Seeking Permanent Peace

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1919-1920: Armistice and the Paris Peace Conference

  • Woodrow Wilson and the 14 Points for Peace

The Treaty of Versailles

  • What the countries wanted:
    • Clemenceau (France): wanted Germany weakened or divided so it could not attack again. France shared a border with Germany.
    • David Lloyd George (Britain): wanted the destruction of the German navy to prevent a sea-borne attack on Great Britain
    • Woodrow Wilson (USA): wanted a 'just' punishment of Germany, but not to have it broken up into smaller states. Promoted the League of Nations to keep the peace.
  • Demilitarisation
    • Germany wasn't allowed in the Rhineland.
    • France occupied the Rhineland.
    • Germany later went on to invade the Rhineland in 1936, under Hitler's orders.
  • War Debt/Reparations
    • 6.6 billion pounds, later reduced in the Young Plan of 1929 (this only finished being payed in 2010!)
  • Germany was given the blame for the war.
  • Germans didn't find this at all fair, causing bitterness and hatred towards the four 'powers', America, Italy, France and Britain.
  • League of Nations
    • America didn't join, which highly disadvantaged the League.
    • Germany wasn't allowed to join either, until 1926
  • Diktat
  • Germany had no option but to sign the Treaty of Versailles.

Reaction to the Treaty of Versailles:

  • The German reaction was that it was unfair because it was forced upon them, and that they were made to pay for losing the war. They resented the loss of arms and territory.
  • The French reaction was that it was fair because Germany had lost the war and should therefore pay. France still feared Germany and wanted to weaken it.

1920-1924: Period of re-adjustment

  • Diktat: Germany had no option but to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
  • 1920 Treaty of Sevres (with Turkey)
  • Treaty of Trianon (with Hungary)
  • America becomes Isolated.
    • Didn't join the L.O.N
    • Didn't sign T.O.V
  • German Crisis (1923)
    • French invade the Ruhr
    • France was desperate for Germany to pay back reparations, so that they could pay their war debt.
    • France invaded and occupied the Ruhr.
    • German workers went on Strike, stopping production
    • Government started reprinting money, causing huge inflation.
    • One gold mark in October 1923 is now worth 1,205,358,227 paper mark.
  • Munich Beer Hall Putsch
    • Hitler led an army of Nazis to invade the Munich beer hall.
    • Made him well known.
  • The role of the League of Nations
  • Security through defence agreements.
  • Germany defaults on reparations
  • German financial crisis and Hitler attempts to take over the Bavarian parliament
  • Locarno Treaty (1925)
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)