MultiMedia Systems/Multimedia Elements

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Multimedia Elements

The basic elements of multimedia on a computer are:Text, Images, Audio, Video, Animation


  • Kuser.pngText:

Text is the most popular of all the media types. It is distributed over the Internet in many forms including files or messages using different transfer protocols such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol: used to transfer binary and ASCII files over the Internet), HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol: used to transmit HTML pages) or SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol: Used for exchanging e-mails). Text is represented in binary as either 7-bit US-ASCII, 8-bit ISO-8859, 16-bit Unicode or 32-bit ISO 10646 character sets, depending on the language of choice and the country of origin. Bandwidth requirements of text media mainly depend on its size, which can be easily reduced using common compression schemes.Text files - Files that contains no special codes or commands - such as bold, italics or graphics - only text. Text files, unlike binary files, can be read without any special software. Text can be created in many applications;

  • Basic text editing
  • Windows notepad - an ASCII text editor
  • Notepad++ , a free source code editor
  • Wordprocesssors (MS-Word, OpenOffice, Libre Office) and
  • Web editors (Microsoft Expression Web, Adobe Dreamweaver).
  • Most authoring tools have the ability to enter text and apply a font(eg. Arial, Times) and style (eg. bold, italic).
  • In a web page text is created in a basic form and a Cascading Style sheet is used to apply the features.
  • Text can also be created as a graphic. This is important when for example a company requires a certain font to be used for its logo and it would not normally be expected to be available on a users computer.


  • Kuser.pngSound / Audio:Audio media is sound/speech converted into digital form using sampling and quantization.

Digitized audio media is transmitted as a stream of discrete packets over the network. The bandwidth requirements of digitized audio depend on its dynamic range and/or spectrum. For example, telephonegrade voice uses dynamic range reduction, using the logarithmic A-law (Europe) or μ-law (North America) capable of reducing the linear range of 12 bits to nonlinear range of 8 bits only. This reduces the throughput from 96 kbps to 64 kbps.Some Tools

  • Waveform (wav, mp3)
  • Audacity (n.d.) The Open Source, Cross-Platform Sound Editor allowing multichannel editing
  • Windows Sound Recorder
  • Restricted to 60 seconds of sound capture
  • Adobe Audition (formerly CoolEdit 2000)
  • Video (sound channel only)
  • Windows Movie Maker (able to save to wma)
  • Quicktime (mov)
  • Midi
  • Cubase
  • Finale
  • Sibaleaus
  • Musescore


  • Kuser.pngImages: Graphics programs can be divided into bitmap editors and vector drawing editors
    • Kuser.pngBitmap editors
  1. General drawing programs
  2. JASC PaintShop Pro
  3. Corel PhotoPaint
  4. Macromedia Fireworks
  5. Specialist editors
  6. ArtRage: free (NZ) paint program simulating painting on canvas.
    • Kuser.pngVector editors
  1. Corel Draw
  2. Macromedia Fireworks
  3. Flash - while much more than a vector drawing tool, it is capable of very sophisticated vector based graphics
  4. Open Office / Libre Office Draw

Examples of vector images
Kuser.pngOnline albums Furthur the following help creation of Image Repositories which can be shared:

  • Flickr
  • Google Picassa
  • Photobucket


  • Kuser.pngStill images, Graphics and Animation

This includes static media types like digital images and dynamic media types like flash presentations. An uncompressed, digitally encoded image consists of an array of pixels, with each pixel encoded in a number of bits to represent luminance and color. Compared to text or digital audio, digital images tend to be large in size.
Examples of Simulations


  • Kuser.pngMovies, Vedio:

Video is a sequence of images/frames displayed at a certain rate, e.g., 24 or 30 frames/second. Digitized video, like digitized audio, is also transmitted as a stream of discrete packets over the network. The bandwidth requirements for digitized video depend on the spatial redundancy present within every frame, as well as the temporal redundancy present in consecutive frames. Both these redundancies can be exploited to achieve efficient compression of video data.



Kuser.pngNon Real Time : Text, Data, Images
Kuser.pngReal Time Discrete:Text Chat, Instant Messaging, Weather Updates
Kuser.pngReal Time Continous:Delay intolerant (Remote Desktop Applications, Interactive Vedio, Audio) Delay Tolerant ( Streamimg Audio, Vedio)
Kuser.pngError Tolerant /Intolerant


Media creation :To develop multimedia requires specialised software for Text , Graphics, Animation, Sound and Video
Kuser.pngMultimedia application development Flash 10 environment - creating an animated Hello WorldThere are a wide range of tools that can be used to develop multimedia applications

    • Basic

PowerPoint Google Presentation (part of the Google Docs cloud family) Open Office / Libre Office Impress

    • Intermediate

Adobe Flash with Action Script 2.0 Web specific Adobe Dreamweaver Microsoft Expression Web ePublishing Kindle development from Amazon (ePub/Mobi, aws) Adobe Indesign (with extensions) Multifunction Media Converter Advanced (Programming) Microsoft Visual Studio (A programming environment, programming language usually C#) Adobe Director (originally designed for CD-ROM, latest version includes 3D support) Adobe Flash with Action Script 3.0 Mobile device/Phone developments kits (Android, iPhone) Java Web applications (Dreamweaver, Expression Web) plus JavaScript, CSS and HTML 5

Tools are used to combine the multimedia elements. These can include tools designed for Hard Disk, CD-ROM / DVD and/or Internet.

Examples; Adobe Director (CD-ROM) Flash (Web Animation) Dreamweaver (Web) Microsoft Expression Web (Formerly Frontpage) (Web) PowerPoint (Hard Disk/Memory Stick) Visual Basic (Web/Hard Disk/CD-ROM)

  • Kuser.pngFormat Factory is a Multifunction Media Converter ,multifunction, free media converter that provides the functions below:
  1. All to MP4/3GP/MPG/AVI/WMV/FLV/SWF.
  2. All to MP3/WMA/AMR/OGG/AAC/WAV.
  4. Rip DVD to video file , Rip Music CD to audio file.
  5. MP4 files support iPod/iPhone/PSP/BlackBerry format.
  6. Supports RMVB,Watermark, AV Mux.
  7. support converting all popular video,audio,picture formats to others.
  8. Repair damaged video and audio file.
  9. Reducing Multimedia file size.
  10. Support iphone,ipod multimedia file formats.
  11. Picture converting supports Zoom,Rotate/Flip,tags.


Welcome to the Course !

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