Community Media/CLP/PartI Part I - Participatory planning

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Part I - Participatory planning

Setting objectives

  1. SMART
  2. Put a system in place and evaluate it…
  3. Is there such a thing as bottom up planning?
  4. When do you contact the community? When you have the money? Or after?

Finding focus

  1. You must start with a felt need
  2. Establish a strategic direction (compass)
  3. Want to see something coming out based on local needs, but also in line with “donor” needs so that you can get funding; challenge to achieve the balance
  4. COL has priorities but we don’t tell what to do
  5. Align with frameworks, stakeholders, other groups, e.g. nat’l AIDS policy, national and local organisations who are working in teh same area
  6. The needs will be identified: tech is there and applications are identified
  7. Is there an unmet need?
    1. What is it?

Finding resources and making the programme sustainable

  1. How will it be sustainable?
    1. Variable sustainability
      1. Mchinji is funded by the DHO
      2. Palpa was funded voluntarily by the teachers and then the radio itself; the idea was mooted to raise funds from parents
      3. Science for Women (India) was funded by the Ministry; can the stations step in and fund it?
  1. What is meant by sustainability
    1. SEE LINKS
    2. None of SW's programmes are free - are they unsustainable? SW's programmes are NOT planned to be ongoing; in many instances two years is enough
    3. Social and institutional sustainability


  1. Must be ingrained in the planning process

Part II - Programme Design

SW approach -- Notes from an exercise

  1. Got the money
  2. bring together the key groups:
    1. Community
    2. Radio
    3. Health groups

Key points:

  1. Health is not a bio-medical issue
    1. 13 million people & 75 doctors
  1. Behaviour change is as much a societal issue as
  1. Reasons for maternal mortality
    1. Hemmorrage
    2. Infection
    3. Obstructed labour
  2. They can all be addressed by visits to clinic and many at home

Issues to do with MH - Get people to brainstorm the ideas

  2. Nutrition
  3. Smoking
  4. Drinking
  5. Family planning
  6. Malaria
  7. Prenatal care
  8. Gender relations
  9. Illiteracy
  10. Poverty
  11. Infrastructure
  12. Information
  13. Safe delivery
  14. Working conditions
  15. Abortion

Focus on nutrition

What are the positive behaviours?

  1. Eating balanced meal
  2. Having enough good food
  3. Washing hands
  4. Extra food for pregnant women
  5. Clean drinking water
  6. Nurses giving information on healthy foods

What are the negative behaviours?

  1. Not eating good food
  2. Eating only nsima (maize) (fast food)
  3. Not giving women what they need

What are the benefits of positive behaviour?

  1. Healthy mother, healthy baby
  2. Women are well informed

What are the consequences of negative behaviour?

  1. (poor nutition) Maternal death
  2. Low birth weight
  3. (smoking and drinking)
    1. uses us family income (consequence: poverty)
    2. impact on baby

What things will help positive actions

  1. informing women on consequences (informed decisions)
  2. public policy
  3. substitutions
  4. emotional support

Gender relations: (never split by men/women)(or in cases with healthworkers, about good or bad HCWs)

Negative behaviour (consequences)

  1. domestic violence (suicide, miscarriage)
  2. men not involved / excluded (withdrawal)
  3. forced sex (trauma, unwanted pregnancy, STIs)
  4. women denied access money, mobility
  5. women lack decision making power (women feeling inferior, do not to take responsibility, dependence; community is missing half the inputs & loses out)
  6. men refuse to wear condoms
  7. lack of capacity development
  8. women being submissive
  9. preference for boys (girls discriminated against)
  10. early pregnancy (maternal death; emotional consequences: young girls not ready to parents)

Positive behaviour (benefits)

  1. Men and women sharing responsibilities for pregnancy & parenting (healthy families, good parenting)
  2. Special care: resting and eating well (healthy mothers, healthy babies)

Notes: Takes days because you go through all, add more issues, etc.)

Issues: How do you get health care workers on board and agree to the process

Pre-natal care

Negative behaviour (consequences)

  1. Nurses yelling at pregnant women (women not going back)
  2. Long cues/clinics closed
  3. Health staff drunk
  4. People believing myths (poor healthcare, risky decisions)
  5. System does not provide adequate care
  6. Women going to late to clinic
  7. Nurses underpaid, undervalued, overworked

Positive behaviour

  1. Nurses being supportive (esp. young people), non-judgement
  2. Men supporting clinic visits
  3. Couple testing for HIV
  4. Good counselling

Create characters and stories based on the behaviours The stories are almost written in the process

  1. Good
  2. Bad -- one eating only nzima, storing food badly, etc.
  3. Swing

Other benefits:

  • Also a way to gauge the community dynamics...
  • A way to get the content out of a group, start the process
  • Yields a key product (put it on the wall of the studio)
  • Also a key process


  • Stay close to people's lives
  • Get back to what is happening and what people are doing
  • Trained the radio makers on how to deal with conflict, e.g. child died and hospital blamed; how to deal with the conflict


  • How do you do this in a resource-poor community?
    • Get individuals in the radio trained to run the process
    • Can the radio do it in the course of their work?

Introduce the formats

  • Drama
  • Magazine


  • Interviews (including handing issues sensitively)

Part III - Programme Development

Media channels

  • Radio (also room for television)
  • Radio is cheap but it still costs
  • The higher production values, the higher the cost

Example: Jet-FM

  • Magazine
  • Multimedia: newsletter,
  • Opportunities for web-based convergence; it's attractive

Popular arts

  • Music
    • Traditional fork forms, pop songs
  • Visual
  • Drama & storytelling
    • Popular, esp. comedy
    • Street, community, popular

How do you strike a balance between entertainment and education?

  • The programme cannot be entertaining enough
  • How much do they engage with the programme? There is a proven correlation between what is engaging and recall

Problem: Try to teach everybody everything at the same time Risk: People enjoy but drop the message

Be entertaining not to provide entertainment - edutainment; the format needs to be entertaining

Also important to draw people in with entertainment

Engagement comes when the audience identifies with the content... How do you do this?

  • Narrowcast
  • Entertaining formats
  • Give people content they need as (registered) learners

Example: [|Soul City]

  • It's all research based, perhaps similar to Story Workshop
  • It's expensive

Context/audience specific: what type of education is it?

  • Formal
  • Non-formal
  • Informal

You cannot use all formats for all purposes, e.g. tabloids are not taken seriously; some soaps are considered frivolous What vehicle works for what target group?