User:M. A. Halim/About Bangladesh Details
- 1 AN OVERVIEW
- 2 Climate
- 3 History
- 4 Topography
- 5 Culture
- 6 Tourism
- 7 SELECTED BASIC FACTS ABOUT BANGLADESH
- 8 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
- 9 FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AS PROVIDED BY THE CONSTITUTION
- 10 FUNDAMENTAL FOREIGN POLICY OF BANGLADESH
- 11 ORGANS OF THE STATE
- 12 THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM
- 13 PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
General:Bangladesh emerged as an independent and sovereign country in 1971 following a ninemonth
war of liberation. It is one of the largest deltas of the world with a total area of 147,570
sq. km. With a unique communal harmony, Bangladesh has a population of about 142 million,
making it one of the densely populated countries of the world. The majority (about 88%) of the
people are Muslim. Over 98% of the people speak in Bangla. English, however, is widely
spoken. The country is covered with a network of rivers and canals forming a maze of
Being an active partner, Bangladesh plays vital role in the international and regional forum, particularly in the UN, Commonwealth and South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon climate with three main seasons- the hot and humid
summer (March-May), the rainy season (Jun-Sep) and the mild and relatively dry
winter (Dec-Feb). Spring and autumn (Oct-Nov) are brief but can be distinguished in
changes in vegetation as well as mean daily temperature. Average annual temperature
is 260C and while rainfall is 2540 mm.
Bangladesh has a glorious history and rich heritage. Once it was known as ‘Sonar Bangla’ or the Golden Bengal. The territory now constituting Bangladesh was under the Muslim rule for over five and a half centuries from 1201 to 1757 AD. Subsequently, it came under the British rule following the defeat of the sovereign ruler, Nawab Sirajuddaula, at the battle of Palassey on 23 June, 1757. The British ruled over the Indian sub-continent including this territory for nearly 190 years from 1757 to 1947. During that period, Bangladesh was a part of the British Indian provinces of Bengal and Assam. With the termination of British rule in August 1947, the sub-continent was partitioned into India and akistan.
Bangladesh formed a part of Pakistan and was called ‘East Pakistan’. It remained so for about 24 years from August 14, 1947 to March 25, 1971. Bangladesh liberated on December 16, 1971 following the victory of the War of Liberation and appeared on the world map as an independent and sovereign country.
In Bangladesh there is an elected single-house Parliament, known as the House of the Nation (Bangladesh Jatiya Sangshad), in which the egislative powers of the Republic vested in. The Speaker presides over the Parliament. The Prime Minister is the leader of the House, who is also the Head of the Government, while the President is the Head of the State. Bangladesh has a general election every five years under Non-Party Care-taker Government. Foreign affairs policy of the country has been marked by participation in multilateral interventions and peacekeeping missions, particularly as part of UN forces. The country is the pioneer in micro-credit concept for poverty reduction, which brought the Nobel Prize in Peace for the country in 2006. The founder of world reputed Grameen Bank Professor Dr. Muhammad Yunus is the Nobel laureate. The people of Bangladesh are very simple and friendly. A beautiful communal harmony among the different religions has ensured a very congenial atmosphere. More than 75% of the population lives in rural areas. Urbanisation has, however, been rapid in the last few decades.
Economy: Bangladesh has an agrarian economy, although the share of agriculture to GDP has been
decreasing over the last few years. Yet it dominates the economy accommodating major rural
labour force. From marketing point of view, Bangladesh has been following a mixed economy
that operates on free market principles.
Source: GOB Web Site.
Bangladesh is located in the tropics between 20 034/ and 26038/ North latitudes and 88001/ and 92041/ East longitudes in South Asia. The Indian states of west Bengal, Meghalaya, Assam and Tripura border on the west, the north and the east respectively. Bangladesh also shares its border with Myanmar on the southeast corner. In the south, the country has a long coast along the Bay of Bengal. Topographically, the country is almost entirely a fertile alluvial plain formed by the two main rivers, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra (locally known as the Padma and the Jamuna) and their hundreds of tributaries. Bangladesh is often referred to as a land of rivers. The main rivers are Padma (Ganges), Jamuna, Meghna, Bramhaputra, Surma and Karnafuli. The coastline of the Bay of Bengal is 66,400 km. The only hilly parts are in the northeast and southeast of the country . Bangladesh has the world’s largest mangrove forest, the world heritage Sunderban which houses flora and fauna of innumerable species. Bangladesh has the fauna of about 1600 species of vertebrates. Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera Tigris) is the most famous species of carnivorous mammals which lives in the Sunderban.
Bangladesh is heir to a rich cultural legacy. In two thousand or more years of its chequered history, many illustrious dynasties of kings and Sultans ruled the country and have left their mark in the shape of magnificent cities and monuments. Apart from this , the century old cultural traditions can be viewed in innumerable tangible and intangible heritages -in archaeological sites, in sculptures, in stones and terracotta, in architectures, museums, archives, libraries, classical music, songs and dance, paintings, dramas, folk arts, festivals, games as well as ethnic cultural activities. The people of Bangladesh are very simple and friendly. A beautiful communal harmony among the different religions has ensured a very congenial atmosphere. That is why, the UN has recognised the country as Moderate Muslim democratic country. More than 75% of the population lives in rural areas. Urbanisation has, however, been rapid in the last decade.
Bangladesh is bestowed with the bounties of nature. It has a coastline of 66400 km. with Bay of Bengal, World’s longest (unbroken 120 km)sea beach at Cox’s bazar, world’s largest mangrove forest-Sunderban with world famous Royal Bengal Tiger and evergreen hilly areas of Chittagong hill tracts with tribal culture have provoked many tourists from far and near. Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet international airport serving International travelers. Peak travel months are November to February.
SELECTED BASIC FACTS ABOUT BANGLADESH
- Official Name: The People’s Republic of Bangladesh
- State Religion: Islam but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony.
- State Language: Bangla
- National Anthem: The first ten lines of Amar Sonar Bangla.
- National Flag: Consists of a circle coloured red throughout its area, resting on a green rectangular background. The length to width ratio of the rectangle is 10:6 and the circle has a radius of one fifth of the length.
- National Emblem: The national flower "Shapla" (nymphea-nouchali) resting on water, having on each side an ear of paddy and being surmounted by three connected leaves of jute with two stars on each side of the leaves.
- Capital: Dhaka
- Nationality: Bangladeshi
- Name of Currency: Taka (TK), Denominations: Notes:Taka1000,500,100,50,20,10,5,2&1
Coins: Taka 5, 2,1 and Paisa 50, 25, 10, 5, 2 &1
- Geographical Location: Between 20o 34' and 26o38' north latitude and between 88o01' and 92o41' east longitude.
- Boundary: North: India, West: India, South: Bay of Bengal, East: India and Myanmar.
- Area: 56977 sq. miles or 147570 sq. km.
- Territorial Water: 12 nautical miles.
- Administrative and other Units:
Administrative Units as on 31st December’ 2007
- Division 6
- Zila 64
- City Corporation 6
- Municipalities 308
- Upazila 481
- Thana 599
- Union 4,498
Source: LGRD Ministry and Police Headquarters.
- Annual growth rate 1.41 1.40 1.39
- Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 105.2 105.0 105.0
- Density (per sq. km) 953 966 979
- Life expectancy at birth: Both sex 66.5 66.6 66.7
- Male 65.4 65.4 65.6
- Female 67.8 67.9 70.0
- Main Seasons : Summer (March-May), Rainy Season (June-September) and Winter (December- February)
- Standard Time : GMT+6 hours
- Principal Rivers : Padma, Meghna, Jamuna, Brahmaputra,Teesta, Surma and Karnaphuli
(Total 230 rivers including tributaries)
- Principal SeasonalCrops and Fruits : Paddy, Jute, Wheat, Tobacco, Pulses, Oil seeds, Spices,Vegetables, Jack-fruit, Banana Mango, Coconut.
- Principal Industries: Readymade garments, Textiles, Chemical fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals, Tea processing, Paper & newsprint, Cement,
Light engineering, Sugar, Leather goods.
- Principal Minerals: Natural gas, Coal, Lime, White clay, Glass sand.
- Principal Exports: Readymade garments & knitwear, Frozen fish, Jute & jute goods, Pharmaceutical products, Tea, Leather products,
- Ports: Sea ports: Chittagong and Mongla
Inland river ports: Dhaka,Chandpur, Barisal,Khulna, Baghabari,Narayanganj, Bhairab Bazar, Ashuganj.
- Airports: International: Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet.
Domestic: Dhaka, Chittagong, Jessore,Sylhet, Cox's Bazar, Sayedpur, Rajshahi and Barisal.
- Landports: Benapole, Teknaf, Banglabandha, Sonamasjid, Hilli, Darshana, Birol, Burimari, Tamabil, Haluaghat, Akhaura, Bibirbazar & Bhomra.
Source: Bangladesh Land Port Authority
- Radio Stations: Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna,Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet, Rangamati, Comilla and Thakurgaon.
- Broadcasting Programmes (languages): Bangla, English, Urdu, Hindi, Arabic and Nepali.
- Television Stations: Dhaka, Chittagong
- Relay Stations : Chittagong, Sylhet, Khulna, Natore, Mymensingh, Rangpur, Noakhali, Satkhira, Cox's Bazar, Rangamati and Thakurgaon.
- Television Channels: Terrestrial: BTV.
- Satellite: BTV-World, Channel-i, NTV, ATN Bangla, RTV, Channel 1, Bangla Vision, Boishaki TV, Islamic TV, Desh TV, ETV & Diganto TV.
Source: Ministry of Information
- A Educational institutions: 2006
- Public Universities 27
- Private Universities 51
- Govt. Medical colleges 15
- Private Medical colleges 27
- General Colleges 3197
- Govt. Polytechnic Institutes 42
- Private Polytechnic Institutes 129
- Secondary Schools 18700
- Govt. Secondary Schools 317
- Primary Schools 82020
Source: University Grants Commission & BANBEIS.
- B Educational Enrollments: 2006
- Public University enrollment 153249
- College enrollment 1368657
- Secondary School enrollment 7.41 million
- Primary School enrollment 16.38 million
- Health Facilities : 2006
- Hospitals 1683
- Hospital beds 51044
- Persons per Hospital bed 2732
- Registered Physician 44632
- Persons per Physician 3125
- Households per Physician 655
Note: *(Including 402 Upazila Health Complex and Rural Health Complex) Source: DG Health. Note: Latest data are not available from respective sources.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
The principles of absolute trust and faith in the Almighty Allah, nationalism, democracy and socialism meaning economic and social justice constitute the fundamental principles of state policy. These principles are expressed as follows : - Absolute trust and faith in the Almighty Allah is the basis of all actions. - Promotion of local government institutions. - Participation of women in national life. - Democracy and human rights. - Principles of state, co-operative and private ownership. - Emancipation of peasants and workers and backward sections of the people from all forms of exploitation. - Provision of basic necessities of life. - Rural development and agricultural revolution. - Free and compulsory education and removing illiteracy. - Improvement of public health and morality. - Ensuring equality of opportunity. - Work as a right and duty for every able citizen. - Duties of the citizens to observe the Constitution and the laws - Public servants to serve the people. - Separation of the judiciary from the executive. - Enrichment of the national culture. - Protection of national monuments, objects or places of special artistic or historic importance or interest. - Promotion of international peace, security and solidarity and consolidation. - Preservation and strengthening fraternal relations among Muslim countries.
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AS PROVIDED BY THE CONSTITUTION
- Equality of all citizens before law - No discrimination against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, sex or place of birth. - Equal rights of women with men. - Equality of opportunity in public employment. - Prohibition of foreign titles etc. - Right to protection of law. - Protection of right to life and personal liberty. - Prohibition of forced labour. - Safeguards as to arrest and detention. - Protection in respect of trial and punishment. - Freedom of movement, assembly, association, thought and con-science and of speech, profession or occupation, lawful trade or business and religion. - Rights to property. - Protection of the privacy of home and correspondence. - Enforcement of fundamental rights through courts of law. - Laws and enactments inconsistent with fundamental rights are void
FUNDAMENTAL FOREIGN POLICY OF BANGLADESH
1. The State shall base its international relations on the principles of respect for national sovereignty and equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, peaceful settlements of international disputes, and respect for international law and the principles enunciated in the United Nations Charter, and on the basis of those principles shall
- Strive for the renunciation of the use of force in international relations and for general and complete disarmament;
- Uphold the right of every people freely to determine and build up its own social, economic and political system by ways and means of its own free choice; and
- Support oppressed peoples throughout the world waging a just struggle against imperialism colonialism or racialism.
2. The State shall endeavor to consolidate, preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic solidarity.
ORGANS OF THE STATE
The Republic comprises of three basic organs: (1) The legislature, (2) The judiciary and (3) The Executive. The President of Bangladesh is elected by members of Parliament in accordance with law. The President, as Head of State, takes precedence over all other persons in the State, and exercises the powers and performs the duties conferred and imposed on him by the constitution and by any other law. The President acts in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister, save only that of appointing the Prime Minister and the Chief Justice. The supreme command of the defence services vests in the President. The President holds office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. No person can hold office as President for more than two terms, whether or not the terms are consecutive. If a vacancy occurs in the office of President or if the President is unable to discharge the functions of his office on account of absence, illness or any other cause the Speaker of the Parliament discharges those functions until a President is elected or until the President resumes the functions of his office. There shall be a Cabinet for Bangladesh having the Prime Minister at its head and comprising also such other Ministers as the Prime Minister may from time to time designate. The executive power of the Republic is exercised by or on the authority of the Prime Minister. The President appoints as Prime Minister the member of Parliament who appears to him to command the support of the majority of the members of parliament. The appointment of Prime Minister and other Ministers and of the Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers is made by the President provided that not less than nine-tenths of their number are appointed from among members of parliament and not more than one-tenth of their number may be chosen from among persons qualified for election as members of Parliament. The legislative powers of the Republic vest in the Parliament, which consists of three hundred members, designated as members of parliament, elected by direct election. However, presently there are forty five reserved seats exclusively for women members to be elected by the aforesaid members on the basis of procedure of proportional representation in the Parliament. No War can be declared and the Republic can not participate in any war except with the assent of Parliament.
THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is the highest Judicial organ in the country which comprises of the Appellate Division and the High Court Division. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice and a number of other judges. The Chief Justice and the Judges appointed to the Appellate Division sit only in that Division and other judges sit in the High Court Division. The Chief Justice and other Judges are appointed by the President. A Judge holds office until he attains the age of sixty seven years. The Appellate Division hears and determines appeals from judgments, decrees, orders or sentences of the High Court Division. The High Court Division has superintendence and control over all subordinate courts and functions as the Appellate Court. There are some other special Courts, such as Labour court, Juvenile Court, Administrative Tribunal etc. At the district level, the district court is headed by the District and Sessions Judge who is assisted by Additional District Judges, Chief Judicial Magistrate and Other Judicial Magistrates, Joint District Judges and Assistant Judges.
Bangladesh has a unitary form of government. The President is the Head of State and the Prime Minister is the Head of Government. The Prime Minister is assisted by a Council of Ministers. The permanent officer-in-charge of the Ministries/Divisions is designated as Secretary who belongs to the Civil Service. A list of the Ministries/Divisions is given at next page. For administrative purposes, the country is divided into six divisions, each headed by a Divisional Commissioner. There are 64 Districts under the 6 Divisions. The district is administered by a Deputy Commissioner who is assisted by Additional Deputy Commissioners. The Districts are divided into Upazilas headed by a Upazila Nirbahi Officer. Currently, there are 481 Upazilas. The head of the police administration is the Inspector-General of Police (IGP). The divisional police administration is headed by the Deputy Inspector General of Police and the district police-administration by the Superintendent of Police and there is an Inspector of Police in each Thana. The Superintendents of Police and the Inspectors of Police work in close co-operation with the Deputy Commissioners and Upazila Nirbahi Officers for maintenance of law and order under their respective jurisdictions. The chief police officers in Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal and Sylhet city are designated as Metropolitan Police Commissioner.