- 1 Introduction
- 2 Country/region ID card
- 3 State of the art of Open Education
- 3.1 Open education policy developments (identified by POERUP)
- 3.2 OER Initiatives
- 3.3 MOOCs (originating in Europe)
- 3.4 Virtual mobility developments
- 3.5 Legal frameworks and regulations
- 3.6 Barriers and success factors for the adoption of open practices of academic cooperation
- 3.7 Main open education actors and networks in the region
- 3.8 Role of international networks and initiatives in the country/region
- 4 Examples of open education-enhanced Higher Education collaboration
- 4.1 Policy issues (RPL, credit transfer, recognition and quality assurance)
- 4.2 Language and cultural issues (incl. discipline issues)
- 4.3 Virtual mobility dimension
- 4.4 Technology issues (access, cost ...)
- 4.5 Pedagogy issue (educational models behind, ways of sharing content, assessment methods ...)
- 4.6 Organisational issues (staff development, reward mechanisms ...)
- 4.7 Sustainability issues (business models)
For ease of reference, in many cases information is included in the form of a list with an added hyperlink, to lead to much more information.
Country/region ID card
- European Union Factbook published by Central Intelligence Agency Library.
- Wikipedia entry for Europe
State of the art of Open Education
Open education policy developments (identified by POERUP)
- The Paris OER Declaration
- The European Commission’s Communication on Rethinking Education: Investing in skills for better socio-economic outcomes
- The European Commission's Communication entitled“Opening up Education: Innovative teaching and learning for all through new Technologies and Open Educational Resources”
- The POERUP-based paper on Suggestions on ten meta-principles for interventions
- The ‘Policy shift’ analysis for OER-related archetypes done in the UNESCO IITE paper onAlternative Models of Education Delivery
- Recommendations from the OPAL project
- As was done in the presentation to the OER workshop just prior to Online Educa, by adapting the policy recommendations for virtual schools to what we now call OER/MOOC-based providers
- Scottish Open Education Declaration
- Wales Open Education Declaration of Intent
- OER Policies by country: Hungary, Spain, Poland (Digital School)
According to the POERUP interim report on each country, plus recent additions including one regional OER initiative in England (on the following country reports, scroll down to the section: ‘OER Initiatives’)
- United Kingdom: OER Northwest Regional Network (England)
- Additional Spanish OER initiatives:
MOOCs (originating in Europe)
- OpenUpEd Platform
- FutureLearn Platform (UK Open University and the British Broadcasting Corporation)
- Open Education Europa Portal
- Iversity Platform (Germany)
- "MOOCs in Spain" , report by the Telefónica Chair of UPF explaining the role of MOOCs in Spanish Higher Education 
- MiriadaX  Spanish-language distance learning resource, a reference in Spain and in Europe. Created by Universia and Telefonica Learning Services.
- UNIMOOV-aemprende: course platform oriented to entrepreneurship. 
- MOOC platforms from Spanish universities: National University of Distance Education Polytechnic University of Valencia University of Granada San Antonio Murcia University University of the Basque Country
Virtual mobility developments
- Erasmus+ - European Union programme for education, training, youth, and sport
- VMPass project – implementing recognition of virtual mobility and OER learning through a learning passport
Legal frameworks and regulations
- European Commission Education and Training
- European Foundation for Quality in E-Learning (EFQUEL)
- UK: Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education – safeguards standards within higher education in the United Kingdom
- Spain: National Agency for the Evaluation of Quality and Recognition (ANECA): State Foundation for the improvement of the quality in Higher Education, through the evaluation, certification and recognition of learning Programs, teachers and learning institutions.
Barriers and success factors for the adoption of open practices of academic cooperation
UK: Quality assurance is regulated by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education as higher education depends on public funding. A barrier is that the QAA may hesitate to approve credits earned in universities outside the UK, for accreditation at UK universities because UK public funds pay for UK accreditation and cannot vouch for credits from non-UK institutions. A success factor is that UK universities have been participating in Erasmus programme for a long time, so probably the case can be made to acknowledge credit from other universities into UK universities under other cases in addition to Erasmus.
Main open education actors and networks in the region
- MENON Network – European research and innovation network
- OER Universitas (includes European and outside-Europe universities)
- Open Education Consortium (includes European and outside-Europe universities)
- Jorum – UK’s original OER repository
- Open University of UK
- Association for Learning Technology
- OER Conference series and its volunteer committee (started from SCORE – Support Centre for Open Resources in Education)
- National Distance Education University 
Role of international networks and initiatives in the country/region
- European Association of Distance Teaching Universities (EADTU) – scholarship and research on open educational practices, regular conferences.
Examples of open education-enhanced Higher Education collaboration
Policy issues (RPL, credit transfer, recognition and quality assurance)
UK: Credit transfer: Each programme in each university has discretion to accept credits earned elsewhere, as credited to its own course. Mozilla OpenBadges is an example of an attempt to create a general and recognizable online accreditation which can be awarded for learning done online through a variety of providers.
Language and cultural issues (incl. discipline issues)
- Avicenna Virtual Campus – Science and Technology e-learning knowledge network – example of disciplines getting together across institutions even without common language OER repositories by disciplines with associated communities, such as HumBox– humanities repository, and iSpot – identify wildlife online
- XarxaMOOC  Introduction course for language specialization in Catalan-speaking universities. The Xarxa Vives d’Universitats is made of 21 universities of Spain, France, Italia and Andorra where the Catalan language has most infuence.
Virtual mobility dimension
VMPass project – working to create a learning passport to enable virtual mobility UK: Grade Point Average pilot and national discussion: This Higher Education Academy initiative includes 20 UK universities which are piloting grade point averages rather than the current degree classification scheme, for the purpose of increasing international comparability of degree results.
Technology issues (access, cost ...)
MOOC platforms (section 2.c above) represent attempts to offer a smooth learning environment to many people online. Their technological achievements and enhancements include machine-marked assessments. OpenLearn, the Open University UK’s original open-learning platform, which is both open access and open source.
Pedagogy issue (educational models behind, ways of sharing content, assessment methods ...)
Organisational issues (staff development, reward mechanisms ...)
- UK – Higher Education Academy
Sustainability issues (business models)
- Downes, S. 2007. Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects. 3. 29-44.