WikiEdProfessional eLearning Guidebook/Pedagogical designs for eLearning/Pedagogical designs for optimizing e-learning
It is widely acknowledged that the role and influence of media (i.e., information and communications technology) on learning and teaching is optimized especially when it is skillfully integrated into the educational experience (see The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1991: Schank, & Cleary, 1995; Schank, 1997). For this to happen we need to focus our attention foremost, on the careful design of the learning experience rather than the presentation of the subject matter content or the technology. This means careful orchestration of what the learners are going to do in the learning environment.
This concept of “learning by doing” has been popularized, among others, by Roger Schank and his collaborators and it is at the heart of pedagogical designs that stand to optimize e-learning (see Schank, 1997). These pedagogical designs include “scenario-based learning” (see Naidu, Menon, Gunawardena, Lekamge, & Karunanayaka, 2005), “goal-based learning” (see Naidu, Oliver, & Koronios, 1999; Schank, Fano, Jona, & Bell, 1994), “problem-based learning” (see Barrows, 1994; Hmelo, Holton, & Kolodner, 2000; Naidu, & Oliver, 1996; Naidu, & Oliver, 1999), “case-based learning” (see Lynn, 1996: Rangan, 1995; Carrol & Rosson, 2005), “learning by designing” (see Naidu, Anderson, & Riddle, 2000; Newstetter, 2000), and “role-play-based learning” (see Ip, & Linser, 1999; Linser, Naidu, & Ip, 1999). These pedagogical designs are grounded in the principles of constructivism and situated cognition, and in the belief that learning is most efficient and effective when it is contextualized and when it is based on real-world or similarly authentic settings.