawa (Bushman) tribe since they suffer ethnic discrimination and negative social attitude from the rest of the socity. That therefore hinders them in attainng their social and economic advancement and as a result thier children are subjected to odd jobs like heard boys and girls or work in fields lands and not given an opportunity by the their master to go school. however the goververment has paased for directives that seek to punish those who would practise any form child labour that is aginst the expected practise.

Wmbongwe (talk)15:28, 9 March 2011

Most of child labour issues are common in rural areas with a percentage of about 87% of the children involved in agriculture related occupations, particularly in the commercial farms. Compounding the problem of Child labour is the prevailing economic situation in Zambia,which exposes vulnerable Children such as orphans to exploitation as a result of need,this affects their well being as some of their rights are denied,such as access to a good education,i have seen this with my own eyes where children are heading families and the only way out for them to take care of their young ones is to get employed even when conditions relating to their well being are pathetic.

Samipyet2011 (talk)15:22, 13 March 2011

I grew up spending vacations with my mum at Yeji in Ghana (a town just like Siavonga in Zambia) The common trade of the people were fishing and the owners of such businesses used mainl child labour. The children are contrated for between two and three years. At the end of the contract, the fee is paid to the parents. The conditions these little children live and work in is so inhuman that the children are affected psychologically, mentally, physically, etc.

Also, on the streets of major cities, you see children selling all kings of things while others are used as porters in markets.

Pkakorsu (talk)20:17, 19 April 2011

I grew up in farming community in the western part of Ghana, where the children are deemed to be a blessing of God to help in farming. The more children you have, the better it is for increasing the farm size. Children are used for weeding, collecting fire wood, harvesting at the expense of their education.

Agyapongdan (talk)18:49, 20 April 2011

Child labour is serious especially in the streets of our towns we see children selling different kinds of goods and products. May i just say child labour should be discouraged at cost in compromises the quality of products for those that are production.

Ckluchembe (talk)03:30, 23 April 2011

The result of child labour is streetism, armed robbery, drug peddling,petty thievery and begging. The effect is a cycle of having more parents who engage in further child labour and sometimes, child trafficking.

Agyapongdan (talk)18:54, 20 April 2011

You ask the question of what can we do? we can form community groups, youth advocacy groups, to educate and advise the people and tell them the negative implications of child labour.

Agyapongdan (talk)19:04, 20 April 2011

Child labour is common in rural areas in Lesotho whereby a child will be hired to look after someone's cattle and sometimes miss school.

Sula (talk)03:48, 23 April 2011