Date & Time : 4, December 2023 01:36
General Characteristics of Reptilia
- skin is covered with horny scales or scutes.
- no glands are present on skin.
- limbs are reduced and pentaductyle type.
- skull consist of single median occipital condyle.
- mandible present in pieces.
- ribs form the true sternum.
- heart is three chambered.
- both the kidneys are provided with separate ureter.
Classification of Reptilia
A Few Examples
Common name-Green Turtle.
- Body color-olive or brown with yellowish spots.
- Integument- covered by smooth shell.
- four pairs of coastal shields on dorsal surface fitting closely.
- Head-one pair of prefrontal shields covers the head.
- EyesConsisting of eyelids and nictating membrane.
- Limbs-wing-like paddles with only one claw.
- Unhooked jaws are present.
Common name-Land Tortoise.
Food-Worms and Insects.
- Carapace-very convex, no nuchal plate.
- Plastron-concave, central and marginal scales are yellow starred.
- Feet-phalanges are reduced to two in digits.
- Male is smaller than female.
- They can live without water for along time.
- In cold water, it hibernates underground.
Common Name-House lizard.
- Integument-scaly,minute and smooth scales.
- Eyes-small eyes but eyelids are fused.
- Ears-like openings whichare vertical.
- Tongue-short, stcky and slightly notched.
- Tail-long tail having a great power of regeneration.
- Digits-smooth surface,clawed and two rows of ridged lamellae which help in movement.
- several femoral pores are present on the thigh of male.
- one supra-temporal arch is present.
common name-common Indian monitor.
Habitat-burrows and trees.
Food-reptiles, mammals and dead bodies etc.
- Body color-brownish color with darker spots in rows.
- Integument-skin is covered with scales -dorsal and vetral.
- Dorsal-very small scales with tubercles and ventral scales are arranged in rows.
Common name-glass-snake or limbless lizard.
Habitat-burrows and bushy localities.
Food-snails, mice, insects,worms and small lizaards.
- Body-long, cylindrical and similar to snake.
- Head-similar to the typical lizard.
- Eyes-movable eyelids on eyes.
- Ear-openings represents the ear.
- Tongue-consist of anterior(thin,extensile and retractile) and posterior(thicker).
- Integument-covered by scales which is further underlyning by bony pltes.
- Limbs-reduced to small cloacal spikes(a pair).
- Tail-long and very brittle.
Common name-flying lizard, or flying -dragon.
Distribution-found in Sumatra,Java, and Borneo. found in Madras in India.
- Body-dorso-ventrally compressed.
- Eyes-very small eyes, but eyelids are complete.
- There are three hooks which are pointed,one isshort on either side and the other one is long in the middle.
- Limbs- forelimbs and hindlimbs are extended as a pair of large wing like membranes,called pategia. pategia is supported by ribs.
- Tail- it is very long and slender in shape.
- gular pouch is present in both the sexes (orange in males and blue in females).
- only male has a small nuchal crest.
Habitat-rocky bushy regions.
Videos of Viper
- Body color-pale brown but underparts are yellowish white. There are three longitudinal series of black spots.
- Body length-one and a half of metre.
- Head-triangular head with imbricate scales on upper surface.
- Eyes-beuatiful eyes with golden iris and elliptical pupil.
- Snout-angulate, nasal opening is quite prominent.
- Scales-scales are arranged in thirty rows.
- Supra-labials-10-12,4th is the largst.
- it's venom is haemotoxic.
Common name-coral snake
Distribution- found in South America and the Lesser Antilles.
- Body- elongated and cylindrical.
- Body color- pretty black and red rings alternate with one another.
- Body length- about 1-1.5 metre.
- Integument- smooth scales are present which forms about 15 rows.
- Head- small, not distinct from tail.
- Eyes- smallwith vertical pupil.
- No teeth in maxillaries behind the poison fangs.
- Tail- short but round
Common Name- Tree snake.
Distribution- found in South East Asia and Australia.
Habit and Habitat- abortal in habit.
- Body- elongated and cylindrical in shape.
- Body length- about two metre long.
- Integument- scales are present which are keeled and form 13-15 rows.vertebral rows are enlarged.
- vntral rows consists of lateral keels( a pair), and notch ( help in climbing) on each side.
- Eyes- covered by transparent membrane which is fused.
- Ear- tympanic membrane is absent.
- limbs- absent , girdles are also absent.
- No gangs (harmless).
Common name- marsh crocodile or muggar of India.
Distribution- found in India, Burma, Malacca, Beluchistan.
'Habit and Habitat'- like to live in rivers, ponds, tanks and marshes.
- Body- exoskeleton is present, horny thiock epidermal scales consist of dermal bony plates.
- Body color- upper parts are dark olive brown.
- Body length- about 4-5 metres.
- Head- triangular and rough at the top.
- Snout- stout rather broad.
- upper and lower jaws are present. teeth are 38 in number.
Largest tooth- 5th of upper jaw.
- Limbs- pentadactyle, five fingers with four toes.
fingers are webbed at base and outer toes are broadly webbed.
- Ear- covered by movable flaps of skin.
- Nuchasl scutes- 6 in number, packed closely together forming a square.
- Oviparous and predators.