Community Media/CLP/PartI Part I - Participatory planning
Part I - Participatory planning
- Put a system in place and evaluate it…
- Is there such a thing as bottom up planning?
- When do you contact the community? When you have the money? Or after?
- You must start with a felt need
- Establish a strategic direction (compass)
- Want to see something coming out based on local needs, but also in line with “donor” needs so that you can get funding; challenge to achieve the balance
- COL has priorities but we don’t tell what to do
- Align with frameworks, stakeholders, other groups, e.g. nat’l AIDS policy, national and local organisations who are working in teh same area
- The needs will be identified: tech is there and applications are identified
- Is there an unmet need?
- What is it?
Finding resources and making the programme sustainable
- How will it be sustainable?
- Variable sustainability
- Mchinji is funded by the DHO
- Palpa was funded voluntarily by the teachers and then the radio itself; the idea was mooted to raise funds from parents
- Science for Women (India) was funded by the Ministry; can the stations step in and fund it?
- Variable sustainability
- What is meant by sustainability
- SEE LINKS
- None of SW's programmes are free - are they unsustainable? SW's programmes are NOT planned to be ongoing; in many instances two years is enough
- Social and institutional sustainability
- Must be ingrained in the planning process
Part II - Programme Design
SW approach -- Notes from an exercise
- Got the money
- bring together the key groups:
- Health groups
- Health is not a bio-medical issue
- 13 million people & 75 doctors
- Behaviour change is as much a societal issue as
- Reasons for maternal mortality
- Obstructed labour
- They can all be addressed by visits to clinic and many at home
Issues to do with MH - Get people to brainstorm the ideas
- Family planning
- Prenatal care
- Gender relations
- Safe delivery
- Working conditions
Focus on nutrition
What are the positive behaviours?
- Eating balanced meal
- Having enough good food
- Washing hands
- Extra food for pregnant women
- Clean drinking water
- Nurses giving information on healthy foods
What are the negative behaviours?
- Not eating good food
- Eating only nsima (maize) (fast food)
- Not giving women what they need
What are the benefits of positive behaviour?
- Healthy mother, healthy baby
- Women are well informed
What are the consequences of negative behaviour?
- (poor nutition) Maternal death
- Low birth weight
- (smoking and drinking)
- uses us family income (consequence: poverty)
- impact on baby
What things will help positive actions
- informing women on consequences (informed decisions)
- public policy
- emotional support
Gender relations: (never split by men/women)(or in cases with healthworkers, about good or bad HCWs)
Negative behaviour (consequences)
- domestic violence (suicide, miscarriage)
- men not involved / excluded (withdrawal)
- forced sex (trauma, unwanted pregnancy, STIs)
- women denied access money, mobility
- women lack decision making power (women feeling inferior, do not to take responsibility, dependence; community is missing half the inputs & loses out)
- men refuse to wear condoms
- lack of capacity development
- women being submissive
- preference for boys (girls discriminated against)
- early pregnancy (maternal death; emotional consequences: young girls not ready to parents)
Positive behaviour (benefits)
- Men and women sharing responsibilities for pregnancy & parenting (healthy families, good parenting)
- Special care: resting and eating well (healthy mothers, healthy babies)
Notes: Takes days because you go through all, add more issues, etc.)
Issues: How do you get health care workers on board and agree to the process
Negative behaviour (consequences)
- Nurses yelling at pregnant women (women not going back)
- Long cues/clinics closed
- Health staff drunk
- People believing myths (poor healthcare, risky decisions)
- System does not provide adequate care
- Women going to late to clinic
- Nurses underpaid, undervalued, overworked
- Nurses being supportive (esp. young people), non-judgement
- Men supporting clinic visits
- Couple testing for HIV
- Good counselling
Create characters and stories based on the behaviours The stories are almost written in the process
- Bad -- one eating only nzima, storing food badly, etc.
- Also a way to gauge the community dynamics...
- A way to get the content out of a group, start the process
- Yields a key product (put it on the wall of the studio)
- Also a key process
- Stay close to people's lives
- Get back to what is happening and what people are doing
- Trained the radio makers on how to deal with conflict, e.g. child died and hospital blamed; how to deal with the conflict
- How do you do this in a resource-poor community?
- Get individuals in the radio trained to run the process
- Can the radio do it in the course of their work?
Introduce the formats
- Interviews (including handing issues sensitively)
Part III - Programme Development
- Radio (also room for television)
- Radio is cheap but it still costs
- The higher production values, the higher the cost
- Multimedia: newsletter,
- Opportunities for web-based convergence; it's attractive
- Traditional fork forms, pop songs
- Drama & storytelling
- Popular, esp. comedy
- Street, community, popular
How do you strike a balance between entertainment and education?
- The programme cannot be entertaining enough
- How much do they engage with the programme? There is a proven correlation between what is engaging and recall
Problem: Try to teach everybody everything at the same time Risk: People enjoy but drop the message
Be entertaining not to provide entertainment - edutainment; the format needs to be entertaining
Also important to draw people in with entertainment
Engagement comes when the audience identifies with the content... How do you do this?
- Entertaining formats
- Give people content they need as (registered) learners
Example: [www.soulcity.org.za|Soul City]
- It's all research based, perhaps similar to Story Workshop
- It's expensive
Context/audience specific: what type of education is it?
You cannot use all formats for all purposes, e.g. tabloids are not taken seriously; some soaps are considered frivolous What vehicle works for what target group?