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APA Referencing

Referencing in APA format is required when you are referring to material that you have been reading. This is called citing. The following links take you to some useful resources to help with referencing.

  • The Purdue Owl APA Referencing Guide has all the information you need to produce APA references and is clearly explained.
  • Guide to APA referencing - University of Waikato.
  • Citation Machine is a great website that takes you through all the steps of adding the information required for a reference before producing the formatted reference for you. You can then cut and paste it into your document. Very handy.

Essay and report writing

  • Essay Writing Skills - this module by Helen Lindsay (Learning Centre, Otago Polytechnic) has fabulous resources. Use this to find out how to write an academic essay or to refresh your skills. It includes:
The University of Otago and Otago Polytechnic resource - Essay writing with readings - A homegrown (Dunedin) and fun online essay writing module. A great place to start.

Cultural Diversity

  • Listen to the recording which accompanies the presentation. This starts from slide 7 - Six principles of indigenous learning and includes some discussion of the topic.

ePortfolio resources

Examples of portfolios

Portfolio Platforms

ePortfolio readings

  • Barrett, H. (2000). Electronic Teaching Portfolios: Multimedia Skills + Portfolio Development = Powerful Professional Development. In D. Willis, J. Price & J. Willis (Eds), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2000 (pp. 1111-1116). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from
  • Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Promoting reflection in learning: a model. In D. Boud, R. Keogh, & D. Walker (Eds.), Reflection: turning experience into learning (pp. 18-40). London: Kogan Page.
  • DiBiase, D. et al. (2002) . Using e-Portfolios at Penn State to Enhance Student Learning Status, Prospects, and Strategies. Penn State University.
  • Facione, P.A. (2011). Critical thinking: What is it and why it counts. California:Insight Assessment – a Division of California Press. Retrieved from
  • Hegarty, B. (2011). A Framework to Guide Professional Learning and Reflective Practice. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. NSW: University of Wollongong.
  • Lorenzo, G. & Ittelson, J. (2005). An overview of e-Portfolios. ELI Paper 1, Educause. Retrieved from
  • Moon, J. (2004). A handbook of reflective and experiential learning: theory and practice. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
  • Yancey, Kathleen Blake (2001) General Patterns and the Future. In Barbara Cambridge and others (Eds), Electronic Portfolios: Emerging Practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 83-87.
  • Zubizarreta, J. (2005). The learning portfolio: Reflective practice for improving student learning. South Carolina, USA: Columbia College.

General articles

  • Akyol, Z., Garrison, D.R. & Ozden, M. (2009). Online and blended communities of inquiry: Exploring the developmental and perceptional differences. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(6). Listen to or read.
  • Casey, J. & Wilson, P. (2005). A practical guide to providing flexible learning in further and higher education. File download. This is a very useful resource about flexible learning.
  • Collis, B. & Moonen, J. (2001). Flexible learning in a digital world. Open and Distance Series. London: Kogan page Ltd. Google book

  • Rhode, J.(2009). Interaction Equivalency in Self-Paced Online Learning Environments: An Exploration of Learner Preferences. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(1).Print and audio versions.*Sadler-Smith, E. & Smith, P. (2004). Strategies for accommodating individuals’ styles and preferences in flexible learning programmes. British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol 35(4), p 395-412.
  • Uzuner, S.(2009). Questions of Culture in Distance Learning: A Research Review. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning,10(3). Print and audio versions. *Zondiros, Dimitris (2008). Online, distance education and globalisation: Its impact on educational access, inequality and exclusion. The European Journal of Open and Distance Learning (EURODL).
  • Watts, N. (2010). Reflecting on models for online learning in theory & practice. Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (AISHE-J), 2(1), p 19.1 - 19.12. Retrieved from

Examples of Flexible Learning


Lectures about Flexible Teaching and Learning

  • Learning in the 21st Century - a series of eight videos featuring NZ tertiary students and tutors talking about their views and experiences of e-learning. Start with Part one.
  • George Siemens - Curatorial Teaching - a creative way to nuture your students.
  • Nancy White - Peer Assist - strategies for problem-solving.
  • James Farmer - Identity and Ownership - using blogs versus Learning Management Systems.


General Resources

Student-generated content

Sustainable Education

Open Learning