User:Vtaylor/Teaching K-8 Engineering

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  • introduce K-8 teachers to engineering, learning about teaching engineering, hands-on activities to demonstrate engineering in k-8 classroom

It’s important not to delay real engineering projects until they master the fundamentals. Work on building this foundation alongside engaging projects to keep them excited. TKE

engineers apply fundamental science to design and develop new devices and systems—technology—to solve societal problems. Technological and engineering innovations then return the favor by affecting human—as well as other animal species'—the ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. -- Science360 Technology & Engineering

Updates - recently added to lists of diigo bookmarks displayed by associated tag. Automatically revised as new links are added

  • e4k interesting engineering * resources * activities * stem lab maker * profiles biographies careers
  •  ?? * e3 for younger learners * mEng e4k,online e4k,apps * games * teaching professional development

Engineering is ...

Engineering is the E in STEM. But what is it? At its roots, Engineering is applied Math and Science. While Math and Science are important on their own, putting these to use to benefit humanity through Engineering is at the core of society today. Engineering applications provide the framework to make Math and Science relevant to today's learners.

Most educators associate STEM with Math, Science and Technology. STEM teaching and standard focus on these. However, many descriptions of key elements fail to highlight that these are common to Engineering as well.

Common elements of STEM learning include * Design-focus: using design tools and techniques to attack big problems or opportunity (challenge-based, problem-based learning). * Active application: applying knowledge and skills to real-world situations and constructing or prototyping solutions to challenges (maker, project-based learning). * Integration: real world problems aren’t limited to a discipline—solutions almost always draw from many fields.

These three elements are the foundations of Engineering. Starting from an Engineering perspective, STEM learning follows. Active application is frequently missing in traditional subject "silos". Why is this (insert most math and science concepts here...) important? When would I ever need to know this? How would I ever use this? It is human nature to be curious and want to understand how something being taught relates to the world we live in.

Getting started

Teaching K-8 Engineering introduces the key elements of Engineering as well as some practice activities and resources for teaching engineering for K-8 educators. The information that follows examines the concepts and teaching activities.

  • Welcome * What to expect on this course and how to get the most out of the learning with your colleagues.
  • This course

Topics are grouped by theme. The order isn't intended to define a sequence. Look through the list and pick anything that interests you. Just start somewhere, anywhere.

Big picture. Quick start. : The Way Things Work - David Macualay's book provides a light-hearted and remarkably thorough introduction to Engineering. The book and the notes here, provide a quick overview of every day objects and the engineering design and creativity that are behind each. (more about the way things work...)

Engineering is the E in STEM

General information about Engineering and its role in STEM or STEAM (STEM + Arts). Some of us think that all education comes under the umbrella of Engineering. Everything else supports the practice of Engineering. Reading, writing, critical thinking, communication, collaboration are just as essential to Engineering as Math, Physics and Chemistry.

Engineering is everywhere

Even though most educators haven't formally studied Engineering, everyone knows much more about Engineering than they realize.

  • Activity: What is Engineering? Watch 2-3 of these videos introducing Engineering. * What is Engineering? (NSF) * Did this give you a better understanding of what Engineering is? Which obe would work best for your learners? What do you want theym to get from the video?
  • Activity: Engineering Walk * Notice Listen Question * Select a route for the "walk". This can be around the classroom. It is even better if the route can be outside around the school and into the community. Pick several object or structures to point out. Have learners work in small groups to point out others. Was this designed? What is the purpose or what problem does it solve? Does it do a good job? Are there other ways to solve this problem? Can you think of a better solution? Together, share all these objects, structures and ideas.
  • Discussion: What isn't Engineering? Think about the subjects you teach and about the environment that surrounds your daily life. What isn't man-made or designed or influenced (directly or indirectly) by something someone did. How can that be turned about to be engineering or engineered? Does this change your thinking about engineering? How can you include references to engineering everywhere in your teaching today?

Engineering Design Process

Like teaching, there are well established engineering processes and procedure for solving problems. Building a bridge and lesson planning are similar - determining needs.

  • Activity: The Engineering Design Process * Engineers and designers use the engineering design process to solve a problem by creating new products, systems, or environments. Watch this NASA Intro to Engineering video that walks through the Engineering Design Process. He talks about a project cyycle - Ask, Imagine< Pland, Create. IMprove,

..Science Buddies

  • Activity: Design like an Engineer * Depending on the outcomes desired, allow learners to pick from a list of relevant problems, Everyone spends time thinking about the problem and coming up with their own ideas. The working in small groups, practice "brainstorming" - taking turns suggesting solutions. and record these ideas. Then spend some time to select and refine a solution to build or model, test and improve.
    Problems might include: playground structure, classroom item, community resource, ...
  • Activity: Crazy Crayons - Some problems can be resolved by making an informed decision. The process is similar. There are plenty of things do do. Talk to people. Record and analyze data. Write letters requesting additional information.
  • Discussion: Lesson Planning as an Engineering Design Process (EDP). Think about planning a lesson you have prepared recently. How closely does you preparation follow the Engineering Design Process? If you applied the process, would your work be different?

3D Thinking, Spatial Reasoning, Visualization

Engineers need to think about 3-dimensional objects and structures. This takes some practice to see all sides. Research done by Purdue and other engineering colleges have shown that by working with students to improve their spatial visualization and reasoning skills has resulted in significant improvements in the students' overall performance in engineering course work. All students can benefit from formal training in 3D thinking.

  • Discussion: 3D Thinking * Many learners are using 2-dimensional representations of the 3D world. Paper drawing, flat computer screens illustrate scale models. CAD view, perspective, rotation are less common although they are readily available. How often do learners get to handle actual 3D objects? Are they encouraged to turn the objects and see it from the sides, top and bottom? Can they draw a picture of the top and side views of a building or object? Do they understand the concept of "rotation"?
  • Quizzes: Spatial reasoning, 3D visualization and rotations * These are quick indicators of the current state of your spatial reasoning skills. With practice, your scores will improve.
    • 3D Thinking Rotations Test – When you submit the test, you will see your score – small dark box in the upper right corner eg. 5/7
    • Spatial Reasoning Test – This test contains 8 questions You should attempt to answer as many questions as you can. This is a time pressured test – work as quickly and accurately as you can. You have 2 ¼ minutes to answer. Take the text and record your score. You will take the test again in a few weeks. Most people improve when they have a bit more experience with spatial visualization.
  • Activity: Computer Aided Drawing (CAD) in 2D and 3D * Test drive some of the free applications designed for K-8 learners to work with spatial visualization of objects
    • Finger CAD * use your fingers for technical drawing with a computer (computer-aided design). This app provides the opportunity to design anything using computer CAD operations such as floor plans, bridges, and more * add measurements and free text
    • SolidWorks Apps for Kids - design, build, and print 3D models. Create, revise and express your ideas. You can 3D-print or share your creations with others to make them come alive.
    • SketchUp 3D modeling software Start by drawing lines and shapes. Push and pull surfaces to turn them into 3D forms. Stretch, copy, rotate and paint to make anything you like.
  • Activity: Spatial awareness puzzles * Spatial awareness puzzles rely on your ability to visualize and mentally manipulate objects in an environment. Spatial reasoning often requires comprehending 2D or 3D space. These spatial puzzles and games test your ability to grasp the relationship and orientation of an object to its environment and any neighboring objects. Prove your spatial intelligence by conquering these challenging online spatial games. Puzzles Note: most of these games use Flash and may require Puffin or Chrome browsers
  • Discussion: Getting to the Third Dimension: Build an object with kids building blocks. Is it flat (2-dimensions, like a drawing on paper) or 3 dimensions with width, depth and height? Your structure is likely a 3 dimensional shape. Do you include 3D thinking in your teaching and learning? How could you include more 3D thinking and physical objects in your teaching?

Measure, Inspect, Evaluate

Things can be really tiny or enormous. Understanding relative size, estimation and measuring precisely are all important in engineering.

  • how big, long, tall, heavy * measurement * units * scale * precision accuracy
  • Activity: How big? How much? * Help learners experience differences in various measurements. For weight, fill and label baggies of rice - pound, kilo, ounce. Demonstrate length differences with string such as the length of child, dolphin, whale. Distance - measure airplane throwing and record range and average distance. For volume demonstration use containers of popcorn. For temperature, microwave a potato and check temperature at various times through the cooking cycle.
  • Activity: Measurement conversion * Engineering Unit Converter App is an excellent app that allows learners to make conversions and engineering calculations easily. Select the category and input the units. Then, the app will complete the conversion. Use the converter app to find the equivalent in one or more other units. Compare big and small objects with "units" such as these: * length of a football field * weight and volume of a school bus * a cat * a LEGO brick * an ounce of gold * the International Space Station
  • Quality assurance * What requirements * How specifications * testing * analysis

Could Be Better CBB

There are lots of ways things could be improved if there was no limit to the time, money and resources available. But that isn't real life. Making the best within limits is part of the job.

  • Discussion: Perfect enough and Trade offs * Often engineers have to make hard choices. There isn't one "right" answer. Engineers often must make "trade offs". They can't do everything. There are "constraints" or limits. If a product is too expensive, no one will buy it. If it isn't finished in time, the rocket launch will have to wait weeks or even years before there is another chance. What are some examples of trade-off, constraints and decision making that you and your learners encounter? What are some other "right" answers that would have resulted in a different decision and what would be the outcomes in that scenario?
  • Discussion: New, improved ... * We are always having to change and adapt as new information, materials. and process become possible or available. The other important consideration is users' feedback and suggestions. Rethinking all the possibilities and making decisions on the basis of the current situation is an important step in the design process or cycle. What are some examples of improvements? How did these happen? What was ok, but could be better? What was the new information that prompted the change?
  • Activity: Reverse Engineering * Engineering in Reverse! - Learn about the process of reverse engineering and how this technique is used to improve upon technology. Analyze push-toys and draw diagrams of the predicted mechanisms inside the toys. Then, disassemble the toys and draw the actual inner mechanisms. By understanding how the push-toys function, make suggestions for improvement, such as cost effectiveness, improved functionality, ecological friendliness and any additional functionality that is an improvement.

Some Engineering Basics

All the basics of engineering are called science and mathematics. In the past, Engineering is also called Applied Science. Today, everyone thinks they know what Engineering is, in some vague way but they skip over the physics, chemistry, mathematics and life sciences that are the foundations for engineering.

Push, Pull, Drag and Drop

There is a lot more to Engineering than can be covered in a short course like this. Here are a few basics to start.

  • push, pull, fall * motion force friction * balloon rocket car * marble roller coaster
  • birds and planes * lift * drag * planes boats trains
  • Forces - Friction
  • Activity: Slippery Soles * One of the basic forces is friction. Review the entire article. Consider how you could adapt some or all of the activities in this Lesson Plan for your learners. How would you have every learner participate?
  • SimplePhysics lets you design complex structures for everything from tree houses to ferris wheels and then simulates your design with a sophisticated physics engine. Complete different building challenges using physics. For example, build structures that should withstand different forces. Earn points as you learn how to use physics concepts to build lasting structures.
  • Statics, Dynamic * things that stand, hold, support * things that move, change

Simple Machines

Tools and simple machines have been around since prehistoric times. There are tasks that even strong agile dexterous clever people can't do, so they invented ingenious solutions to solve the problem. These can be grouped into just six general categories. Most of the solutions to physical problems include one or more of these simple machines.

  • natural engineers * make, build * biominicary * simple machines
  • Simple Machines * combine into Complex machines
  • tools primitive complex derivative technology integration specialization
  • Activity: Inclined Plane * Slide Right on By Using an Inclined Plane Explore building a pyramid, learning about the simple machine called an inclined plane. Learn about another simple machine, the screw, and how it is used as a lifting or fastening device. During the associated hands-on activity, see how the angle of inclination and pull force can make it easier (or harder) to pull an object up an inclined plane.


Engineering is at the heart of all the developments in robotics from automated manufacturing to amazing prosthetic and biomedical devices. Today, small cheap basic robot kits and companets are available to introduce robotics in the classroom.

  • Activity: Hands-on hand

Computers, Smartphones, Applications and Learning

Electronics is more difficult because we can't see what is going on most of the time. Making computer "real" is challenging. "Coding" is one way to get closer to the vast complex field of computer science. Making circuits with snap-together electrical components with lights and motors are another hands-on learning experience.

Engineering in Society

STEM Problems Students Can Really Address Problem-solving is fundamental to STEM. But coming up with real-world engineering challenges for learners to solve can be tricky. Here are some ideas about locating problem possibilities. Encourage learner-generated problems. Check out 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Do an Internet STEM Lesson search. Keep the problem do-able. What have learners already learned can help with solving this problem? What resources are available for the challenge? Engineering solutions for a problem involving clean energy (wind turbines, solar cells, etc.) might be quite realistic.

Home, School and Park

Start with what you know. Even kinders have a good sense of the world around them. Moving beyond "what's that?" to "How did they do that?" isn't a big leap. Someone made that. What were they thinking?

  • dimensions measurement scale constraints human factors public space interior exterior
  • Activity: Living space - house, apartment. Design an ideal place to live either by yourself or with family and friends. Include sleeping, eating, hanging out and visiting, and storing stuff - food, toys, sports equipment, vehicles. Work out dimensions using actual sizes for beds, TVs, sofas, chairs and kitchen appliances. For more challenge, design The Ultimate Tiny House (video 1:57) - no more than 240 square feet and less than 10 feet tall.
  • Activity: My school, My learning space. Design a better classroom. Or maybe it isn't a room at all. Include enough space for 100 6th grades for a full school day. Use actual dimensions for any furniture you include. Provide space for a STEM Lab, P.E and lunch.
  • Activity: Perfect park. Design a park for a city or town. Include a play area for little kids that is fun, provides good activities and is safe. Provide a play space for bigger kids, teams, whole families. How about a jogging and walking path? Maybe a bike trail? Include restrooms. Work out the total area needed. Or start with a specific size plot, for example 2 acres or 11 acres. Or start with a park near you and redesign it. Include approximate measurements for all your features.

Science, Exploration, Research

Engineers and scientist work together to expand our understanding of the world and the space beyond.

  • Discussion: Engineering is applied science * Scientists and engineers are working together to expand understanding of the world around us. * engineers build instruments scientists need to further their research * International Space Station * Space telescope * electron microscope * CRISPER
  • Activity: Build a Mars Habitat * Using simple material like newspaper and tape, [make a geodesic dome] similar to the structures likely to be built when humans get to Mars sometime around 2025. This form of shelter is light and sturdy. [more...] Or build a smaller model with gumdrops and toothpicks with these instructions from Scientific American [1]
  • Activity: Biomimicry: Natural Designs * Learn about Biomimicry and how engineers often imitate nature in the design of innovative new products. more...

Solving Problems to Benefit Humanity

For many of the most basic needs of people everywhere, there are engineers working to help. Cost and location are important considerations.

  • Activity: We can help. Look through the Sustainable Development Goals. United Nations adopted a set of goals to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all as part of a new sustainable development agenda. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved by 2030. For the goals to be reached, everyone needs to do their part: governments, the private sector, civil society and people like you. How could one or more of these be reframed to be a solvable problem for your learners? more...
  • Discussion: The Tech Awards * Every year, The Tech for Global Good celebrates five innovators who are using technology to tackle big problems. The stories of these laureates are the bedrock of the program, and are featured in a prominent exhibit, as well as used in educational programming throughout the year. How can these stories be used to inspire learners to think about engineering in these diverse situations? How does seeing the needs of the people helped through the Tech Awards contrast with the application of Engineering in their surroundings? more...
  • Discussion: Engineers Without Borders (EWB) * Review the projects that Engineers Without Borders volunteers are working on. How can one or more of these be tied in with other curriculum and lessons you will be presenting? ..more

World of Work

There are many more "engineering" jobs than you might realize. In many states, only people who have a college degree in Engineering and have passed professional exams and experience requirements may call themselves "Engineers". Everyone else in similar jobs who don't have all those qualifications and meet the licensing requirements have to be called something else, and therefore don't get counted as engineers. These "others" have great STEM-related jobs doing interesting and important engineering work, too. Many of these jobs didn't exist when these people went to school. Learning to learn and having a strong foundation of STEM knowledge are essential to adapting and thriving as the world of work changes over time.

  • jobs, careers * on the job - teams, collaboration, presentations, reports, client meetings * professional associations certification
  • adgile * practice and procedures * change
  • productive adult skills * time management * goal setting SMART VIP * lifelong learning

Fun, Games and Lifelong Learning

Recreation and leisure are as important as working and learning. And engineering is here, too. Spending too much time playing video games or tracking friends on social media? That's engineering. Game controller design, user interface development and advertising display algorithms are all engineered. These are "consumed" by millions worldwide and created by thousands of people with skills and knowledge that didn't exist when most grownups went to school.

  • electronic music
  • MOOCs
  • collaboration * twitter chat * open source Apache FOSS GitHub Creative Commons *

Connect Adapt Remix Share

Although the ideas for finding like-minded educators and sharing resources isn't unique to K-8 engineering, these can be especially helpful and supportive when venturing into new territory such as including engineering into broader teaching and learning.

  • resources collaboration community support * vocabulary * glossary

Making is Magic

The Maker movement has introduced many educators and learners to engineering through hands-on projects. Provide the opportunity and the stuff to work on their own projects, and learners learn by doing, experience the engineering design process first hand and learn to appreciate the effort that goes into creating great products.

Teaching and Learning

Wow! That's Engineering. Engineering is everywhere so it isn't difficult to find lessons with broad appeal and relevance. There are many examples of "engineering" lessons adapted for a specific grade level and integrating several subject objectives. That's the point - engineering encompasses a lot of cross discipline work, so these examples are ideal for making previously isolated learning fresh and relevant.

  • Teaching Engineering 4 Kids K-8
  • model lessons * Soles: A Lesson in Friction * Even in our best winter boots, we often slip and slide on icy sidewalks. Researchers at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute noticed this problem and decided to investigate just how resistant winter boots are to slippery conditions. They tested more than 100 boots on an icy incline and found that only about 10 percent enabled the wearer to walk up a seven-degree slant without slipping. * engineering and design challenge * 6-8 grade 1-2 hours * adapt for k-6 * Crazy Crayons
  • hands-on activities * planning * materials * groups collaboration * learner-centered
  • show and tell * demonstrations * notice listen question
  • what how * learning outcomes
  • assessment evaluation

Introducing Girls to Engineering

We continue to be concerned for girls' interest and success in STEM fields. There is a lot of research but not much change. The most effective positive influences are role models and interesting connections between societal needs and designed solutions.

  • Activity: Role models, interesting work * The Society of Women Engineers (SWE) is working hard on K-12 Outreach in an effort to encourage girls to participate more fully and actively in STEM programs. To what extent can the introduction of role models depicting young women engineers doing interesting work help girls see themselves in these careens? What are some eingineering careers that interest girls?
  • "girls only" gender bias girly pink * Girl Scouts STEM * products GoldiBlocks LEGO * girls who code * hour of code Frozen
  • Discussion: Project-Based Learning: STEM to STEAM - "Once "art" was added to the program (STEAM) they attracted 50% more girls, and got better adoption from parents, mentors, the outside community, and students." Are you surprised? What has been your personal experience with STEM vs. STEAM? How far can broadening STEM go? Is there any downside to being more inclusive through the addition of Art?
  • Discussion: Gender Neutral Learning * Geometry for Dance Costume Designs (video 3:45) - A dance costume designer describes how she uses circumference and area calculations to make clothing for the stage. Math, dance, video, role model female presenter. Do these attributes interest girls more than other videos, such as Khan Academy? Are boys interested in these broader, less traditional Engineering examples?

Integration, Cross-curriculum, x-based Learning

Much has been written about broadening classroom learning through a range of expanded focus programs. "X" may be any of: inquiry, discovery, design, challenge, community, problems and/or projects. Oh my! Active learning, essential questions, important solvable problems and project design and management are then added to the skills mix. This can be a big steep learning curve for educators as well as learners. Introducing the Engineering Design Process and relevant engineering solutions to teaching and learning bridges the gap.

  • Discussion: Starting with E * Before starting a new challenge, it is a good idea to look at the breadth and depth of the problem to solve. How might the Engineering Design Process - Ask, Imagine, Plan, Create, Improve be used to integrate learning outcomes? Rather than fully teaching all the subject content before starting on the project, how might you switch to "just in time" teaching and learning as needed for project work?
  • Activity: Who did it? How did they do that? There are lots of engineering connections through pictures. What is designed or man-made? Ask kids to point these out. Sometimes it might not be obvious. How did someone get to that rock to collect it and bring it home? What special photography equipment was used to get that amazing image of a tiny bug's mouth or an enormous mountain range or the entire planet Earth? * 30 Great Science Picture Books

Technology Supported Learning

Engineering isn't just hands-on making. Use technology as the process, the product and the medium. Even if you personally don't know a lot about Engineering, there are websites, videos, and games that provide great information that is both informative and engaging. Learners can just do this work, they don’t have to sit and wait for a teacher to tell them the information—they can look it up, find experts who know something, or watch YouTube videos describing how to build something. Those are the resources we can leverage more and more for learning.”

  • Activity: There's an app (or website) for that * There are many great resources for presenting and integrating Engineering with courses, lesson plans, and instructions for activities. Look through one or more of these resources. Find a couple that you could use with your learners. Why are these appropriate? How would you use them? What outcomes are you expecting?

For more information, Technology Supported Learning is a separate professional development OER (open educational resource). This material has been the basis for in-person and online courses, as a self-study guide and a reference resource for educators worldwide.

Community of Practice, Network, Collaboration

You are not alone. There are plenty of other educators out there who are learning about teaching engineering in K-8. There are many gracious generous practitioners who share their work. So many great resources, so little time. There are also those who curate and review great resources to speed up your exploration and implementation. test drive some of the ones suggested here. Then develop your own community of practice. Please share your journey. You never know who you will inspire.

  • Something new every day * subscribe * There are thousands of sources that "push" information about technology and engineering. You decide how to receive these daily updates - email, Twitter, Facebook, ... * New Atlas * daily email with 8-10 new engineering, technology articles * Science Daily - Engineering
  • Discussion: Personal / Professional Learning Network (PLN) * 10 Reasons Why Every Teacher Needs a PLN. Take a look at the diagram. What do you think? Does this cover your needs? Are there items listed here that would help you include Engineering in your teaching?

Open Educational Resources (OER), Free Textbooks

Educators have freely shared resources forever. The idea that educators should purchase content is relatively recent. The good news is the return to free and openly available resources that is facilitated by the internet, vast quantities of cheap storage and millions of generous individuals and institutions who value and promote learning for everyone. Education is the one solution to most of the world's problems. When education is not limited to those who can afford to pay, "all boats float".

  • Introduction to OER
  • peer reviews, rating * CPALMs, MERLOT, OER Commons
  • Science 360 * extensive video collection hosted online by the National Science Foundation. The website has videos in all the areas of science including engineering.
  • Activity; compare an OER resource from one of these repositories with a lesson plan that you are currently using - state / school adopted textbook, Teachers Pay Teachers lesson, Nearpod, Share My Lesson. Compare characteristics and rate the lessons objectively using rubric and personal preference with an explanation. Easy of use, completeness, accuracy, authoritative source, materials for learners, outcomes, standards met.
  • Activity: Select an OER for your subject and grade level. Review the information. What would you use as it is? What would you need to change or add? What would you skip? What isn't necessary for you? Provide an explanation for your modifications.

Learn more...

So this was just a taste of what engineering is and how to connect with existing curriculum. Pick just one thing that sounded interesting and appropriate and DO IT! Find other educators with similar interests. Watch for suggestions and ideas and be ready to try these too. When you are ready, there are online and in-person opportunities to professional development and collaboration. Just keep exploring and learning. We only learn what we almost know. Whether we realize it or not, we all know an incredible amount about Engineering.

  • diigo lists - e4k e3 engineering profiles next swenexted
  • resource repositories, library * OER Commons
  • SWE Outreach k-12 * SWENext Educator * SWE educator member
  • Engineering Guy - YouTube - great detailed explanations with animations. Aluminum can

  • Come Fly With Me - aviation and STEM. Activities by grade level can be adapted for other grades.
  • 30 Great Science Picture Books - lots of engineering connections through pictures - designed, man-made * ask kids to point these out
  • Instrutables - website with multiple teaching tools for engineering. includes several projects and lesson plans for teaching engineering with fun, hands-on activities. This online forum began in the MIT Media Lab and has hundreds of creations organized by grade levels and subject areas like engineering, robotics, design, and more.
  • Wolfram Alpha - database of engineering materials. Ask engineering questions, and the app will search the database for relevant materials that should answer the inquiry. The Pro edition of the app also features an automated tutor, homework help, and practice questions.

notes to self

openedu course * wikispaces * theme topic * topic description * article * quiz * activity: discussion * title (approx time for activity 15-45 min) short paragraphs (30 words) bullet points questions discussion (less than 250 words)

  • educators learners

2020.8 6622 .