User talk:Prof. Sanjaya

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                             Dr. S.K.Das'
                    NIMS UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR, Rajasthan

Brief outline of the Manual Alike ours, dual mode universities often brush up knowledge and skills of academic staff and faculty on various aspects of the university. One of the potent aspects is the distance education which is at the core of educational entrepreneurial activities. Distance education promotes lifelong and continuing education and demands for a set of unique skills and competencies among academia. Such competencies range from course designing to material development, counselling to promotion. Course material is found to be central to all support services rendered by Open and Distance Learning Institutions. Developing course material on the self-learning format is the mission of this manual which is expected to serve its very purpose in generating basic understanding among the academia involved in distance education.

CONTENTS 1. Introduction to Self Learning Material Development 2. Learning Outcomes 3. Significance of Self-Learning Material in ODLIs 3. Steps in Course Material Development 4. Thumb rules on Course Material Development 5. Course Development Team

1. Introduction to Self-Learning Material Development Assumptions are often made about educators on dual mode universities that they possess pre-requisite knowledge and skills relating to the open and distance education. With the back ground of these assumptions, attempt has been made to generate certain scientific understanding on the significance of course material development in Open and Distance Learning Institutions (ODLIs). Course materials serve the basis for the foundation of instructional processes in distance education programmes. Distance learners have limited sources for learning in open and distance education. Despite of their presence away from ODL institutions, learners approach with high level of self-confidence and self-determination to pursue desired programmes or courses with the support of study material (provided by the ODLIs). The trend analysis (Das, 2012) on the status of course delivery at ODLIs revealed that course materials (print media based) in standardised format continues to be at the core of academic support services offered by open and distance education system. Print based course material serves as the primary and fundamental academic support provided by the institutions. 2. Learning Outcomes This manual will enable educators and prospective distance educators to • explain significance of course material development in open and distance education; • follow various steps in order to develop course materials for D.E. programmes; • abide by the rules of material development; and • develop and format course material on a specified unit relating to any discipline of their own interest. 3. Significance Course material development activities signify its relevance and essence at the core of all academic support services rendered by ODLIs. Significance may be discussed in terms of various issues. The foremost issue is the connotations used for distance. Distance education, by its unique in-built structure, attracts the attention of experienced potential adult learners who are self-motivated to pursue the programme at a distance. If attempt is made to define distance education in absolute terms then distance signifies geographical distance just beyond the boundary walls of ODLIs to any corner of the universe. The second issue is pertaining to the potential and unique profile of distance learners. It is well noticed that most of NIMS distance learners pursue certain courses/programmes while they are engaged with some form of vocations. The profile indicates that distance learners are either adults or young adults. Such heterogeneity in terms of age, experiences, localities and learning styles among distance learners brings number of challenges to the present discourse on instructional pedagogical strategies. Instructional pedagogical strategies are derived from theories of learning and instructions which essentially becomes the basis on which instructional designs are selected and applied to course contents while writing and formatting the course materials. Following underlying assumptions may be useful in understanding the significance of CMD (Course Material Development). 4. Steps in Course Material Development Course material development in any conventional and non-conventional modes of education is the sole responsibilities of the academic staff either directly or indirectly involved in the academic delivery process. Course material development (exclusively in conventional mode) includes a number of steps that are to be followed upon. 1. Deciding the courses/subjects within a programme and drawing the outline of the each course. 2. Formulating Instructional Objectives (I.Os) in behavioural terms on each of the course based upon the course outlines. I.Os serves the basis for which Expected Learning Outcomes (E.L.Os) are assessed. 3. Drawing the structure of the write ups or outlining the write ups relating to course contents. 4. Conventional form of writing course contents includes introduction, explanations and definitions of major concepts, brief discussion on minor concepts, summary and references. 5. Preparing the first draft of course content writings. 6. Editing the write ups in terms of sequence, coherence between paragraphs, level of language, length and breadth of the discussions/explanations, and style of content presentation. 7. The edited version of first draft is submitted for content editing. 8. Language editing 9. Submitting content edited form for printing and publishing.

It is universally acknowledged that course material in self-learning format is essentially “the text based teaching or teacher in print.” It means that the entire deliberations and activities carried out by the teachers (in a face-to-face mode) in a particular unit or sub-unit of a course are to be presented in such a way that learners are able to attain the expected learning outcomes (E.L.Os). Self-learning materials are defined as the text based materials that are instructionally designed (in agreement with the principles of teaching – learning and application of instructional strategies) to facilitate the process of learning acquisition among learners and ensure the attainment of mastery learning (Das, 2012). SLMs are found in a variety of forms, but all of them, in principle, are designed with a set of learning theories and instructional strategies. SLMs are prepared and branded by the ODLIs at their institutional level depending upon the academic policies and regulations. The universally accepted models of the UKOU and IGNOU are the bench marking models on SLMs. Since SLMs are based upon the instructional designs, it has its own structure and style of formatting. The formats* (unit based) used by the UKOU and the IGNOU are given below as exemplary.

_________________________________________________________________________________ SLM format of the IGNOU _________________________________________________________________________________

                                 UNIT 2  UNIT DESIGN
                                  2.0 Objectives
                                  2.1 Introduction
                                  2.2 Key Terms Used in a Distance Education Text
                                      2.2.1 Aims and objectives
                                      2.2.2 Units
                                      2.2.3 Assessment Questions
                                      2.2.4 Essential and Recommended  Texts/further readings
                                  2.3 Key feature of a unit
                                      2.3.1 Beginning a unit
                                      2.3.2 The Body of a unit
                                      2.3.3 Ending a unit
                                 2.4 Different Kinds of self-learning Texts
                                     2.4.1 Teach-yourself books
                                     2.4.2 Manuals and handbooks
                                     2.4.3 Programmed Instruction
                                     2.4.4 Open learning materials
                                     2.4.5 Correspondence units
                                     2.4.6 Study guides/Wrap-up materials
                                     2.4.7 Distance education units
                                2.5 Let Us Sum Up


Source: PGDDE, ES-312, Block 2, UNIT 2, IGNOU, New Delhi.

_____________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

                                    SLM format of the UKOU


                                         Unit 15
                                         The mechanics of an electric lift
                                         Aims                                                  4
                                         Introduction                                      5
                                         1. Electric lifts                                   6
                                         2. Lift Kinematics                              7
                                         3. Lift structure                                  13
                                         4. Buffer dynamics                             19
                                         5. Haulage dynamics                          22
                                         6. Conclusion                                      28
                                            References                                       28 
                                            Date sheet                                       29

____________________________________________________ (Courtesy: PM752A, OU Course, Block 9, Unit 15) _____________________________________________________

  • Source: P.R.Ramanujam ( 2003) STRIDE (Revised) Handbook 6 “ Editing in Distance Education” New Delhi: IGNOU.(p.31)

__________________________________________________________________________________ At NIMS, in pursuance with the academic guidelines for distance programmes, the development of course material in the form of SLMs include following steps: 1. The course writers are expected to follow the steps of conventional style of writing till they prepare the first draft. 2. Structuring the first draft (as per specified format given in page 10) 3. Customizing with relevant instructional design(s) 4. Editing of the customized first draft by instructional designer or educational technologist 5. Content editing by the expert 6. Language editing 7. Printing and Publication

                               4.1 Activities on Outlining the Course

Activity-4.1.1: Read and Compare the Course outlines narrated below.

Course Outline : Example-1 You have read earlier that education being a discipline has its origin in five major branches of knowledge. We have already generated understanding on three branches, i.e., philosophy, sociology, and economy. The fourth one is the technology which has salutary effects on teaching and learning. Since communication is at the core of all educational endeavour, technology in education, and technology of education is essential for the prospective teachers at the higher education stage. The present course is therefore titled as ICT in Higher Education. [84 words]

Course Outline: Example-2 The present course is known as ICT in Higher Education. Various forms of communication and information processing technologies have been significantly influencing the entire education system right from elementary to tertiary level of education. And because of technological influence and interventions learning and education has become the cup of everybody. It is desired that teachers at higher education level should have basic insights on technology of education and technology in education. [71words]

Course Outline: Example-3 The present course demands the utmost application of relevant and adequate information and communication technologies in teaching and learning at higher education institutions. Emerging technologies in education and technology of education are major aspects of current discourse on ICT in Higher Education. [42 words]

Activity-4.1.2: Which one you find suitable and why?

                                    4.2 Activities on Formulating Instructional Objectives

Activity-4.2.1: Prepare a list of all types of behaviour that can be modified through training and instruction.


Activity-4.2.2: Identify those behaviours which can be measured in any standardised manner.

1------------------------------ 2-------------------------- 3---------------------------------- 4-------------------------------------

Activity-4.2.3: Examine the taxonomy (Bloom’s taxonomy of Educational Objectives ) given below.


Cognitive---------Thought Processes(Knowledge, Understanding,Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation)

Affective---------Feeling and attitude

Psycho motor------Actions

Following terminologies* are to be used while writing objectives: 1. Declarative or descriptive verbs—define, describe, explain, write, name, list, state 2. Discriminative verbs—compare, differentiate, identify, distinguish, summarise, outline 3. Motor performance verbs—drive, type, draw, measure, name, outline ________________________________________________

  • Source: STRIDE Handbook-5(2008), IGNOU


Activity-4.2.4: Decide the relative importance or weight of each of above cited three domains.

For example, in the course titled “ICT in Higher Education” is re-written depending upon their relative weight. Cognitive (Weight=30%) Affective (Weight=30%) Psycho motor (Weight=40%) Activity-4.2.5: Study the both sets of objectives written below. Set-I: Students will be able to— 1. state the meaning of ICT in Higher Education; 2. understand the meaning of technology in education; 3. feel the difference between “technology in education” and “technology of education”; and 4. utilize the gained knowledge in teaching.


Students will be able to— 1. define ICT in Higher Education; 2. appreciate the role and significance of ICT in teaching and learning; 3. differentiate between “technology in education” and “technology of education”; and 4. apply various types of technologies regularly in classroom teaching

Activity-4.2.6: Which one is the appropriate set of objectives and why?

_______________________________________________ Check your views across following tips on Objectives: _______________________________________________ 1. Is the behaviour focussed in each objective (mentioned above) being mentioned in measurable term? Can the behaviour be measured objectively through any standard techniques? 2. Are objectives achievable in the context of teaching-learning hours? 3. Do they cover entire course contents? 4. Are they meaningfully and lucidly written? 5. Do they serve the purpose for which they are being formulated?

                                       4.3 Activities on Writing Structure of Unit*
                               Introduction to Distance Education & Evolution of Open and Distance Learning
                                                 1.0 Outline of the Course
                                                 1.1 Instructional Objectives
                                                 1.2 Introduction
                                                 1.3 Education and Human Development
                                                 1.4 Challenges before Education System
                                                 1.5 Typology of Education
                                                 1.6 Various forms of Non-conventional Education
                                                     1.6.1 Home schooling
                                                     1.6.2 De-schooling 
                                                     1.6.3 Correspondence Education
                                                     1.6.4 Distance Education
                                                     1.6.5 Open and Distance Education
                                                 1.7 Current trends and Futurology of Distance Education
                                                     1.7.1 Global trends
                                                     1.7.2 Regional trends
                                                     1.7.3 Futurology
                                                 1.8 Summary
                                                 1.9 Checklist on Learning Outcomes
                                                 1.10 References and Suggested Readings 


  • Source: Das, S. K. (2012) Handbook on ODE for Educators. Japiur: NIMS University


                                                   4.4 Activities on Writing Introduction

Activity 4.4.1: Read the introduction portion of any text of your choice and respond to the below given checklist S. No. Features of Introduction Response Very Significantly Significantly Undecided 1. Does introduction establish a linkage or kinship between

       to-be-learned and already learned concepts?			

2. Does introduction is written on the principles of interest

       arousal and learning activeness?			

3. Does guidance support mechanisms are in-built in introduction? 4. Does introduction self-contained? 5. Does introduction lead leaner towards progressive learning?

                                                   4.5 Activities on Content Organisation 

Content organisation refers to the process of organising the presentations on the written contents of the course. Content organisation plays significant role in the activities relating to writing the course outline and introduction to the course and as well as in instructional design.

Activity 4.5.1: Why do you think that linkages between to-be-learned and already learned concepts are to be established while doing the activities on course outline and introduction?

Activity 4.5.2: Why do you think that contents of a unit are to be presented in structure form?

Activity 4.5.3: Do you find following seven considerations* are relevant and important in content organisation? If yes, why do you assume so? Cosideration-1: Small steps Cosideration-2: Logical arrangements (continuity and consistency) Cosideration-3: Ordering the content

                            3.1: known to unknown
                            3.2: simple to complex 
                            3.3: concrete to abstract
                            3.4: particular to general
                            3.5: actual to representative   

Cosideration-4: Personalized style (Addressing the learner within text) Cosideration-5: Language (Lucidity and at par level of students) Cosideration-6: Illustrations (attractive, meaningful, contained) Cosideration-7: Assessment (self-directed and application oriented) ______________________________________________

  • Source: STRIDE Handbook-5(2008), IGNOU


Activity 4.5.4: Why do you find pictures, graphs, diagrams are important in presenting the content?

Activity 4.5.5: How do you recommend improving content organisation?

______________________________________________________________ 5. Thumb rules on Course Material Development ______________________________________________________________ • Writing involves articulation, presentation and explanation of ideas and concepts depending upon the level of creativity and imagination of the course writer. No C-C-P (cut-copy-paste) work and no plagiarism. It should be the original and genuine writing of the author. • Do acknowledge all the documents either referred or cross referred • Type and size of fonts are to be used as per given specifications. • Uniformity is to be maintained across all units in a block and all blocks in a programme. • Knowledge on formulating behavioural objectives (especially Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives) is essential for the course writer. • Implications of various learning theories on instruction are essential competencies of the course writer. • Understanding instructional designs and selecting appropriately is a must for all course writers. • Make the writing interactive( address the learner within text) • No one way is recommended for course writing and formatting. • Each of the sub units of a unit is to be ended with self-engaged activities. • Length of the unit write- ups depends upon the quantum of hours in approximation is required for learner (termed at NIMS as Engaged Learning Hours) for achieving mastery learning. • It is not a book rather course material where attempt is be made on the prior experience of learners. • Small and sizeable sentences are to be written. • More use of active voices than passive ones. • Writing should be clear, comprehensible and holistic. ___________________________________________________________ 6. Team responsible for Course Development ____________________________________________________________ Course development team comprises of following expert members who are drawn from various branches of knowledge. 1. Course Team Chairperson 2. Course Writers/authors 3. Instructional Designers (Educational Technologists)

4. Media person

5. Editors (content and language) 6. Graphic Expert 7. DTP Operators ______________________________________________________________ References: ______________________________________________________________ 1. Ramanujam, P.R.(2003). Editing in Distance Education [STRIDE Handbook-6], New Delhi: IGNOU. 2. STRIDE Handbook-5(2008), New Delhi: IGNOU 3. 4. 5. Das, S.K.(2012) 6. Das, S.K.(2012) 7. Das, S.K.(2012) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The author is currently the Director, Directorate of Distance Education, NIMS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan. All rights reserved with the author. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ Brief outline of the DDE ________________________________

Directorate of Distance Education was established in 2009 to fulfill the national goal of Education for All (EFA) and international mission of Millennium Development Goals on education. Being recognised by the joint committee of DEC-UGC-AICTE, the DDE has its networking in almost all states and Union Territories and catering to the needs of more than 15000 distance learners (gross). The Directorate offers 43 programmes in two major areas—paramedical and non-paramedical. _________________________________ Publications of DDE _________________________________ 1. Das, S.K (2012) Open and Distance Education- A Handbook, NIMS University. 2. Das, S.K (2012) Emerging ICT in Higher Education,NIMS University. 3. Das, S.K.( 2013)Designing Instructions in Higher Education,NIMS University. 4. Das, S.K.(2013) Distance Education and Educational Entrepreneurship,NIMS University.

Prof. Sanjaya (talk)06:50, 6 March 2012

'''Role of Dual Mode Universities in offering Distance Education Programs'''

As world history of education reveals that the present form of distance education is originated from correspondence education and the UKOU continues to play legendary role. Dual mode universities are those universities that offer education with the support of both modes-- conventional(regular)and non-conventional modes.

In Indian context, DE as a branch of innovative modern approach has been promoted by the IGNOU(1985) after B.R. Ambedkar Open University. In order to address the issues pertaining to access, equity and equalities, there is a paradigm shift in DE.

Distance education per se has been offered by single and dual mode universities. Single mode universities are of equal demands as the dual mode universities are. Prof. Santosh Panda recently reiterated in a workshop(organised by the Directorate of Distance education, NIMS University, Jaipur)that "dual mode universities are successful in comparison to single mode university." It is only because single mode universities requires more time in capacity building than the dual mode ones.

Prof. Sanjaya (talk)18:37, 29 February 2012


Prior to the Twenty-first century, human academic endeavor across the globe was highly dominated by the feudal economy and subsequently by modern industrial economy. The dawn of twenty first century witnessed the evolution of knowledge economy, the supreme form of economy that world in its annals of history has ever had. Educational policies that were chalked out toward the end of century in India though acknowledge and highlight our failures in terms of poor execution and supervision, yet the significance and relevance of policies relating to school education cannot be ignored. Indian schooling system has been emerging as potential education sector and thus has been successfully feeding significantly with adequate human resources to higher education sector.As a result, Indian higher education system in its true sense is the single largest in the world. Though Indian higher education sector is displaying colorful achievements in all possible directions, as a system it is not far away from growing criticism both at local and global levels. Qualitative interpretations in introducing Indian education is being eluded with the quantitative expansion thus generating a need for landscaping the prevailing form of Indian higher education in the context of globalization and privatization.

The representation of India at global level has less noticeable impact on the potentiality issue at the local level. In other words, how India is known to Asian and Indian per se? Ironically, instead of embracing our own strengths we always dream for more infrastructure and investments in educational endeavor. Whats is needed has never been in discourse and what is available within the discourse is far away from the dire need. All above notable achievements are to be accredited to the Indian professional and technical education at tertiary level. In the present context, challenges need to be highlighted that demand for landscaping globalized higher education in terms of minimizing growing academic performance gap among all sectors/levels of education.

Gaps in Academic Performance( GAP) may be defined as the academic performance desired to be exhibited by the academia of an institution or set of institutions across all levels/sectors of education namely elementary, secondary and tertiary. Each level is deemed as sector for better clarity and understanding. Question that comes to the context is what the determinants of academic performance are? Three major determinants of academic performance include--- teaching/training, research and dissemination. Either institution or set of institutions ( within a sector or level of education) needs to project such performance as the gross contribution of academia involved at that sector. The pyramid structured education system is the quantitative expansion of our education system, what about the sectoral academic contributions? Do the contributions are significantly correlated with their numbers? One can wonder for a right answer.

Key words: Gaps in Academic Performance(GAP), Higher education, Higher Education Institutions, Globalization and Privatization.

Prof. Sanjaya (talk)09:54, 23 January 2012

'''Knowledge Economy Versus Economy of Knowledge'''== Headline text ==

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DOMINATES ENTIRE PARADIGM OF KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY THUS DEMANDING INTERVENTION STRATEGIES WITH THE SUPPORT OF ICT FOR MAKING LEARNING JOYFUL AND INTERACTIVE. Therefore education in the form of knowledge and skills will continue to be the cheapest asset that human civilization ever had. What is the next evolutionary economy? Albert Einstein says" Imagination is more important than knowledge. Because knowledge is limited and imagination encircles the world."

At the global level, we are currently experiencing a debate between two large group of learned individuals. One of them is unanimously advocating for "sustainability" and the other group is in the opinion of " development--huge....massive". While negotiating between these two extremities, we find another group which is in favor of both " sustainable development." Sustained development has become a catch phrase among learned community. Is it well addressed?

Information Communication Technology is the unique invention of mankind. Each one of us feel empowered when we are having either a notebook, laptop, or mobiles( with internet connectivity). Online users are growing phenomenally across all countries. Since ICT is supplementing and complementing conventional methods of information dissemination, it has yet to succeed in replacing conventional methods. It is irony about our communication and socialization process. Many of us firmly experienced and noticed that ICT is influencing our social behaviour dramatically. No matter whether the individual is in metropolis or in a remote highland. Learned community is really enjoying and loving the ICT and moving towards virtual mode. Of course, such trend of virtual social behaviour has significant criticisms when we experience immature ICT users. But, it is important that how much and how qualitatively we are using ICT. ICT should not go beyond the social, cultural and philosophical foundations of any society.

Knowledge, being the cheapest and rarest kind of asset,is of great demand especially during the current era of globalized form of knowledge economy. Expertise and marvelous ideas are thrown open to learned community through World Wide Web(WWW). Web 2.0 technologies make online teaching-learning process interactive. In the current state, learners quench their thirst for knowledge acquisition without teachers' support. They get sufficient time to imagine, rethink, analyze and synthesize. Creativity of individuals are striking.

The search for true knowledge will never end. It follows the path human development. We are remodeling or renovating our kitchen room with a number of sophisticated electronic gadgets and equipments of high quality. We replace our gas burner with induction plates. We can make the kitchen or house as we want. Have we ever thought that the basic/fundamental ways of cooking has remain unchanged. The way we eat is constant. There is a way to sleep, we can hardly change that. Therefore, during the present era of knowledge economy, it is essential to focus on what constitute quality? What makes life meaningful and peaceful? We are born to progress, progress invites competitions, competitions bring hatred, hatred welcomes war, war breaks unity and then we loose our identity.

A question that strikes within the context of present discourse--- what form of knowledge is needed in the present era? Is it practical or theoretical? Is it empirical or fictitious? Many of us don't know how much is left unknown and what we know is seldom sufficient for living. We spend minimum of 12 years of schooling and engaged in learning communication to language, counting to logarithm, Algebra to Mensuration, Logic to Philosophy, Nutrition to Medical Sciences, Locality to World History.What happens as we grow older and search for employment. Is the knowledge acquired in the formal schools/colleges/universities helpful during the interview? Employers seek for creative and on-spot solutions on the problems which can hardly be learned through any book. Employers seek for positive attitude and efficient skills. The education which is in our hand in the form certificates brings absolute frustration. That does not mean knowledge is useless or less important. What is needed is the positive attitude, mastery skills, and latest knowledge and one can be employable.

Beyond employment, we all consistently strive for healthy and peaceful living. What form of knowledge being imparted by our schools/colleges/universities can make our living joyful. There is hardly a single subject. To be a pioneer, a leader, a visionary, we all need to enrich our life skills--- LIFE ENRICHMENT SKILLS. There is no shortcuts to enrich one's own life. It takes years and no one can ever claim to be the master of all life enrichment skills. For leading life towards enrichment and more civilized, then learned community must decide and place them well in between two extremities---- ignorance and spirituality. Both of these extremities are the lowest and highest form knowledge that the human civilization acknowledge across all ages.

Prof. Sanjaya (talk)10:13, 21 January 2012



It is implicit in the context of knowledge economy that "education", being a sub-system of total societal system and a recognized potential sector,has to focus persistently on " knowledge expansion and dissemination" to transform present society to a potential human development universe. In synch with this noble mission, 'education" should continue to be deemed at par with other service industries, such as health, hospitality, so on and so forth. Current discussion on retailing in education industry may raise eyebrows of many educators. But, certain pertinent questions need to be answered initially--- if any restaurant approached by a group more than its seating capacity, does the administration of that locality punish the restaurant for accommodating such large group? It has never happened? Group of individuals are allowed to consume food being divided into smaller/sizable numbers.If this trend is applicable to hospitality industry than why can't be practiced within education sector. Education, in the current scenario, is to be considered as a fundamental psycho-social need in the line of basic physiological needs. Conventional higher education institutions may not fall within the framework of present discussion. Dual mode universities, open universities and Distance Education Institutions are at the core of the discussion while retailing being a business expansion strategy may be viewed from legislative perspective. Legitimization of retailing in education sector, thus, delimited to distance education programs being offered by Distance education Institutions( D.E.Is)and all courses/programs may henceforth to be offered through any potential institution located elsewhere in the globe. The parent institution( especially open/dual mode universities) should play major role in terms of governance, academic program design and delivery, examination and certification. Such retailing approach in education will in principle provide every learner certain quality education. Another significant issue that arises in the context of Higher Education Institutions( H.E.Is)--- academia and industry interface. Why can't open/dual mode universities offer professional and technical courses right in the lap of industry? Why to invest revenue on researching needs of industry and bringing such need analyses to academia and then to design curriculum? Is not it wastage of our own resources?

Prof. Sanjaya (talk)21:41, 19 January 2012