WikiEducator:Collections/HOLISTIC MANAGEMENT EDUCATION
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Biofuel, specifically biodiesel, enjoys a holistic cycle. Sun, soil and water produces biomass, both vegetable and animal. Oils are extracted from these crops at various stages of post-harvest. The oils are used in kitchens or are produced from animal fats in the kitchen, then recycled. The waste oils are then transesterified into biodiesel by the addition of ethanol (from crops) and sodium hydroxide (mineral). This biodiesel is then consumed by the farmer and rancher to power equipment and vehicles and for heating and cooling. These tools are used in the production of the aforementioned crops. The co-product, glycerol, can be used as a dust palliative or as feedstock for the production of hydrogen which is a useful energy source.
2.THE HOLISTIC WHOLE.
2.1. Misallocation of resources:
2.1.1.Currently, most fossil fuels are finite and not recyclable. Sixty percent of our fossil fuels are imported. The assets, namely the land and water resources, have no opportunity to contribute to the rebuilding or recycling of the source of this fossil fuel.
2.1.2.Conversely, the biodiesel does contribute to the recycling in several ways. It can be used directly on the farm as aforesaid. It can also be used as a lubricant. The resulting “cake” which comes from crushing of oil seeds can be used as animal feed, which further powers the creation and use of waste oil. Waste oil used for biodiesel does not go to the land fill or to cosmetics or for use as bunker fuel for ocean-going ships.
The tool-set needed for this project include:
2.2.1.Science. The science input is the knowledge of transesterification of long chain carbohydrates into short chain molecules. Additional chemical engineering is needed to design the plant and to evaluate the efficiencies. Chemistry is also needed to run the analytical quality tests. Montana Department of Environmental Quality requires information to be provided by both the chemist and the chemical engineer who describe the process, the chemicals, and the equipment involved. ASTM D6751.03 tests will need to be run on batches for B100 biodiesel if they are to be sold to on road users.
2.2.2.Fabrication. The refinery needs to be designed by competent engineers and built by competent mechanics in a cost efficient manner. Start-up, run, monitoring is needed. A location should be chosen and grounds and buildings prepared for the facility.
2.2.3.Production. Production will require sources of feedstock, which will primarily be waste kitchen oils and greases.
2.2.4.Distribution. The product will need to be distributed in containers suitable for local sales.
2.2.5.Marketing and Sales. Marketing can by fliers as well as website e commerce. Sales will be mostly bulk, with red dye and sold to off-road users to avoid ASTM testing standards.
2.2.6.Regulations. Other than MT DEQ, other regulatory bodies will need to be contact, including US DOT, MT DOT, IRS,
2.2.7.Banking. Banking will be done by a community credit union.
2.2.8.Testing Enterprise testing will be done by a combination of consultants, testing laboratories and risk management consultants.
2.3. Management Management must be structure in accordance with the business plan for Green Oxy Fuels, LLP, a limited liability partnership which will be embedded in Mutual Aid Society of America. Legal, accounting, insurance, risk management, IT and other major overhead services will be rendered by MASA. Extensive papers describe the organization, governance and management of these organizations.
3.QUALITY OF LIFE
The model upon which the quality of life will be based in the physical world will be patterned upon Mutual Aid Society of America (MASA). The model for social organization is MASA’s Social Council in cooperation with community organizations and individuals and families. Basically the communitarian approach supplements the extended family where this is one or fills the void where an individual has little or no extended family. Examination of the social glue and mindsets of the members will be an on-going process with the goal of attaining a peaceful, productive and profitable set of organizations based on the MASA model. 4.THE HOLISTIC CYCLE
Statement of Purpose: To develop a biodiesel co-op where B99 can be made then sold for use in off-road vehicles. To spread awareness on alternative fuel sources, help other communities develop their own co-op, and develop a template for future interest groups to use for the production of biodiesel.
4.1.Sustainability Crisis: Industrial humans have chosen to live outside of environmental constraints, creating a sustainability crisis that needs immediate attention. One of the major onsets of this is our dependency on non-renewable resources that damage the environment. A step in the correct direction is looking for other renewable resources that promote a healthy environment such as solar power, wind power, and biodiesel.
4.2.Biodiesel: Biodiesel is a renewable fuel source that is produced by the transesterification of vegetable and animal oils. It is a safe and easy process that anyone can do with the right tools. Description of how it is done.
4.3. Advantages Over Petroleum: Biodiesel is renewable, and less damaging to the environment. It runs cleaner and produces less harmful emissions including CO2. In addition it is better for your engine.
Biofuel, specifically biodiesel, enjoys a holistic cycle. Sun, soil and water produces biomass, both vegetable and animal. Oils are extracted from these crops at various stages of post-harvest. The oils are used in kitchens or are produced from animal fats in the kitchen, then recycled. The waste oils are then transtesterified into biodiesel by addition of ethanol (from crops) and sodium hydroxide (mineral). This biodiesel is then consumed by the farmer and rancher to power equipment and vehicles and for heating and cooling. These tools are used in the production of the aforementioned crops. The co-product, glycerol, can be used as a dust palliative or as feedstock for the production of hydrogen which is useful energy. Currently, most fossil fuels are finite and not recyclable. Sixty percent of our fossil fuels are imported. The assets, namely the land and water resources, have no opportunity to contribute to the rebuilding or recycling of the source of this fossil fuel. Conversely, biodiesel does contribute to the recycling in several ways. It can be used directly on the farm as aforesaid. It can also be used as a lubricant. The resulting “cake” which comes from crushing of oil seeds can be used as animal feed, which is high in Omega-III oils. Animal feed further powers the creation and use of waste oil. Waste oil used for biodiesel does not go to the land fill or to cosmetics or for use as bunker fuel for ocean-going ships.
5.1.The process of making biodiesel from vegetable oil is called transesterification. Transesterification removes the glycerol from the triglyceride. The compound has three esters attached to a glycerol molecule, which is removed to make biodiesel. Glycerol is about 20% of the oil (Tickell, pg59). This is the co-product that collects at the bottom of the transesterification reaction. During the reaction the glycerol molecule is replaced with an alcohol molecule. This can be done by either adding methanol (most common) or ethanol in the presence of a catalyst; normally lye (NaOH) or Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). Most people prefer to use methanol because it provides for a more complete reaction. Ethanol is also more sensitive to water in the oil than methanol (Tickell Pg.63). However, because methanol is explosive, is highly toxic and costs more per gallon, many producers prefer the use of ethanol which is not toxic, is cheaper, and has a higher flash point. Handling of methanol requires special equipment (closed container to produce the methoxide), and has a higher level of danger, thus requiring the use of special air filters for human use. Also when methanol is used, all of the electrical connections, conduit, motors and pumps are required to be explosion proof.
5.2.When producing biodiesel from a virgin oil feed stock the chemical ratios are set according to the volume of oil. If you are going to be using waste oil the amount of catalyst (lye or sodium hydroxide) changes but the alcohol amount stays the same. A titration test is needed to determine how much catalyst to use. Waste oil must be highly filtered before use.
5.3.After the titration is performed the methanol is mixed with the catalyst to form the methoxide. These are dangerous chemicals so proper protection is important. For a forty gallon batch of biodiesel, 8 gallons of methanol and the predetermined amount of catalyst are mixed together. A ratio of 1-5 methanol to waste oil is used. If using ethanol a 1-6 ratio is optimal.
5.4.The oil is preheated to 130* F and the methoxide is added to it. The methoxide needs to be mixed for at least an hour to ensure a good reaction takes place (Tickell, pg 80). Then the mixture needs to settle for about 8 hours. After settling the there will be two distinct layers. The top yellowish layer is the biodiesel and the dark bottom layer is the glycerol. The glycerol is drained out of the bottom.
5.5.The next step is to wash the biodiesel. Washing biodiesel is done by slowly running water through the fuel and allowing it to settle out. Joshua Tickell says, "Washing biodiesel is to remove any unreacted methanol, catalyst and glycerol which may be left in the biodiesel after the reaction" (Tickell, pg.70). Some people, including Tickell, think that the wash test is not necessary if synthetic fuel lines have been installed on a car. The alcohol only deteriorates rubber hoses. It is very important to wash the fuel if the engine has not been converted to synthetic hoses (Journey to forever website). An additional consideration is the recovery and reuse of the alcohol component.
6.ACTUAL PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL
(Based on field notes of Jim and Zach's first large Biodiesel Batch with the help of Scott Brown using the Fuel Meister.)
6.1.Perform titration. Measure 10 ml of methanol into small paper cup.
6.2.Dissolve 1 ml of oil sample into methanol
6.3.Slowly add a lye/water mixture (prepared ahead of time by Scott) 1 milliliter at a time. Check PH after every drop until the solution is neutral which is when it changes color to a moderate yellow. The oil solution neutralized after two drops. The formula for calculating the amount of catalyst to be used in the reaction is ( x+3.5)=L. X is the number of lye/H2O drops added. L is the number of grams of lye needed to neutralize and react 1 liter of this particular vegetable oil sample.
6.4.We calculated that 880 grams of lye would need to be used to process a 40 gallon batch. Scott has found that he was not getting a good reaction when he went by the titration results so he only uses 760 grams of lye for his reaction and gets better results.
6.5.Once we figured out how much lye to use we started the process of mixing the lye with the methanol. This was done by slowly hand pumping the methanol through the lye hopper in to the methoxide batch tank. 190 grams of lye were put into the mixing tank and 2 gallons at a time of methanol were slowly pumped in. This was repeated 4 times until 8 gallons of methanol and 760 grams of lye were mixed to form methoxide. We checked for un-reacted lye crystals in the bottom of the tank and there were none. It is important to make sure that all of the lye dissolves in the solution.
6.6.The next step was to pump the preheated oil into the reaction vessel. The oil was preheated to 120 degrees Fahrenheit in a 55 gallon drum with a band heater. The methanol lye solution took us a while and the oil cooled to 110 degrees, but Scott said that it would not affect the reaction too much. We pumped the oil into the large reaction tank using an electric pump installed on the Fuel Meister.
6.7.Next we slowly pumped the methoxide into the oil. The methoxide is added to the oil at about 1-2 gallons per minute to avoid too fast of a reaction. If the methoxide is added too quickly it could produce soap and clog up the lines. The methoxide was successfully added to the oil and the reaction looked good according to Scott.
6.8.Next we switched the ball valves and set the pump to circulate the mixture for an hour to ensure a complete reaction.
6.9.The solution settled overnight and in the morning the glycerol had successfully separated from the biodiesel. We drained the glycerol into buckets and flushed about 8 gallons of it down the toilet.
6.10.The wash water mechanisms were activated and about 5 gallons of water were slowly misted into the biodiesel. The biodiesel and water separated and the water was drained out.
6.11.The finished product is then pumped into 55 gallon drums for storage and transferred into truck tank.
7. HOLISTIC MANAGEMENT MODEL
The “holistic management model” approach assists people with a format for developing a holistic goal and implementing a plan to reach that goal. We decided to use this model to shape our biodiesel holistic goal and how we are going to reach that goal. Figure X shows the holistic management model we plan to utilize.
8.THE WHOLE UNDER MANAGEMENT
8.1. Decision Makers: Our Holistic Biodiesel Group: (Jim Miller, Zach Cayer, Kevin Barnes and Jake Wyles), Green Oxy Fuels, LLP, others who want to be involved (future co-op members), ASTM regulators, MT DEQ, DOT, MT DOT, IRS, and providers of waste stock.
8.2. Resource Base: Existing knowledge on the subject, local hardware store, waste stock, and the media.
8.3.Money: Grant money, money from co-op members, personal funds, biodiesel user's group memberships.
9.THE HOLISTIC GOAL
9.1. Statement of Purpose: To develop a biodiesel co-op where B99 can be made then sold for use in off-road vehicles. To spread awareness on alternative fuel sources, help other communities develop their own co-op, and develop a template for future interest groups to use for the production of biodiesel.
9.2. Quality of Life: Living sustainably to preserve the natural world and resources. To be involved in the community and spreading knowledge on living sustainably. An instance of how quality of life is affected by changing from petrodiesel to biodiesel is illustrated by Jake's report concerning his father's ranch:
Testimonial from a holistic, biodiesel user
By Jake Wyles The use of biodiesel can be very helpful in the rite circumstance. My family owns and runs an organic apple orchard; the use of biodiesel in the orchard could be very useful. The biodiesel could be made out of our barn and put to use in several different functions, such as in the tractors, wind machines and the pump house. The money that would be saved by making our own diesel could be put to use in several different areas. We are running about forty acres of organic orchard just by our house which uses about two thousand gallons of diesel per year for the pump house, the tractors, and the wind machines. Two thousand gallons of diesel fuel equals about six thousand dollars per year, at best, if diesel is three dollars per gallon. In Washington it is about three twenty-five per gallon. If the diesel is made by hand at our barn it would cost about eighty cents per gallon. That is knocking the cost of just fuel down a considerable amount to about sixteen hundred dollars including labor costs. That saves four thousand four hundred dollars per year in fuel costs there are many different things the grower could spend that money on. They could pay the help a lot more than they do so now the money could go into savings for the rainy years when farming is going down the tube.
It is not only the money savings that is huge when using biodiesel, but the organic fruit is now even more so organic then it was before the biodiesel does not produce all the air toxins that petrodiesel produces. With this holistic approach, the fruit could become more marketable to the rite buyers. It might even create its own market, truly organic fruit. These cost savings are huge on just a small forty acre farm the organic farms that are hundreds of acres those guy would be saving hundreds of thousands of dollars on just off road biodiesel use. As you can see the use of biodiesel on just off-road use can save millions of dollars for farmers all that money that is being saved instead of going to an offshore account and out of our economy could stay in the economy.Italic text 9.3.Forms of Production: Use existing knowledge and experiences to our advantage to build a processor, a testing kit, and a community based organization in the most holistic manner. Receive waste stock vegetable oil from local restaurants. Use media to spread the good word. Work within set regulations. Use local banking.' 10.ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES
10.1.Community Dynamics: The production and utilization of biodiesel is far less detrimental to the environment than that of petroleum. Our model will actual create a circle of sustainability, where machines will run on the same product they are producing in an environmentally manner (i.e.; less emissions). This will promote a healthy living in Bozeman and promote a healthy environment. In addition, biodiesel residence time is very short compared to petrodiesel. Biodiesel has a half-life of about two weeks, while petrodiesel probably in the range of 80 years or more. In conclusion biodiesel promotes a healthy community dynamic.
10.2.Water Cycle: The production and use of biodiesel promotes a healthy water cycle since it is less environmentally damaging. The only negative impact would be using too much water for irrigation.
10.3.Mineral Cycle: biodiesel is a renewable energy source and mineral cycle is not adversely affected. To an extent, biodiesel is a direct replacement of petrifies, therefore we would be extending the life/availability of fossil fuel, thus affecting the mineral cycle.
10.4.Energy Flow: Having tractors that run on the same product they are harvesting creates a circular energy flow that promotes a healthy environment.
11.1. Cause and Effect (C &E): does this action address the root cause of the problem? Our country exists in a paradigm where we are reliant on oil, a non-renewable resource that is damaging to the environment. Our government acts in a shortsighted manner by continuing to throw money at its extraction, instead of funding a more renewable and environmentally friendly resource. Our group is taking a step in the right direction by trying to create a paradigm shift away from oil and towards biodiesel. We are raising awareness of this more renewable and environmentally friendly resource and also getting community members involved in the actual process of making and using biodiesel. Although biodiesel may not be feasible for the whole country to switch too it is a step towards a better, more holistic future.
11.2. Weak Link (WL)
11.2.1.Social: could this action, due to prevailing attitudes or beliefs create a weak link in the chain of actions leading toward your holistic goal? Although some people are strict advocates of oil, the majority of people know that our oil consumption habits need to change; the resource is running out is harmful to the environment. This attitude is what has fostered a shift toward looking for a more renewable and environmentally friendly options. We will try to focus this feeling of change on biodiesel and show people that alternative resources are possible and do work.
11.2.2.Biological: Does this action address the weakest point in the life cycle of this organism? Although it isn’t possible for everyone to switch to biodiesel (the shear acreage would be outstanding), it is possible for people to use it on a small scale; community based. Excess veggie oil can be used to run tractors to cultivate exactly what it is using. This comes full circle to return what we are using to the land. In addition, although producing enough vegetable oil to take petroleum’s place isn’t too feasible, algae is a new and promising approach. Algae can produce more biodiesel and use less land to do it.
11.2.3.Financial: does this action strengthen the weakest link in the chain of production? Although it is may be expensive to get started with biodiesel production (making the processor and testing), in the long term it has far greater return; it will give people a chance to use a renewable resource that doesn’t harm the environment, and the stock veggie oil is free so the cost of the actual oil is small.
11.3.Marginal Reaction (MR): Which action provides the greatest return, in terms of your holistic goal, for the time and money spent? Fostering a paradigm shift away from a damaging habit; oil consumption.
11.4.Gross profit Analysis (GPA): Which enterprises contribute the most to covering the overheads of the business? The free stock veggie oil and the co-op member fees will be the greatest return of money to cover the overheads.
11.5. Energy/Money Sources and Use (E/MS&U): Is the energy or money to be used in this action derived from the most appropriate source in terms of your holistic goal? Will the way in which the energy is to be used lead toward your holistic goal? Yes, we are recycling something to make a clean fuel. This promotes a healthy holistic life style, which we all want and deserve.
11.6. Sustainability (Sus): If you take this action, will it lead toward or away from the future resource base described in your holistic goal? This will most definitely lead toward our future resource base. The co-op will be self-sustaining and it gives so much back to the land; it takes something once considered waste and uses it to foster a clean, sustainable, and productive environment, not to mention a shift away from something more harmful.
11.7.Society and Culture (S&C): How do you feel about this action now? Will it lead to the quality of life you desire? Will it adversely affect the lives of others? Apart from using a waste to recreate it’s original form, and helping off-road vehicles run on a more sustainable resource, I think that it will lead to people believing in alternative resources and actively trying to pursue them and make a change. It promotes a community with a greater understanding and desire for that change. It also develops a mindset that waste can be recycled in a clean and productive way. It adds to people's quality of life because they will be directly involved in their energy production
List of tools to run through testing guidelines:
12.1. Knowledge on the Subject : Publications, Internet, Experts
12.2. Processor: Buy a Processor, Build a Processor
12.2.2.Build- (Parts) Junkyard, Hardware Store, Donations, (Tools) Hardware Store, Own Collection, Help from Friends
12.3. Vegetable Oil: Waste Stock from Restaurants, Buy from Retail Store Chemicals (methanol and lye): Chemical distributor
12.4. Testing Kit: Buy from Retailer, Collaboration with University
12.5. Transporters for Distribution: Trailer and Tank Retailer
12.6. Outlet for Glycerol Waste: Soap Production, Dust Palliative,compost.
12.7.Marketing: Local Newspapers, Internet, Flyers, and Pamphlets
12.8.To Help Keep Safe and Legal: DEQ, ASTM, DOT, and IRS
12.9.Financial: Start Up Capitol from Loans/Grants/Members/Donations/Fund Raisers, Local Bank for Co-op Savings Account
12.10.Testing matrix Satisfies Testing Guideline: O Does Not Satisfies Testing Guideline: X
[Jim's Notes: The following endnotes did not carry over from MS Word 2007 xp to the Wikiformat. We have some nice photos which did not display.]
C & E WL MR GPA E/MS&U Sus S&C Publications O O O O O O O Internet O O O O O O O Experts O O O O O O O Junkyard O O O O O O O Hardware Store (parts) O X X X O O O Own Tools O O O O O O O Friends Tools O O O O O O O Hardware Store (tools) O X X X O O O Restaurants (oil) O O O O O O O Retailer (oil) O X X X X X X Hardware Store (chemicals) O X O X O O O Retailer (Test Kit) O X X X O O X University (Test Kit) O O O O O O O Retailer (Tanks) O X O X O O O Retailer (Trailer) O X O X O O O Soap O X X O O O O Dust Palliative O O O O O O O Newspaper O O O O O O O Flyers O O O O O O O Pamphlets O O O O O O O DEQ O O O O O O O ASTM O O O O O O O DOT O O O O O O O IRS O O O O O O O Loans O X X X O X X Grants O O O O O O O
13. TOOLS Tools to be used after going through testing guidelines: Publications, Internet, Experts, Junkyard, Hardware Store (parts), Own Tools, Friends Tools, Restaurants (oil), Hardware Store (chemicals), University, (Test Kit), Retailer (Tanks), Retailer (Trailer), Soap, Dust Palliative, Newspaper, Flyers, Pamphlets, DEQ, ASTM, DOT, IRS, Grants, Membership Fees, Donations, Fund Raises, and a Savings Account.
14. The Holistic Biodiesel Collaborative Group The members of the LRES 421 Holistic Biodiesel Collaborative Group are: Kevin Barnes, Zach Cayer, Jim Miller and Zak Wyles. We collaborated through the use of text, emails, group meetings and one on one discussions. We set a common meeting place in the Union Market, SUB, at which station, Jim frequently maintained a computer, Internet connection and a copier/scanner/printer. This collaborative project was both a physical and an intellectual challenge. The project took-on interscholastic emphasis with Zach completing a capstone project on the much wider issues of biodiesel in our economy and society. Jim and Zach, along with Scott Brown, formed Green Oxy Fuels, LLP and commenced small scale production of biodiesel fuel in a garage in Belgrade, using the Fuelmiester system purchased by Scott. Thus we not only have some technology transfer but the project also sparked the creation of a small business. Jake's testimonial further pins down the long term effect of changing from petrodiesel to biodiesel for a more holistic approach to orchard production. Kevin made a major contribution to the paper by closely tracking the Savory lessons and applying them to holistic biodiesel production.
Respectfully submitted by the Holistic Biodiesel Collaborative Grou
Kevin Barnes Zach Cayer Jim Miller Jake Wyles May 3, 2006
Contact information: email@example.com