User:Teromakotero/Autism/Language and Communication Disorders

From WikiEducator
Jump to: navigation, search

Language and Communication Disorders

For autistic people understanding the language is often based on concretism and is built mostly of visual information, but in some autistic individuals preferred learning style may also be auditory. The communication of autistic individuals is often supported by visual means. Such means may include objects, pictures, written words and signs. Such means may include objects, pictures, written words and signs. Most autistic individuals clearly benefit from the structured order of the agenda and activities that take advantage of the above kind of visual material. (Kerola & Kujanpää 2009, 59-60.)

The exceptional capacity development to absorb the auditory information can lead to phonological processing difficulties. Auditory information may remain on unrelated details and auditory language does not arise. Autistic person might therefore focus more on visual information and auditory information is generally neglected. This leads to communication difficulties, because a large part of the information is auditory. This could lead to frustration and challenging behavior. (Kerola & Kujanpää 2009, 60.)

Autistic people’s talk is often based on the mechanical memory, the phrases learned by heart, the sense of sight, repetitive situations, and concreteness. One goal that the autistic people’s education and rehabilitation supports is to pursue the development of speech. Education and rehabilitation uses in support of speech augmentative and alternative means of communication (AAC), such as pictures and manual signs. In autistic people occur echolalia i.e. echo speech, which reflects the fact that a person didn’t understand the words, which he repeat. (Kerola & Kujanpää 2009, 61-63.)

A speech psychomotor difficulty, dyspraxia, often produces autistic type behavior. If a person is unable to produce speech, interaction becomes more difficult, or it does not exist. When a person can’t get message across, he may use challenging behavior to obtain what he wants. Therefore, one of the most important tasks is to guarantee the possibility of interactive communication. (Kerola & Kujanpää 2009, 63.)

Because the skills learned by autistic child in a given situation rarely will automatically be transferred to another situation, it requires active operation in skills transfer and dissemination. Autistic child should have interaction experiences on a daily basis, because he does not necessarily pick them himself. Autistic child should be offered concrete and understandable communication situations. School day program must have enough looseness for child-initiated interaction. Communication situations are created consciously in everyday situations and deliberate frustration is used to activate communication. The starting point is always the child's own skills, which are used in different situations. These skills are modified and developed more efficient and more versatile. Also, incidental action can be interpreted as communication attempt and it will be reacted and responded to as if it were an intentional communication attempt (see PRT). (Hakala, Hyrkkö, Manninen, Oesch, Salo & Siikanen 2001, 156–157.)

There are various methods which could be mentioned for teaching and supporting communication, for example: PECS, PRT, communication folders, and facilitated communication.