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Lesson:Major Aspects of Tourism


We will start the first lesson by defining the most important words which will be used throughout the unit. The meaning of such words is given and their description are made easier by the use of examples. In this lesson you will be in a position to understand the difference between Inland tourism and Coastal tourism. Areas of Inland tourism and Coastal tourism are also shown by means of maps. This lesson will focus on Botswana as a country with an Inland tourism. We shall also look at Kenya which provide a good example of Coastal tourism. This lesson will create a good foundation for you to understand the lessons which follow.

Objectives of the Lesson

At the end of this lesson you should be able to;

• Define Inland and Coastal tourism • Name and locate any five areas of tourist attractions (both Coastal and Inland).

Lesson Contents List

1.0 Tourist attractions in Botswana

1.1 What is tourism

1.2 What is a tourist

2.0 What are tourist attractions

2.1 Tourist attractions in Botswana 2.2 Examples of attractions

3.0 The difference between inland and coastal tourism

3.1 Inland tourism

3.2 Coastal Tourism

4.0 The difference between Inland tourist attractions and Coastal tourist attractions

5.0 Name and location of inland and coastal tourism

6.0 Summary

7.0 Self Evaluation Exercise

8.0 Glossary


You are advised to spend at least two hours on this lesson.  The two hours you are going to spend is also determined by your understanding of the lesson.  There is still more room for extending your time if you do not understand the lesson.


Some of the words which are related to this unit will be explained under the glossary at the end of the lesson. If found necessary some of the words will be explained when they are introduced and used in the context.

1.0 Tourist attractions in Botswana

It is very important that we start the lesson by explaining the meaning of the topic word or heading.

1.1 What is Tourism

In simple terms, tourism means traveling or touring for pleasure. It is when you go away or leave your home for pleasure (leisure). Remember that, the word Tourism comes from the word Tour that means to travel or a journey made to visit places. The tour or journey that is made differs from one person to another depending on the purpose of the journey, the distance to be traveled, the amount of money to be spent on the journey and many others. It can be a one day tour, or a tour that takes week or even months.

You might have heard people talking about tourism as an Industry. Yes! It is true, tourism is a sector of the economy. Tourism as an industry brings revenue or money to the Government. Geographers can call tourism an “Invisible Industry” in the sense that you cannot see tourism and weigh and touch it. Can you think of any other industry in Botswana. Find out how the industry you have named differ from the tourism industry. Let us take Kgalagadi Soap Industry (KIS) as an example. We can locate the area where the industry is found. We can also identify the buildings where the production of soap is taking place. We can also touch, weigh and see the building and the soap (product) that is produced in the industry. Tourism Industry is unique and invisible because it does not directly involve the manufacturing of goods. There is no special building where manufacturing is taking place . The following drawing shows an example of an industry. The diagram below shows where soap is produced (Kgalagadi Soap Industries). Can you imagine what type of an industry is the Tourism Industry? Can you quickly draw a sketch building opposite the one below to show how the tourism industry would look like.

Fig 1 : Industry

You will find that it is difficult to come out with an obvious and clear diagram that shows a tourism industry. What is the shape of the building? What is being manufactured inside the building?

1.2 What is a Tourist

It is a person who tours or travels for leisure or business. The tour or journey has to be temporary in nature. The traveler or visitor has to go back to his home or area of residence. We mentioned earlier on that the type of tourists we have differ depending on several things such as; the purpose of the tour, the duration of the tour, the distance to be traveled, the amount of money to be spent on the tour etc.

This photograph shows a group of tourists on the Okavango delta. they are enjoying a ride on a canoe.


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Which of the statements are more precisely talking about a tourist? Not all of the statements are talking about a tourist. You will realize that all of the people in each statement are involved in traveling from one point to another. Among the above four statements, some are talking more precisely about someone who is a tourist. Two of the statements are talking about someone who can be termed a tourist while the other two statements are just talking about an ordinary traveler. Statements two and three are talking more precisely about tourists than statements one and four.

2.0 What are Tourist Attractions?

These are things of great interest. They are those things which will make tourists to leave their homes. These things will make tourists to be more attracted to them since they are beautiful, interesting and more exciting. Tourist attractions are pleasant and more exciting things which will always draw the attention of tourists. In statement two, under activity 1, the monument of the great leader will always attract you as a tourist. The site or location of Serowe village will also attract you since you have not seen Serowe village before. This also applies to the Serowe hill itself. Tourist attractions vary from physical features or natural features such as mountains, lakes, valley etc to wildlife i.e. wild animals and vegetation (flora and fauna).

2.1 Tourist Attractions in Botswana

Botswana is among those lucky countries which still have a variety of wild animals as well as a beautiful scenery or unspoiled wilderness. Remember that most of the attractions are found in the northern and north western parts of the country. There are more attractions in the northern part of the country because the natural environment is not that much disturbed or spoiled. In the northern part there are few developments and less people as compared to the eastern part of the country. Most people live along the eastern part of the country. We also find more developments in the eastern part of the country.

2.2 Examples of Attractions

• Wildlife This is considered a number one tourist attraction. It includes wild animals such as birds, reptiles, mammals etc as well as the natural vegetation. Tourists are more interested in photographing and hunting wild animals. In Botswana the Chobe National Park and Moremi wildlife reserve receive a large number of tourists. National Parks and Game reserves are used to keep and protect wildlife. The photograph (fig 2) below shows some of the wild animals found in game reserves and parks.

Fig2 : Some of the wild animals found in Botswana.

Source :

• Rock Paintings These are ancient or old paintings made by the Basarwa (see fig.3). These paintings are found at Tsodilo hills. These paintings are symbolic of Basarwa’s lifestyle You must understand that the Basarwa are not tourist attractions, but their paintings are.

Fig3. : Rock paintings by the San


• Okavango Delta

This is a unique scenery which is flooded with water. The delta covers an area of about 15 000 sq. km of swampland and savanna (grassland). The water attracts a variety of wild animals including birds. This offers photographic opportunities and game viewing by vehicle or canoes. The Okavango delta as an unspoiled wilderness also fascinates tourists with its flood plains, pans, lagoons, grassland and the aquatic vegetation. The photograph (fig.4) shows part of the Okavango delta and some tourists on a canoe transport.

Fig4: The Okavango delta Source :

• National Museum and Art Gallery It is located at the centre of Gaborone city. Here, there are some displays of excellent art and craft collection. There are also some archaeological and ethnological exhibits. The picture (fig5) shows the national museum and art gallery in Gaborone.

Fig 5: the national museum and art gallery

Source :

• Hotels and Casinos

Hotels and Casinos of great standards are located at different town and major villages. In addition to hotels, there are some lodges, motels and camps. The photo (fig6) shows the Chobe lodge which accomodates tourists.

	  Fig 6: The Chobe Lodge

Source :

• Handicrafts These are beautiful traditional baskets and woodcarvings. Batswana, especially in rural areas make baskets of high quality, which are very much sought after by tourists. Fig7. Show some of the baskets with excellent patterns and designs.

Fig. 7: Typical examples of Botswana basket Source :

3.0 The Difference between Inland Tourism and Coastal Tourism

In this Unit we are going to study two types of tourism namely:-

• Inland Tourism • Coastal Tourism

3.1 Inland Tourism

This is the type of Tourism which takes place inside a country. It takes place inside a country and away from the coast. This type of tourism is common in countries which are landlocked. A landlocked country is a country which is surrounded by other countries instead of seas and oceans. The word Inland means inside a country and away from the coast. You must remember that this type of tourism also occur in those countries with access to the sea as long as the place of attraction is inside the country and away from the coast.

3.2 Coastal Tourism

This type of tourism is found in countries with access to the Sea. The word Coastal comes from the word Coast, which means a piece of land situated next to the sea. Coastal tourism exists in countries which are not totally surrounded by other countries. Such countries are partly surrounded by water. These countries also do have tourism taking place inside and away from the coast. In order for you to understand the difference between a landlocked country and a country with access to the sea, the following short exercises will help you. It is important for you to know that a landlocked country can not have a coastal type of tourism.

Activity 2 Study the map fig 8. and answer the following questions.

For countries with inland tourism you will probably suggest the following countries:- Zimbabwe, Zambia, Lesotho, Swaziland etc. Using your atlas, check whether the above countries are surrounded by other countries instead of sea or ocean.

Feedback For countries with coastal tourism you are likely to mention the following:- South Africa, Namibia, Angola etc. You must also check the above listed countries to see whether they are surrounded by water or have access to the sea.

Let us now look at Botswana. If you look to the north, south, east and west of the country you will find that Botswana is surrounded by other countries only. Botswana is surrounded by countries such as South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia etc. We therefore say that Botswana does not have any access to the sea. It means that she has the inland type of tourism.

4.0 The Difference between Inland Tourist Attractions and Coastal Tourist Attractions

We have seen how Inland tourism differs from coastal tourism. Now we are going to look at those attractions we expect a tourist to see in a country with Inland tourism. We will also look at attractions found in a country with Coastal tourism.

You must bear in mind that attractions determine the number of tourists who visit any given area. Attractions for Inland tourism differ from those of Coastal tourism. Some tourist attractions are the same for both inland and coastal tourism, e.g. a hotel on a coastal area and one inside the country and away from the coast.

Activity 3

Quickly jot down those attractions, which are likely to be found in a country with inland tourism, and those found in a country with coastal tourism.  Use the following table for the list of the attractions

Inland Tourism Coastal Tourism












For inland tourism you are likely to come up with the following attractions:- Mountains, i.e. volcanic mountains, rift valleys, waterfalls, wild animals rivers etc.

Attractions found under coastal tourism are unique and different from those found under inland tourism. The following are some of the attractions which follow under coastal tourism:- Sport fishing, sea diving, swimming, sea animals (dolphins), water spot (surfing), beach, palm trees (vegetation of the coast) etc.

5.0 Name and Location of Areas of Inland and Coastal Tourism

(a) 	 Inland Attractions

Botswana is a good example of a country with inland tourism. The following are some of the areas of greater tourist attractions in Botswana:-

• Chobe National Park • Moremi Wildlife Reserve • Kalahari Trans Frontier Park • Mashatu Game Reserve • Central Kalahari Game Reserve • Mokolodi Nature Reserve • Khama Rhino Sanctuary • Makgadikgadi pans • Okavango Delta • Tsodile hills • Drosky,s caves • Baine’s Baobabs • Lake Ngami • Museums and Art Gallery

Try to identify some of the mentioned tourist attractions from the following map (fig 9)

Fig 9 : Map of Botswana showing areas of Tourist Attractions

This map tells us that Botswana has many game reserves and national parks. These game reserves and national parks act as tourist attractions. These game reserves and national parks are used to protect our wild animals as well as natural vegetation.

The map also tells us about the major areas of tourist attractions. These areas are situated in the northern part of the country. You can also see from the map that development does not disturb these areas of attractions since more towns are situated in the eastern part of the country.

Most of Botswana’s national parks and game reserves occupy areas which are not rich in soil fertility. This also explains the fact that wild animals do not take much of arable land. The eastern belt is the area which is rich in soil fertility hence the high population density.

(b) Coastal Tourism

Kenya is a good example of a country with Coastal Tourism. The map (fig10) shows some of Kenya’s attractions.

Fig 10: Kenya’s tourist attractions

If you study the map of Kenya you will find that Kenya has access to the Indian ocean. Not every part or boundary line of Kenya has a coast. The small portion or strip of land between Kenya and the Indian ocean play an important role of providing coastal tourism.

It is this southern part of the Kenyan coast where we find the popular city of Kenya namely – Mombasa. Apart from Mombasa, there are other small towns or areas along the coast such as Lamu, Kipini, Malini etc.

By looking closer at the map, you can also see that there is inland tourism in Kenya. You can see inland attractions such as Lake Turkana and Kenya mountain. These are inland attractions because they are inside the country and away from the coast.

6.0 Summary

Tourism can be defined as an economic sector or an industry which derives its money from the tours or journeys made by people from one area to another. On the other hand a tourist is a person who travels for pleasure or business. The words Tourism and Tourist come from the word tour.

Tourist attractions are those things which make people or tourists to leave their homes. These things are of great interest and are attractive. Tourist attractions differ from one are to another.

There are two types of tourism namely: Inland tourism and Coastal tourism. Inland tourism takes place inside the country and away from the coast. Coastal tourism takes place on the coastal area or coast. Botswana has an inland type of tourism while Kenya has both coastal tourism and inland tourism. The type of attractions found under inland tourism are different from those found under coastal tourism.

7.0 Self Evaluation Exercise 1 The following exercise is aimed at assessing your understanding of the whole lesson. Answer the questions on the space provided below each question. You can easily mark your own work by checking some answers provided at the end or on the last page.

1. What do you understand by the term Inland Tourism? [1]



2. Write down two (2) examples of inland tourist attractions. [2]


_______________________________________________________________________ 3. What is Coastal Tourism? [1]



4. List down two (2) examples of inland tourist attractions . [2]



5. Name any two areas of tourist attractions in Botswana. [2]



6. List down two areas in Kenya of coastal tourist attractions. [2]



Total = 10 marks

8.0 Glossary

• Flora : all plants of a particular area • Fauna : all the animals of a particular area • Revenue : income or money especially the total annual income of the country • Tour : journey for pleasure during which various places of interest are visited • Attractions : things that are of interest to people (something that attracts) • Scenery : natural features of an area • Landlocked : without access to the sea (to be surrounded by other countries • Inland : inside a country and not closer or on the coastal area • Coastal : to be on the coast or area between the land and • Arable land : land that is used for the cultivation of crops