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THE CAUSES OF POOR PERFORMANCE IN 12 YEARS BASIC OF EDUCATION.

KAVUMU COLLEGE OF EDUCATION FACULTY OF EDUCATION COMBINATION: Mathematics-Physics Education

                                                                    BY


KAROMBA Benon  : MPE/0787/11 MURORUNKWERE Thaciènne  : MPE/0576/11 NIYIBIZI Balthazar  : MPE/0774/11 TUYISENGE Florence  : MPE/0620/11

                           SUPERVISOR: Mr. BENJAMIN Tindimwebwa


ACTION RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED AT KAVUMU COLLEGE OF EDUCATION IN

        PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS   FOR THE AWARD OF THE
DIPLOMA IN EDUCATION OF KIGALI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION
(KIE)
Kavumu, June, 2012


                                      List of abbreviations


EFK  : English-French and Kinyarwanda combination

ESL     : English Second Language


G S  : Group scolaire HEG  : History-Economy and Geography combination PCB  : Physics-Chemistry and Biology combination PCM  : Physic-chemistry and Mathematics combination S2C  : Senior two c WASCE : West African School Certificate Examination

DECLARATION

We, the undersigned, declare that the work contained in this study is our own original work and that this work has not been submitted in full or partial fulfillment of an equivalent or higher qualification at any other recognized educational institution. All sources used or referred to have been acknowledged and documented. ……………………………………….. ……………………

DUSHIMIRIMANA Jean Baptist ………………………………………………………………………………… MUKASHEMA Christine ………………………………………………………………………………… MUKASINE Espérance ………………………………………………………………………………… NTARINDWA John DATE: ……………………../………………………………/……………………………..

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Agreement and Disagreement answers to the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama……………………………………………………..

LIST OF TABLES


Table 1: Answers about the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry environment………………………………………………………………………………………

Table 2: Answers of second question…………………………………………………………

Table3:Students’answers on particular problems in learning chemistry course…………

DEDICATION This work is dedicated to our loved teachers, friends, brothers, sisters, parents and relatives.

Our life long partners and comarades.


                                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are greatly indebted to our supervisor Mrs. CYULINYANA Marie Chantal for her profession guidance through this research. She made all valuable advisories that enable us to accomplish this work.
Special thanks go to our lectures at KAVUMU COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (KCE) whose academic input underlies this study.
To our beloved parents and relatives who did everything possible to make our educational career success. Sincere thanks go to our respondents the Head teacher and teachers of G S Gitarama who helped us to get required data for the students, making the entire endeavor a success.
May Almighty God Bless You All.


 ABSTRACT


The study was limited to the subject of factors that hinder teaching and learning Chemistry in S2Cat G S Gitarama. The participating learners in this research were fully informed of the objectives of this research and, for ethical reasons, their identities were protected. The following tools were used to collect data to determine the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama: • Questionnaires and • Interviews The study found that the major factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama are: indiscipline, lack of library, parents who are not educated and lack of improvisation of learning resource to make chemistry a clear subject. In this study we are suggesting some solutions in order to improve teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama.

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

The goal of Government of Rwanda is to reduce the poverty in order to improve the well-being of its population within this context. The aim of education is to combat ignorance and illiteracy to provide human being through the education system. In general, there are factors that hindering teaching and learning. Our study is going to mention factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama in Muhanga District. 1.1 Back ground of the problem

G S Gitarama is located in Southern Province, Muhanga District, Nyamabuye Sector, Gahogo Cell. The school has 2262 students and 46teachers in 2012. G S Gitarama has three levels of education which are:  Primary level which began in 1964  Ordinary level which began in 2009  Advanced level that began in 2012 with four combinations (PCM, PCB, HEG and EFK) In general there are possible factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in secondary school, such as: lack of laboratory, lack of skilled teachers, indiscipline, lack of school fees, hunger and school location. This research is pointing out all of these and suggests some solutions. 1.2 The statement of the problem This research focuses on factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama in S2C and serve as tool to solve some problem that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama in S2C. In S2c out of 42 students who pass examination in first term since 2012, 26 students didn’t pass chemistry; this means the rate of 56% of students failed. National examination since 2011, among 106 students, 26 students passed in chemistry and the rest failed this means, 76% of students failed and 24% of students passed in chemistry. Those results show us that there are some factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama. 1.3 Objective of the study A. General objective  To determine the factors which hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama in S2C. B. Specific objective  To identify the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama.  Suggest some solutions in order to improve teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama in S2C. 1.4 Hypothesis

 At G S Gitarama there are factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C.


1.5 Research questions  What are factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama in S2C?  What can be done to improve the teaching and learning chemistry methods at G S Gitarama in S2C?

1.6 Significance of the study The outcome of this research should offer and play a big role in different categories:  Students of S2C at G S Gitarama will improve their performance in chemistry.  Parents will implement their duties and responsibility for their children performance in chemistry.  Teachers will adopt new strategies of teaching chemistry at G S Gitarama in S2C,  Government should solve the problems for example: constructing laboratory and library.  Education stakeholders could prepare a relevant program in all level. 1.8 Limitation and delimitation of the study

 In our research we have problem of time(from end of February up to June) which was a limiting factor for the completing our action research because the time allocates, is not allow us to finish on time allowed for doing our research.  This research is conducted in one school which is G S Gitarama located in Muhanga District, where we choose one class which is S2C which is our sample.

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This chapter deals with the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry. The researchers, who thought the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in ordinal level secondary for almost thirteen years, noticed certain problems experienced by the teachers. They show that the main problem is lack of self-confidence of the learners toward sciences like chemistry and physics. Learners do not automatically apply knowledge due to the lack of displine. The ability to transfer knowledge is not linked to deep learning (Entwistle, 1987). It is thus evident that the learners have not to change their mode of learning from surface learning to deep learning in order to attain a high level of success in chemistry. The nature of the chemistry curriculum has been widely criticized by researchers as factor hindering teaching and learning chemistry including the teachers of the subject observed by (Ogunyemi, 1999) and( Adesoji ,2002) observed that senior secondary school chemistry curriculum objectives are over-ambitious; the contents are overloaded and are difficult to achieve in reality.( Iroegbu,1999) found out that the curriculum contains too much material, which previously belonged to the advanced level chemistry programmers.

2.1 Lack of teaching and learning materials

The lacks of teaching learning materials have negative impact on students. The students have to appreciate scientific method which involves experiments, where they observe, record and interpret some facts. Achievements of this depend on the teacher, students, materials and the learning environment (Ogunyemi, 1999).

The factors are, strategies for teaching chemistry, time allowed for teaching chemistry, overloaded content of the chemistry curriculum, lack of acquisition of necessary skills through practical work, lack of standard laboratory, lack of laboratory facilities and equipment for teaching chemistry, learning difficulties and students’ understanding of chemistry, teacher’s competency and teacher’s experience. These are the major factors perceived by the chemistry teachers to hinder effective learning of skills in the senior secondary chemistry practical. This result is in line with ( Okebukola ,1982). There is a strong relationship between learner performance and the quality of the facilities available to learners. Several schools do not have laboratories and library, the situation simply means that learners learn science (chemistry and physics) by rote learning and some of them completed their senior one without ever having seen a beaker or any other materials which can be used in teaching and learning this was said by many students and some teachers of science at G S Gitarama. Kgosana (2006) quoted the education policy analyst specialist (Bloch) who emphasized that facilities and adequate relevant resources are important in teaching and learning chemistry but the lack of teaching and learning materials is one of factors hindering teaching and learning chemistry. However Adeyegbe (1994) observed that, teaching practical skills has often been a neglected aspect of science teaching by teachers. This neglect, according to Ikoku (1982), makes chemistry difficult for learners and consequently, they perceive chemistry as a difficult and abstract subject.


2.2 Lack of motivation and attitude toward chemistry Many researchers show that students with negative attitude toward chemistry and lack motivation fail completely. (Jurisevic, Glazer, Pucko and Devetak ,2008) reported that students were more or less equally motivated for chemistry as for any other subject, but that the intrinsic motivation plummets as the level of obstruction in individual subjects, such as chemistry and mathematics, increases. When the students are not motivated toward any lesson the correlation between the level of motivation and the knowledge test results is strong; failure of students, lack of self-confidence, while the correlation between motivation and the mark achieved in chemistry is statistically not significant. (Akbas and Kan ,2007) found out that the lack of motivation and anxiety for chemistry lesson, is one of the factors of poor performance in chemistry. The anxiety caused by excessive stress has adverse effects on learning and performance of students (Akbas & Kan, 2007).( Jurisevic, vogrinc, Glazar and Devetak ,2003) concluded in their research that secondary students and primary school students are quite similarly intrinsically motivated for learning, especially for learning physics and chemistry. (Anders and Berg ,2005) in a research entitled correlatives of the observed attitude change toward learning chemistry lesson among university students, tried to identify these correlatives or factors. This research was done in Sweden. The results of the research show the more the students were motivated, the more positive change was observed in their attitude toward learning chemistry. 2.3 School Location

The school location is one of the factors which hinder teaching and learning chemistry. Students who live at long distance from school are often later similarly; the entire unattractive physical structure of the school location could de-motivate learners to achieve academically. This is what (Isangedighi, 1998) refers to as learner’s environment mismatch. According to him, this hinders teaching and learning chemistry.

2. 4 Learner profiles

The performance of learners should be investigated in line with their opportunity-to-learn indicators (learner-profiles). Indicators such as attendance in classes would highlight anomalies regarding his/her attendance, which might be regular or irregular and such indicators are early signs that might determine whether learners will perform well academically or not and remedial measures could be implemented before it is too late. Learner-profiles also indicate the positive effects of participation of learners in teaching and learning chemistry where learners are involved in teaching and learning activities tend to improve in their performance unlike those who are not participating (Burmaster, 2005).

2. 5 Lack of relationships


2.5.1 Relationship between the learner and educator

The research conducted in Spain (Marchesi & Martin, 2002) found that lack of the relationship between the learner and educator is one of the factors that hinder teaching and learning sciences. Characteristics of the educator are considered as key elements for the learner’s personal and academic development. Hence, it is crucial that educators should be role models to be imutated by the learners. Research (Castejon & Perez, 1998) found that educator’s expectations significantly influence the learner’s results. The educator’s assessment is mediated by two variables: firstly, the greater the learner’s intelligence, the better the academic results and the better reciprocal appreciation between the educator and learner; secondly, family support for study also makes the learner value his/her educator more highly.

Studies found that there is a positive relationship between the educator’s motivation and that of the learner, while educator-learner relationships are also mediated by the educator’s attribution of factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry to the learner in terms of academic performance shown by European journal of social science-volume13, no2 (2010)

2.6 Peer Group Influence

Generally, peer group means a group of equals. But sociologists apply it to groups made up of persons who are of the same age and often to groups of children or of adolescents (teenagers). They play a normal part in the process of socialization as they provide experiences to those who are growing up, a type that are not available in their own families. The adolescents take solace in interacting with their peers and they prefer to keep longer time with them than with their parents. The peer group therefore has tremendous influence on the adolescent’s pattern of behavior especially on their interests, attitudes, value system, emotional expressions, and interaction patterns and so on. However, the peer group’s norms/standards in many cases may run foul to that of the community or society at large. Thus, when the adolescent falls into bad groups, his/her home background notwithstanding, the chances are high that his/her social behavior would change for bad rather than for good for example missing classroom activities, lack of motivation toward some lessons like chemistry and lack of discipline. As expressed by (Steinberg, 1996) these peers whom adolescents look to for approval and supports have been noted as inevitable and necessary.

2.7 Gender Researches focused on gender studies have indicated that attitudes toward chemistry differ between males and females. A declining interest in chemistry and the under representation of females in the chemical science was found (Jacobs, 2000; cited in Banya, 2005). Self -confidence toward chemistry, the influence of role models, and knowledge about the usefulness of chemistry affect the decision of young female students about the study of chemistry (Banya, 2005). In the event of young female students are finding difficulty in constructing knowledge of chemistry, self-confidence is lowered with subsequent alternation of attitudes toward chemistry (Banya, 2005). Despite the studies done, and the recommendations made, the attitudes of young female students toward science and chemistry are still negative than positive (Banya, 2005). This makes girls to perform poorly in chemistry.

2.8 Lack of discipline Research works have shown that nature of parental discipline affect chemistry output of children (AREM, 2000).Parents in their bad discipline; their children have been found to be authoritative democratic or permissive .Children whose parents are authoritative live in constant fear of such parents and may most likely transfer such as fear significant to others in the school environment. Such children have low self-worth, insecurity and may found it difficult to consult with teachers (OLUWOLE, 2000) found that the degree of self- efficacy and anxiety manifest by learners determine their academic performance. On the other hand, children from permissive hones are too complacent, Unmotivated, and lack personal will to succeed. The democratic style of parenting has been found to be very helpful to teaching and learning situation. Here; children receive punishment that is commensurate with the mistake committed or did. Such children are strong willed and ready for success. (European journal of social science-volume13 No 2, 2010) (AREMU, 2000) observe from a study that students that receive democratic of parenting perform better than their counter parts from autocratic homes. The consequences of these include indiscipline in schools and low level of educational standard. West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) in 2006 identified and categorized problems responsible for student’s poor performance of some concept like chemistry to problems of teachers. Problems of inadequate facilities in the schools for teaching learning chemistry the problem was traceable to students. The problems are caused by parents and society at large and problems of government policies and low funding of the education sector Ajila and Olutola (2007).

2.9 Teaching methods and environment of the study Unlike the Piagetian, Vygotsky believes that meaning was best constructed in cohort with another (peer, teacher and parents) (Banya, 2005). The relevance of chemistry needs to embrace relevant teaching approaches to the teaching of chemistry in schools (Holbrook, 2005). Sirhan (2007) reported that negative attitudes and lack of motivations for teachers are both important factor that hindering teaching and learning process. Success in learning, positive attitudes to learning and motivation to learn are linked. The two major factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry are teacher quality and curriculum quality. According to Weiss, Pasely, Smit, Banilowel, and Heck (2003; cited in Tai, Sadler & Loehr, 2005), who interviewed and observed 71% of secondary school science teachers, the greatest influence on choice regarding instructional strategies is teacher knowledge, belief, and experience, influencing 90% of lessons taught by the teachers in their study. Karr, Makher and Son (2006) consider that teaching method of an instructor (professor or teacher) of chemistry is based on the facilitation of the students' understanding in the learning process. If a professor (instructor or teacher) does not make much effort to cause his or her students to comprehend the subject matter their students perform poorly in the subject matter. A professor (teacher) does not try to cause the students to be involved in the teaching process so that he or she might not become sure of this fact that the students are able to reproduce the knowledge and reasons of chemistry.

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter deals with the procedure and methods of investigation that was used to carry out this study. This chapter describes particularly the area where the study is being carried out, the methods and instruments that are used in collecting data, procedure and data analysis. 3.1 Research Design We used the qualitative descriptive survey research methods .This method helped in obtaining information from across-section of students of S2C and teachers at G S Gitarama, about the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama in S2C. 3.2 Area of Study The study is carried out at G.S Gitarama in S2C. There is other class at G S Gitarama but we were limited to one class. We have an easy access to the population concerned. 3.3 Sample Size and Sample Selection Sample size is comprised of population of 20 students in S2C and 4 teachers at G S Gitarama were randomly selected.

 Questionnaires are given to the students and science teachers to fill. The evaluation could not be done to every person; therefore random selection of students and teachers gives equal chances to be considered.


3.4 Research Instruments

 3.4.1 Questionnaire


According to BAREY (1982) questionnaire is a set of questions generate data necessary for accomplishing the objectives of research study. However, questionnaire helps to save the time and resources, and the respondents are free and confident while responding. Thus we preferred to give 20 questionnaires to the concerned students. 3.4 .2 Data Collection This research involved the critical observation and reflection on the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama in S2C. Data are therefore collected by mean of observation of learners’ reactions in the natural settings, questionnaires addressing their selected learning approach. This data are used to answer the critical questions originating from the research question.

3.4.3 Data analysis of interpretation The data are analyzed by using the tables, pie chart and graphs for short questions.

3.4.4 Data interpretation

We interpreted the data gotten by using tables, percentage and figures for showing clearly the results we got in our research. We want also to make them clear and self explaining to everyone who can get a chance to read our research project, this research will help to interested people to understand the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama.

CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This section presents on the results of the data gathered from the students' questionnaire, interviews conducted with us about the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama. The main purpose was to gather their views. The data collected from respondents were analyzed by using tables, pie-chart and figures (graphs). Initially, the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama were determined by analyzing the data collected from the questionnaires.

4.1 Results and discussion

The study was guided by the following research questions:

1) What are factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama in S2C? 2) What can be done to improve the teaching and learning chemistry methods at G S Gitarama in S2C?

ANSWERS Agree Disagree Agree % Disagree %

School location 10 10 50% 50% Hunger 14 6 70% 30% Lack of electricity 1 19 5% 95% Lack of preps 13 7 65% 35% Stress 15 5 75% 25%

Table 1: Answers to the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry environment

The answer to the question one of research questions, the responses about the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama, the findings from the population sampled are represented in the table 1 above. From the table 1 above, 75% of population sampled means 15 students on figure 1 agreed that stress is one of factor that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama, 5 students with rate of 25% disagreed that stress is not included in factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama as shown in table 1 above and figure 1 below.

14 students with rate of 70% of respondents were agreed that hunger is another factor that hinders teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama and 6 students with rate of 30% disagreed on it as shown in table 1 above and figure 1 below.


13 students with rate of 65% of population sampled agreed that lack of preps also one of the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama and 7 students with rate of 45% of respondents disagreed on it as shown in table 1 above and figure 1below. 10 students with rate of 50% of respondents agreed that school location is one of factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama and 10 students with rate of 50% of others disagreed on it as shown in table 1 above and figure 1 below.

19 students with rate of 95% of respondents disagreed that lack of electricity at home is factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama as shown in table 1 and figure 1 below.



Figure 1: Agreement and Disagreement answers to the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama.

Form the question two we suggest some factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama, the students’ responses on it are shown in the figure2 and the table 2 below: ANSWERS ON QUESTIONS

% ON


% ON NEGATIVE (No)

Answers


(responses)

Lack of laboratory 20 0 100% 0% Lack of library 20 0 100% 0% Lack of improvisation 18 2 90% 10% Indiscipline 18 2 90% 10% class size 17 3 85% 15% Gender 1 19 5% 95%

Table 2: Answers of second question

Figure 2: Answers on second question (see appendix 1) The responses about the factor that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama are shown in table 2 and figure 2 above. From the table 2, we found that 20 students with rate of 100% of respondents agreed that lack of laboratory and library are the highest factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama. 18 students with rate of 90% of respondents agreed that lack of improvisation skills and discipline are also some factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama and the class size was also identified by 17 students with rate of 85% of respondents as a major hindrance for effective teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama. Chemistry requires getting the students involved, as most of the topics involve demonstration, if they could be well understood but this becomes very difficult when the class is large. This is also consistent with (Onocha, 1980) who found out that large class size is unconductive for serious academic work. 19 students with rate of 95% of respondents show that gender is not included in the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama. In this research the students' gender has no effect on their performance in chemistry. This result is consistent with the results of the research of Jacobs (cited in Banya, 2005). From question 3 (see appendix 1) out of 20 students questioned, 12 of them have some particular problems that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama. The table 3 below shows the number and percentage of respondents who have the same particular problems. Particular problems Number of students who have Common responses % of students who have common responses Home activities 10 50% Sickness 4 20% School fees 9 45% Distance to school 12 60%

Table 3: Students’ responses on particular problems in learning chemistry course

From the table 3 above, 60% of students in S2C have the common of long distance traveled. 50% of students have problem concerning the home activities after school hours (their lesson). 45% of students lack school fees for them to get school fees is very difficult for their families. 20% of students have problem of sickness (illness). In addition to these mentioned above, another problem identified was that the learners struggle to form / understand theoretical concepts, mostly because they are English Second Language (ESL) learners and all the courses and textbooks are in English.

Factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry Number of respondents % of responses Long traveled distance 2 50% Lack of teaching learning material 4 100% Lack of commitment between teachers and parents 3 75% Indiscipline of students 3 75%

Low capacity of students 1 25%

Learning environment 3 75%

Hunger 4 100%

Table 4: responses of teachers

From the table 4 above show us responses of 4 teachers of chemistry at G S Gitarama about some factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama, which are the following: 75% agreed that lack of commitment between teachers and parents is one of the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama. Lack of teaching and learning materials agreed with rate of 100% of respondents also is one of the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama and hunger with 100% this is agreed by students also (see table 2), the nutrition deficiencies are also a factor hindering teaching and learning (Polite, 1994). 75% said that learning environment and indiscipline are also the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama, which is in agreement with students’ answers (see table 4).

Long distance traveled by students from home to school. This was agreed on both sides, it is another factor that hinders teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama with 50% of teachers and 60% of students (see table 3 and table 4).

According to question 2 for teachers’ questionnaire (see appendix 2) the responses gotten for the effects of factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama are the following:

 The effects are that, some parents do not understand how their children fail in some courses like biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics. They say that when the students fail is teacher who fails. It would be better for the parents to play their role in teaching and learning area because there are many things required in order to improve teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama. For examples; participation of students in school activities, the follow up of their parents and teacher’s helps.  The effect of lateness, indiscipline of students and curriculum program which are long.

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGETIONS

This chapter presents discussions, conclusion and some recommendations.

5.1 Discussion

The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama.
From this study finding, it has been revealed that the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama are the following:


 Lack of teaching and learning materials (laboratory and library) both take 100% in table 2. Some teachers said that “We have a temporary laboratory which is not equipped. For that reason the students cannot concentrate during practical lessons”. One of the students said “I wanted to be a scientist study by chemistry, but we have no labs and laboratories. We didn’t any experiment in chemistry”. This findings are in the same view of (Ogunyemi, 1999),who said that the lack of teaching learning materials affect negatively students.  Lack of improvisation and discipline both take 90% (in table 2), this show us that indiscipline (lack of discipline) affects negatively the performance of senior two students in chemistry. According to (Aremu, 2000) and (Isangedighi, 1998) the lack of discipline affects academic output of children in science.

 Stress is one of the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C as shown in table 1 with 75% of them have common problem of long distance from home to school and 50% of them have problem of home activities which avoid them to lesson when they are at home as shown in table 3 above.

 Hunger has negative effect on teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama according to the results we got from interview and the table 1 and table 4 show that 70% and100% of respondents agreed that hunger is one of the factor that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama because the student start their lesson at 7 O’ clock up (7:00 am) to 14:10 pm without taking same thing to eat. This show us that in addition to stress discussed above they can’t learn very well chemistry when suffering problem of hunger then perform poorly in chemistry tests/exam.

 In our interview we found that there is big number of girls who need for house works rather than boys (household chores). Many parents keep their daughters at home whenever there are some chores (cooking, selling, farming, taking care of other siblings or sick members of the family, laundry, etc). This is in the same line with result shown in table 3 above where 50% of students answered that home activities hinders their learning chemistry.

 Travelling long distances is still an issue, however same students arrive at school late, they miss the first hour of the day which another lesson. Where they get back home late also which implies that they can’t do revision.

 5.2 Suggestion


Research question two (2) stated that; what can be done in order to promote teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama? Data was collected and analyzed in respect to the stated research question. The results of this research suggest that, in order to improve the students' performance on chemistry, the teachers of chemistry should:  Increase the amount of motivation of the students in chemistry,  Pay attention to the students' discipline,  Create very good and suitable emotional conditions and situation while teaching in class,  Pay attention to the methodologies used for teaching chemistry and lab's experiments.  The teachers should be equitably remunerated so as to feel recognized and appreciated which would eventually enhance quality teaching by using improvisation (or some other methods).

 Government should help the school by constructing laboratories and library.

 Parents should be sensitized on the importance of education by their children through the school administration in conjunction with the Parents Teachers Association. They should be encouraged to consult with teachers.

 In order to succeed in all courses the students should improve their discipline.

 Parents should play their role in educating their children, by making good commitment with the school managers.

 Organizing some training for chemistry teachers.

 The government should make it mandatory for parents to send their daughters to school or face the consequences because all children have the same right to go to school (gender balance).

 Payment of school fees in installments should be permitted to enable poor parents cope with stressful situations of educating their children.

5.3 Conclusion

Accord to the hypothesis, we found at G S Gitarama are the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2C which are the following: lack of library and laboratory, lack of displine, lack of school fees, lack of commitment between teachers and parents, long distance and hunger. We suggest some solutions in order to improve teaching and learning chemistry in S2C at G S Gitarama.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, there are factors directly and indirectly points to areas which have to be addressed in order to enhance the learning outcomes of students in chemistry. If the government and other stakeholders (parents and private organisation) in education industry could improve on the learning environment of students and motivate teachers by helping them to have enough teaching materials aides in order to make their lessons very understandable for all students, students performance in chemistry will definitely improve. Therefore the following recommendations have been made for the different categories of people:

 The teachers should be equitably remunerated so as to feel recognized and appreciated which would eventually enhance quality teaching by using improvisation and they should improve the learner-centered method in teaching and learning chemistry in S2c at G S Gitarama.

 Government should help the school to have the required facilities in order to improve teaching and learning chemistry by constructing laboratories and library and to give more training to teachers about methodology and improvisation.

 Parents should be sensitized on the importance of education by their children through the school administration in conjunction with the Parents Teachers Association. They should be encouraged to consult with teachers on matters pertaining to their children's academic progress in chemistry. They should also give to their children school materials needed and school fees on time.

 The private organization should help government by giving support to the nine year basic education and twelve year basic education to have required teaching and learning materials in to improve implementation of skills and knowledge through practical and theoretical. It should help the poor students and orphans to have school materials and to gain school fees easily.  In order to succeed in all lessons the students should improve their discipline and should make their preps especial in chemistry and other sciences properly.

 The students would then be more active and alert in class.

 Students need sensitization and past students from the community who have made progress in their fields need to be invited regularly to talk to the pupils. Students who made it to the senior secondary schools could be used for the same purpose. They would serve as role models and motivators.

Reference

Adesoji, F.A. (2002). Rethinking the science curriculum. In J.A. Ajala (Ed.). Designing Content of the Curriculum, Guide to Practice Maybest Publications, Ibadan Iroegbu, T.O. (1999). Science Curriculum Development Understanding classroom learning. Changing perspectives in education, Hodder and Stoughton, London.

Ogunyemi, B. (1999). Teacher Preparation for Social Studies Education in the 21st Century. In A.Comparative Task Analysis Study of the Old and Revised Versions, 24th Annual Conference Proceeding of the Science Teachers’ Association of Nigeria, Nigeria. . Okebukola, P.A. (1982). The Nigerian Integrated Science Project. A Iroegbu, T.O (1999).Science Curriculum Development in Nigeria. A Critical Analysis. In A. Dada (Ed.) The Teacher and the Curriculum. Ibadan, Tejama General Enterprises, Nigeria . PE Technikon Prospectus 2000: Applied Science. Port Elizabeth : PE Technikon. PE Technikon Prospectus 2003: general prospectus and regulations, PE Technikon, South Africa.

Banya, S.K. (2005). Study of factors affecting attitudes of young female students toward chemistry at the high school level. Ph.D, dissertation. Collage of Science and Technology of the University of Southern Mississippi, Southern Mississipi.

Onocha C. O.(1985) Patterns of Relationships Between Home and School Factors and Pupils’ Learning Outcome in Bendel Primary Science Project. Ministry of Education, Bendel State, Nigeria.


Ikoku, C. (1982), The teaching of chemistry to Industrial Trainees. Journal of Science Teachers’ Association of Nigeria, 20 (2), P 9-25.

Oladapo, O. (1997), Characteristics of Chemistry Students and Science Practices in the Senior Secondary Schools of Ibadan South East Local Government Area of Oyo State. M.Ed. Project Report, Department of Teacher Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Tai, R.; Sadler, P. M. and Loehr, J.F. (2005), Factors influencing success in introductory college chemistry. Journal of Research in science Teaching, 4(9): P 987-1012. Holbrook, J. (2005), Making chemistry teaching relevant. Chemical education International, 6 (1).Paper based on the lecture presented at the 18th ICCE Istanbul, Turkey, 3-8 August 2004. Adeyegbe, S.O. (1994), Assessment of practical skills in Science, Technology and Mathematics. Paper presented at the pre-conference workshop of the 35th Annual Conference of the Science Teachers’ Association of Nigeria held in Abeokuta Ministor of education.

Awodi,S.(1984), A Comparative study of Teaching Science as Inquiry versus Traditional Didactic Approach in Nigerian Secondary Schools.University Microfilms International: Am Arhor, Michigan.

Balogun, T.A. (1992). Integrated Science Teaching Concepts, Problem and Progress. Keynote Address, Regional Workshop on Integrated Science Teaching, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

APPENDIX STUDENTS’ QUESTINNAIRE

                                                                                      Kavumu College of Education
P.O Box 125


Muhanga Date…………/……………/…............

Dear Student, RE: RESEARCH ON FACTORS THAT HINDER TEACHING AND LEARNING CHEMISTRY IN S2C AT G.S GITARAMA. You are kindly request to fill in this questionnaire. The information you will be treated with confidentiality so do not indicate your name. The responses you will give will be helpful for stud purposes. Thank You. DUSHIRIMIMANA Jean Baptist MUKASHEMA Christine MUKASINE Espérance NTARINDWA John

      1. INSTRUCTIONS


 Put a cross sign(x) in the box corresponding to your choice and explain where necessary  For some other questions ,answer in the space provided  Respond in English.

2. IDENTIFICATIONS • Sex: Male Female

• Area of residence: Urban area

                                                             Rural area



3. QUESTIONS 1. What are the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry? a)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… b)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. c)………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Among these following factors, what is that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in your class? (Use V for your correct responses) a. Lack of laboratory b. Lack of library c. Lack of improvisation skills

d. Lack of discipline e. Class room size

       f. Gender


3. Do you face any particular problems in the chemistry course? Yes If there are, which are they? No

a)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. b)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… c)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...……………………………………………………………………………………… d)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....……………………………………………………………………………………… 4. In your learning environment what are the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry among the following (use V for the correct responses) a. School location b. Hunger c. Lack of electricity d. Lack of time for preps e. Stress 5. Suggest some solution to remove the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry. a)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… b)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… c)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… d)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Thank you for your answers

                                                                        APPENDIX II:
TEACHERS QUESTIONNAIRE
Kavumu College of Education
P.O Box 125
Muhanga
Date…………/……………/…............


Dear Sir/ Madam RE: RESEARCH ON FACTORS THAT HINDER TEACHING AND LEARNING CHEMISTRY IN S2 AT G.S GITARAMA. You are kindly request to fill in this questionnaire. The information you will be treated with confidentiality so do not indicate your name. The responses you will give will be helpful for stud purposes. Thank You. DUSHIMIRIMANA Jean Baptist MUKASHEMA Christine MUKASINE Espérance NTARINDWA John

1. INSTRUCTIONS


 Put a cross sign(x) in the box corresponding to your choice and explain where necessary  For some other questions ,answer in the space provided  Respond in English.

1) What are the factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama? a)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… b)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… C)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2) What are the effects of factors that hinder teaching and learning chemistry in S2c at G S Gitarama on chemistry teachers? a)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… b)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… c)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3) What can be done in order to improve teaching and learning chemistry at G S Gitarama? a)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… b)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… c)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Thank you for your answers.