Case III - Linear relationship

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Description of activity and Excel instructions:Case III - Linear relationship

Dataset: baby-crying-IQ.xls

Exploratory data analysis

Create a scatterplot

Use the Chart Wizard to create a scatterplot.

  • Select the columns containing the two variables to be plotted.
  • Select Insert > Chart....

The Chart Wizard displays.

In 1. Chart Type:

  • Select XY (Scatter).
  • Select the Points Only version.

In 2. Data Range:

  • Click 'Data series in columns.
  • Check First row as label.

No changes are needed for 3. Data Series.

In 4. Chart Elements:

  • Enter a title for the chart.
  • Enter a title for the X axis (explanatory variable).
  • Enter a title for the Y axis (response variable).
  • Decide if you want to display a grid in the chart background.
  • Uncheck the Display Legend box.

Calc creates a scatterplot. Note that the X axis scale is shown as 5 to 35, a reasonable choice for this data.

If you want to change the shape or size of the data points:

  • Double click on the graph to enter edit mode.
  • Right click on the data points.
  • Select Object Properties...
  • Explore the options in the Icon section, in the Line tab.

Create a correlation coefficient

Use a formula to compute the correlation:

  • Click in a cell outside of the first two columns of data.
  • Type "=CORREL([range1],[range2])" where [range1] is the first column of data and [range2] is the second column of data.

Return to the OLI's Case III - Linear relationship page to complete the first interpretive exercise.

Calculate p-value

Calc does not include a formula or data analysis routine to calculate the "t-test for the slope" of a regression line. You can use Excel for this activity, or the web-based p-value calculator for the correlation coefficients at

In fact, this t-test is solely dependent on the value of the correlation coefficient, r, and the size of the sample:

[math]t = \frac{r}{\sqrt{\frac{1-r^2}{n-2}}}[/math]

Return to the OLI's Case III - Linear relationship page to complete the next interpretive exercise.

Plot the least squares regression line

  • In edit mode on the graph, right-click one of the points on the graph.
  • Select Insert Trend Line....

The Trend Line dialog displays.

  • Click on the Type tab.
  • Verify that Linear is selected under Regression Type.
  • Check the Show equation box.
  • Check the Show correlation coefficient (R2).
  • Click OK.

The regression line displays among the data points and the regression equation and R2 display underneath. You can select and re-position the equation and R2 value, if they are displayed on top of the data points.

Return to the OLI's Case III - Linear relationship page to complete the interpretive exercises.