2. Encourage cooperation among students
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CIS2 Computers and the Internet in Society : Winter 2009
... research and report on technologies that support this Principle
- 1 Introduction: Encourage Reciprocation and Cooperation Amongst Students
- 2 Social Cooperation Amongst Students in the Age of Technology
- 3 The Internet and Cooperation Amongst Students
- 4 The Impact of Reciprocation and Cooperation on Students
- 5 Beneficial For Who/Whom
- 6 Driving forces of Technology
- 7 Project Roles
- 8 References
- 9 Peer Review
Introduction: Encourage Reciprocation and Cooperation Amongst Students
As technology has changed and evolved over the years, it has increased person to person cooperation. Technology and the internet are evolving into the main medium in which people interact, collaborate, and communicate with one another. This has resulted in transformation in the way that students communicate and cooperate with one another. The internet is a great example of the socialization of education, in that students now actively communicate with one another during courses about discussion topics through online bulletin boards and email. This has had an enormous impact on students, resulting in levels of ever-greater communication and learning. This development of technology has benefited the whole world, and most of all people in countries that allow free thinking. These new technologies that we as a world have developed, will ultimately lead to greater levels of cooperation and sophistication in the education system.
Social Cooperation Amongst Students in the Age of Technology
Social cooperation through computers or CSC (Computer Supported Collaboration) is an evolving and an increasingly more efficient learning style that is taking the education systems of the world by storm. Increasingly education systems and businesses are turning to computers to ease the burden of over stretched infrastructures and increase the efficiency and learning processes within education systems by using the virtual world as a guide and medium. Students are able to learn and collaborate from the same page, the same information, and even the same opinions that other students are able to express to one another with the click of a button. The inefficiencies and awkwardness of oral communication are being eliminated and improved upon by working over collaborative computer networks, where students can collaborate with one another 24 hours a day seven days a week at their discretion, and at their own pace. Students, whose oral communication skills are not as well structured, can finally share collaboratively and fully thought out answers with their teachers, and their peers. Technology will increase the way that students are able to communicate and collaborate with one another for a more effective learning experience.
The Internet and Cooperation Amongst Students
What role will computer and internet technology play to encourage cooperation among students? Technology is bringing us closer with rapid expansion of the internet and more efficient computers bringing about an almost instant connection that facilitate cooperation and socialization amongst students.
We live in a time when knowledge and information are becoming increasingly important for development. It is becoming crucial for the student community to participate in "network based shared environment of learning" (Johnson and Johnson). "Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each others learning"(www.co-operation.org) . Cooperative learning provides the opportunity to maximize ones own learning and enhance that of the others in the group. The rapid growth of the internet allows students all over the world to create shared spaces. One of the most important aspect of student cooperation over the internet is that it enables students to communicate without being physically present. "The experiences of study groups, collaborative learning, group problem solving and discussing assignments can be dramatically enhanced by communicating over the internet"(Panitz). Internet based cooperation amongst students can be synchronous or asynchronous or a combination of both. Synchronous cooperation or simultaneous cooperation can be achieved through tools such as video conferencing, internet telephony or online chats, what may be called a virtual classroom. However "the biggest success story in this area has been asynchronous cooperation" (Johnson and Johnson). Time delayed communication opportunities brought on by the internet has provided students with possibilities of cooperation that is independent of time and space. Emails, online discussion forums, news forums and blogs serve this purpose very efficiently. Newer technologies for computer based cooperation are being developed for even more efficient communication.
The Impact of Reciprocation and Cooperation on Students
There are three prominent theories that have guided the study of cooperative learning, namely, "Cognitive Developmental perspective, Behavioral Theory perspective and Social Interdependence Theory" (Johnson and Johnson). According to the Cognitive Developmental Theory when students cooperate cognitive conflicts occur that create cognitive disequilibrium, which lead to the formation of perspective taking ability and cognitive development of the individuals. The Behavioral Theory perspective focuses on the reinforcement of group rewards on learning and learning through imitation. Probably the most important theory in this respect is the Theory of Social Interdependence, which claims that social interdependence exists when individuals share a common goal and the outcome and achievement of actions of each individual affects that of the others. Under this situation, "when the individuals are positively correlated they can perceive that they can achieve the shared goal if and only if everybody in the group reaches their individual goals, thus individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to everybody in the group. Cooperative learning promotes high efforts towards achieving goals, positive relationship with peers and good mental health as opposed to competitive learning, which may fathom negative relationships with peers and psychological illness" (Johnson and Johnson). Hence the major areas of development of a student that are impacted by reciprocation to other students and cooperation are effort to achieve, positive interpersonal relationship, psychological health, individual accountability/personal responsibility, positive interaction, social skills and group processing.
With the increasing availability of new tools of communication through computer technology and the internet, borders and boundaries of cooperation amongst students are diminishing. New tools enable individuals to interact irrespective of time and space. These technologies also open up the possibilities of cooperation amongst students in the intercultural and international context. The tools offered by these technologies can only be beneficial to cooperation amongst students and the development of the individual student and student community in general.
Overall, technology will have a positive Impact on students! For technology will bring students closer together who will cooperate and learn as one in virtual environments that have not been fully brought out to play. We could eventually be learning in customized full-3-D environments where groups of students would have to cooperate and work together. It will not matter what continent one lives in; in this new learning environment everyone is connected, cooperation will be a key factor for successes in solving equations and world issues.
Beneficial For Who/Whom
Who benefits and how? People who live in countries that allow free thinking and as long as we do not keep technology only for the people who have money from those who do not! We need to make sure that no one is left out! Everyone needs to have the ability to choose and the opportunity to become connected we need to help “encourage cooperation amongst students” This is a global issue that somehow needs to be addressed. One way this can come about is threw the ever growing technical advances that continue to evolve come are way. The benefit will most likely start out for the wealthy; we can hope for a better tomorrow were we are only as strong as the poorest amongst us! For they will be the ones hurt in the long run. If we are all uniting and working together think of what could be accomplished.
- “Learning in the Age of Knowledge: by Raymond Kurzwiel. An overview of how education is changing with technology, written for "The Futurecast," a monthly column in the Library Journal.”
- “Knowledge is power and permits the wise to conquer without bloodshed and to accomplish deeds surpassing all others." --Sun Tzu (Chou Dynasty philosopher and military strategist), The Art of War, fourth century B.C.
- “Computer technology can provide students with power over the process of learning. Technology can broaden the dynamic between challenge and skill. Technology can provide students with early experiences of success. Technology draws students' attention. Technology can be a medium for enhanced human communication. Technology requires students to be actively rather than passively engaged.”
All of the categories above list how technology can help with encouraging cooperation amongst students! Opening the doorway on a global level! Every one can benefit. The message below applies to every student around the world. We need to make sure that the basic computer skills are acquired for everyone on a global level, insuring that everyone benefits.
- “Science Direct”
- “As we rapidly advance into the age of new technological innovation, students must acquire basic computer skills, such as using electronic mail (e-mail) and the internet/World Wide Web (WWW). These skills are necessary for students to be adequately prepared to function as high quality professionals of the future.”
Driving forces of Technology
Who is driving the use of technology around this issue? Many people and organizations' “big thoughts of today's big thinkers examining the confluence of accelerating revolutions that are shaping our future world these people create the story on new technological and social realities they are the pioneers actively working in these arenas.” -President, WA. Macdonald Associates Inc., Toronto
- “Culture -- the way in which a people or a group responds to circumstances -- is seen as the driving force of the 21st century. In a New World of unprecedented change, with tremendous opportunities and grave risks, culture is said to be the principal mechanism that will determine the success or failure of nations, societies, institutions, and individuals. It is culture that must help us reconcile the two worlds in which we live: the world of reality, with its pain and sorrows, and the world of the imagination, with its hope and promise.”
Culture, technology, and the internet encourages cooperation amongst students across all borders.
- “Springer Link the 21st Century has entered the door”
- “Globalization as the driving forces – In the 21st Century we will face dramatic changes, economic, Social, and technological fields, with globalization as the driving force. This will bring along challenges and threats as well as evolutional and revolution. Individually along with collectively; as we are caught in the middle of all these changes.”
- “Globalization is pushing more students to enroll in universities in other countries, more universities are beginning to focus their curriculum's towards international concerns, and more universities are looking for private funding to supplement traditional funding avenues.” Globalization brings about and encourages cooperation amongst students who want to make a difference on a global level. This will become even more so as we travel into the future. Communication and cooperation for students will be easier with an online internet connection that holds no boundaries or boarders.
Review of Lawrence Lessig’s; the future of ideas; By Lucas Hendrich
- “The fertile ground of the Internet has led to countless innovations, eliminating physical barriers and allowing a borderless, transparent source of information to flourish. How will the story of the Internet be played out in the 21st Century?” By two forces--the strong hand of the state and the invisible hand of the market. He attributes innovations born over the wires of the Internet, as well as the birth of the Internet itself, to its public, common nature. Roads are the metaphor he employs to illustrate the benefit of shared, unowned spaces: the vehicles that use them are owned and must meet state-imposed regulations, but the road itself only enhances the value of other materials--vehicles or property--which use it.”
The internet is helping and will hopefully continue to help and encourage cooperation amongst students; Opening up a whole knew landscape of ideas and understanding for the youth of our future.
- ALEIDA BOSTWICK: Team Coordinator, Style coordinator, Writer, Reviewer
- PATRICK THOMAS: Tech Whiz, Content manager. Writer, Reviewer
- SUVOBRATA ROY CHOWDHURY: Recorder, Editor, Writer, Reviewer
- Andrew Yang. (2008), How to Get More Efficient and Productive Using Social Collaboration Software, Retrieved March 8, 2009 From Article Base: http://www.articlesbase.com/intra-net-articles/how-to-get-more-efficient-and-productive-using-social-collaboration-software-656384.html
- Computer-supported collaboration, Retrieved March 6, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-supported_collaboration
- Johnson, David W. and Johnson, Roger T.,Cooperation and the Use of Technology, Retrieved March 8,2009,http://www.aect.org/edtech/30.pdf
- Panitz,Ted ,Collaborative Versus Cooperative Learning - A comparison of the two Concepts which will help us understand the underlying nature of interactive learning,Retrieved March 9, 2009, http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/tedsarticles/coopdefinition.htm
- Chickering, Arthur W. and Ehrmann, Stephen C., Implementing The Seven Principles, Retrieved March 6,2009,http://www.clt.astate.edu/clthome/Implementing%20the%20Seven%20Principles,%20Ehrmann%20and%20Chickering.pdf
- Johnson, David W. and Johnson, Roger T.,Cooperative Learning And Social Interdependence Theory, Retrieved March 10,2009, http://www.co-operation.org/pages/SIT.html
- Slavin,Sharan, Kagan, Lazarowitz,Webb and Schmuck,Learning to cooperate, cooperating to learn,Retrieved March 10,2009 http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=R7_GB4QvhfAC&oi=fnd&pg=PT7&dq=impact+of+cooperation+amongst+students&ots=avo21ed-9r&sig=COydfoGWlXLkxAoNV_KWe9z3cSw#PPP1,M1
- http://www.kurzweilai.net/articles/art0396.html?printable=1 - the Future of Ideas driving force.
- http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-30334504.html - Culture: the driving force of the 21st century.
- http://www.springerlink.com/content/v50tm485u401m70r/ - Globalization as the driving force.
- http://www.dawgnetnews.com/index.php/opinion/342-butler-students-have-role-in-future-of-university-education - Globalization and students.
- http://www.kurzweilai.net/articles/art0263.html?printable=1 – Beneficial
- http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002822397007189 - Students
- Group 2. Encourage cooperation among students
Very articulate, in-depth analysis of the subject. All the 3 members of the group had equal contributions. I believe this group was very cohesive and well-knit. The skills set of each individual member compliments the other. This is quite evident if you review the amount of comprehensive discussions they hatched before coming up with a very solid research analysis. Hats off Aleida and company!!! smile
10 - No misspellings or grammatical errors. All citations used correctly. 10- Content is well organized. Using wiki page formatting - headings, spacing, including images, would have added significantly to the overall readability 10 - Product shows significant original thought. Ideas are creative and inventive. 10 - All requirements are met. Presentation would have been stronger with a summary. Using the wiki functions to link to the references from within the document would have been even better. 10 - Covers topic in depth with details and examples. Subject knowledge is excellent.
- 2. Encourage cooperation among students
Mechanics - No misspellings or grammatical errors. All APA citations used correctly.
Organization - Content is logically organized.
Originality - Product shows some original thought. Work shows new ideas and insights.
Requirements - All requirements are met and exceeded.
Content - Covers topic in depth with details and examples. Subject knowledge is excellent.
Workload - The workload is divided and shared, Significant participation by all team members.
I enjoyed this site. They included a lot of information and it was well organized. I wish they made it a little easier to read by add some bullets but other than that the material was well presented. I also liked how they used headings, it made it easier to navigate.
I suggest the group use some bulleting to give a quick overview. Bulleting allows users to focus on short main ideas rather see large blocks of text. I also would have liked it better if they included some illustration!