# User talk:Arullawrence

## Contents

HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT002:12, 10 December 2017
NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY002:10, 10 December 2017
PIAGET’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT002:20, 25 October 2013

## HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATURE Vs NURTURE Individual differences occurring under the same heredity may be attributed to the operation of different environmental factors. Similarly, when the environments are sufficiently alike, dissimilarities of behaviour indicate differing heredity. A significant question in developmental psychology is the relationship between innateness (Nature or heredity) and environmental influence (Nurture) in regard to any particular aspect of development. This is often referred to as "nature versus nurture" or nativism versus empiricism. A nativist account of development would argue that the processes in question are innate, that is, they are specified by the organism's genes. An empiricist perspective would argue that those processes are acquired in interaction with the environment. Today developmental psychologists rarely take such extreme positions with regard to most aspects of development; rather they investigate, among many other things, the relationship between innate and environmental influences.

HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT MEANING The meaning of words ‘growth and development’ is understood interchangeably. Terminology wise ‘Growth’ means increase and enlargement of the body or some parts of the body e.g. body has become heavier and larger etc. Thus growth is a change in the organism which can be observed and measured in quantitative term. Development’ means more advancement, greater unfolding and growing forward to greater maturity. It refers to changes over time which is not subject to quantitative measurement but express themselves through certain behaviour pattern.

DEFINITION • Development means a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderly predictable pattern as a result of maturation and experience - E.B. Hurlock. • Development means whole sequence of life from conception to death - Pearsy London • Development is more important than ordinary change. Development can be observed and to certain extent it can be measured and evaluated. Its evaluation and measurement can be done in three ways – Anatomic, Physiological and Behavioral. Behaviour signs provide elaborate indices of the individual’s power and his level of development – Gessel. To sum up the above meaning ‘development’ is comprehensive in terms whereas growth’ is one of the aspects of development which refers to increase caused by becoming larger and heavier in size and weight. ‘Development’ of the child can be defined as the emergence and expansion of his capacities to provide greater facility in functioning. This development is achieved through the process of growth, maturation and learning which has two aspects of change; those of quantity and quality.

GROWTH The term ‘Growth’ is used in the physical sense. It generally refers to increase in size, length, height and w eight. Changes in quantitative aspects, which could be objectively observed and measured, come into the domain of growth. Growth is one of the components of developmental process. Ina sense development in its quantitative aspect is termed as growth.

Characteristics of Growth: 1. Hereditary factor is the cause. 2. Physical factors play a dominant role. 2. Expansion is height and weight is its apparent result. 3. It is quantitative, additive and augmentative. 4. Growth stops at a particular point of life. 5. Growth need not necessarily cause development in all the cases. 6. Rate of growth is distinct and unique. 7. Individual difference in growth is apparent and obvious.

DEVELOPMENT Development is a qualitative and integral change occurring at physical and mental levels improving the efficiency or functional ability.

Characteristics of Development: 1. Development is a result of experience and maturation. 2. It is a continuous process. 3. It does not halt at puberty. 4. It increases the intellectual, moral, social qualities. 5. It is predictable and environment plays a dominant role. 6. Learning is presupposition for development. 7. It is difficult to measure in quantitative measures. 8. Mental development could occur even without physical growth.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT:

Sl. No. Growth Development 1. Growth is quantitative and it shows an increase in size, weight and height. Development is both quantitative and qualitative. 2. It is pertaining to physical and biological aspects. It is pertaining to increasing the functional ability of an individual. 3. It is directional. It is sequential and progressive. 4. It stops after the peak maturational level It is a lifelong process. 5. It could be objectively measured and exactly measured. It cannot be measured easily. Yet keen and continuous observation could reveal developmental levels. 6. Motor and physical domain plays a dominant role. Cognitive and affective domains play a vital role. 7. It is not affected by learning. Learning and experience has a lot of impact on development. 8. It is automatic in the sense that it does not demand much effort. Development requires constant, continuous and guided efforts. 9. Growth need not necessarily lead to development. It may or may not. Development is integrative and includes mental, emotional, moral aspects. 10. Individual differences exist among children and it could be treated by Physicians and therapeutic techniques. Individual differences do exist in the learning skills and can not be improved by clinical methods.

Conclusion: Though there exists many differences between growth and development, they are interrelated, intertwined, complementary and not contradictory.

PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION There is a set of principles that characterizes the pattern and process of growth and development. These principles or characteristics describe typical development as a predictable and orderly process; that is, we can predict how most children will develop and that they will develop at the same rate and at about the same time as other children. Although there are individual differences in children's personalities, activity levels, and timing of developmental milestones, such as ages and stages, the principles and characteristics of development are universal patterns.

CONCLUSION An understanding of the principles of development helps us to plan appropriate activities and stimulating and enriching experiences for children, and provides a basis for understanding how to encourage and support young children's learning.

CHARACTERISTICS, DIMENSIONS OF DEVELOPMENT 1. Physical, 2. Cognitive, 3. Emotional, 4. Social and 5. Moral.

PHASES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

             The entire life span of the individual is divided into various stages. We know that development is a continuous process. All individuals have to pass through these following stages of development.


PERIOD OR STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT APPROXIMATE AGE PRENATAL PERIOD (From Conception to Birth) 1. Germinal Period First two weeks from fertilization 2. Embryonic Period From Third to Eighth weeks 3. Fetal Period From Ninth week to birth POSTNATAL PERIOD (From Birth to Death) 1. Infancy From birth to 2 years 2. Childhood From 3 years to12 years or up to the onset of puberty a. Early Childhood From 3 years to 6 years b. Later Childhood From 7 years to 12 years or up to the onset of puberty 3. Adolescence From 13 years to 19 years or from onset of puberty till attainment of maturity a. Early Adolescence From 13 to 16 years b. Later Adolescence From 17 to 19 years 4. Adulthood From 20 years to 60 years a. Early Adulthood From 20 to 40 years b. Later Adulthood From 41 to 60 years 5 Old Age From 61 years to death

INFANCY INTRODUCTION: o MEDICAL CIRCLES: An infant is referred to a person who is incapable of speech and is thus helpless. o LEGALLY: A person is regarded an infant until he reaches the age of eighteen. A minor, according to the law, is thus an infant. o PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH CENTRES: Refer to the first 2 years of life as infancy. o ELIZABETH B. HURLOCK has spanned INFANCY from birth till 2 weeks and attributed the term BABYHOOD from the period extending from the end of the second week after birth until the end of the second year of life. o GENERALLY: Infancy refers to the period of development that begins at birth and ends about 18 months to 2 years of age with early language use.

MODERN UNDERSTANDING OF INFANCY: Although it comprises only 2 percent of the life span, infancy is one of the most remarkable and busiest times of development. The new born baby or neonate, (refers to infants from birth through the first month of life) enters the world with surprisingly sophisticated perceptual and motor abilities, a set of skills for interacting with people, and a capacity to learn that is put to use immediately after birth. By the end of infancy, the small child is a sociable, self-assertive, purposeful being who walks on her own, has developed refined manual skills, and is prepared to acquire the most unique of human abilities-language. Our view of the infant has changed drastically over this century. At one time, the new born baby was considered to be a passive, incompetent being whose world was, in the words of turn-of-the-century psychologist William James, “A blooming, buzzing confusion”. Recently developed methods and equipments permitting researchers to test the young baby’s capacities have shown this image to be wrong. It is now well accepted that the infants, from the outset, are skilled and capable beings who display the beginnings of many complex abilities.

GENERAL NOTIONS OF INFANCY: • ‘Age of Dependence’: The infant is totally dependent on the caretaker to fulfill all its needs. • ‘Age of Rapid Growth and Change’: Growth is both physical and psychological. The bodily movements are more coordinated and the infant is able to recognize and identify people and objects, • ‘The Foundation Age’: At this period of time, the foundations of many behaviour, patterns, attitude to others and self and emotional expressions are being established. • ‘A Shy Age’: The infant’s world is limited to the family and to significant people. It shies away from strangers and unfamiliar surroundings. • ‘A Hazardous Age’: The child is prone to physical illnesses and accidents. The high infant mortality rate is evidence of this. Also psychological damage. • ‘An Appealing Age’: Adults as well as older children find the infant appealing because of its helplessness, dependency and easy to manage feeling that one gets.

NEWBORN REFLEXES: A reflex is an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation. Reflexes are the neonate’s most obvious organized patterns of behaviour. Like breathing and swallowing, some newborns reflexes have survival value. Infants come into the world with dozens of them. They are as follows: 1. Rooting (Head turns toward source of stimulation) 2. Sucking (Infant sucks finger rhythmically) 3. Swimming (Baby paddles and kicks in swimming motion) 4. Eye blink (Infant closes eye lids quickly) 5. Withdrawal (Foot withdraws, with flexion of knee and hip) 6. Babinski (Toes fan out and curls as foot twists in) 7. Moro (Infant makes an ‘embracing’ motion) 8. Palmar grasp (Infant grasps adult finger) 9. Tonic neck (Infant assumes a ‘fencing position’) 10. Body righting (Rest of body turns in same direction) 11. Stepping (Infant lifts one foot after another in stepping response) PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: • At birth, the average infant weighs 7.5 pounds and measures 19.5 inches in length. • During the 1st 6 months, growth continues at a rapid rate and then begins to slow down in the second year. • In the 1st year there is increase in weight to approximately 21 pounds and in the second year the height increases between 28 and 30 inches. • Head growth slows down while trunk and limb growth increases. • The number of bones increases and ossification begins. • Out of the 20 temporary teeth, about 16 appear by the age of 2 years. • Growth in the nervous system consists primarily of the development of immature cells present at birth, rather than the formation of new cells. • Eye muscles are well coordinated. Can distinguish colours. Skin stimuli are highly responsive because of the thin texture of the skin.

Pattern of Motor Control: i) Head region:- (a) Eye control (b) Starts smiling (c) Can hold the head erect. ii) Trunk region:- (a) Can roll over completely by 6 months. (b) Is able to sit by 7 months. iii) Arms:- Can reach objects and can pick up small objects by 1 year. iv) Legs:- Can walk without support at 14 months. Pre-speech forms of Communication: (1) Crying (2) Babbling (3) Gesturing with words (4) Emotional expressions

EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Common Emotional Patterns: o Anger: When interfered with its movements, unable to do a task, for not being understood, the child reacts by screaming, kicking, waving the arms, jumps up and down, et al. o Fear: Any stimulus which occurs suddenly or unexpectedly or which is different from what the infant is accustomed to gives rise to fear. o Curiosity: Anything new or unusual acts as a stimulus to curiosity. They express curiosity mainly through their facial expressions. o Joy: is stimulated by physical well-being and friendly responses of others. They are expressed through smiling, laughing, baby coos, gurgles or even shouts with glee, and all bodily movements are intensified. o Affection: Family members, toys and family pets stimulate the infant’s affection which it expresses by hugging, patting and kissing.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Infancy is centered round home and therefore it is here that the foundations for later social behaviour and attitudes are formed. A happy environment at home enhances the social adjustability while infants who cried excessively tend to become aggressive. Socialising Behaviour of the Infant: • At birth it makes no difference who takes care of its physical needs. • By 2-3 months it distinguishes people from inanimate objects. • By 4-5 months loves to be picked up and reacts differently to friendly and angry voices. • 6-7 months is the beginning of the ‘shy age’. It smiles at ‘friends’ and shows fear in the presence of ‘strangers’. It is attracted to other babies. • 8-9 months it attempts to imitate the speech, gestures and simple acts of others. • 20-24 months it co-operates in routine activities like being dressed, fed, and bathed. Is interested in playing with other babies and uses play materials to establish social relationship with them.

MENTAL DEVELOPMENT: According to Piaget this is the ‘Sensorimotor Stage’ in conceptual development. Its earliest perceptions come through sensory exploration. It understands by: • Looking, listening, smelling and tasting anything that comes its way. • Tries to discover meaning through simpler forms by asking the questions ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘why’. • It associates ideas with objects and situations resulting in the development of concepts. Develops concepts of space, weight, time, self, social, beauty and comic.

MORAL DEVELOPMENT: The infant is non-moral as his behaviour is not guided by moral standards. The rightness or wrongness of its actions is judged by the ‘Pleasure-Pain Principle’ it has on him. It perceives the act as good or bad if it brings him pleasure or pain respectively. It has no sense of guilt as it has no concept of personal property. Therefore, it does not feel bad in taking the things of others. The infant is in the 1st stage of moral development which Piaget terms as ‘Morality by Constraint’.

CONCLUSION: It is in infancy that the reservoir of security is formed, from which love, affection and compassion may be drawn all the rest of life. It is also in infancy that the basic orientation towards learning is established. The nature and condition of the child’s learning may alter as it grows older, but the first learning’s appear to be fundamental and at least to a degree determine the later attitudes. The relevance of basic trust to later living and learning implies that adequate loving care in infancy may be a potent factor in the ultimate realization of full human potential. CHILDHOOD INTRODUCTION Education aims at the all round harmonious development of an individual. The development of a nation depends upon the development of its children and there is no doubt that the childhood is the foundation upon which the development of an individual depends. Childhood, the period between three and twelve years of age, is an extremely impressionable age, where all the little things that the child learns in the starting years will be carried over with him into adulthood. This period is divided into the period of early childhood and the period of late childhood.

A. Early Childhood:


This period of early childhood ranges from 3-6 years. From the point of view, childhood is a period of consolidation of infancy and babyhood. Generally parents consider the ‘Early Childhood’ a problem age or troublesome age. Educators consider it pre-school age or toy age. While some psychologists’ name it pre-gang age, some call it exploratory or questioning age and most of them say it imitative age or creative age. Characteristics: • Physical development continues at a slower rate because of which his hunger may decrease temporarily. • Muscles are more evenly distributed and muscular coordination is increased. The control of elimination moves towards perfection in these years. • The bones develop in size and shape. • The nervous system becomes more mature. • There is rapid increase in vocabulary and the child can express his thoughts and emotions in simple sentences. He can relate stories. • The power of imitation is very active. • The child seeks to gain control over his environment. His instincts such as curiosity, self-display, and acquisition become active. • The child learns to make social adjustments. He develops emotional attachment to his parents and other family members, and learns primary social manners. • The child has imaginary friends. There is an increase in the fear of imaginary creatures, the dark, and the animals. • The child in this stage learns I’, me’, and you’.

B. Late Childhood: The period of 6 -12 years is considered as late childhood period. This age is known by the educators as elementary school age and psychologists call it gang age and play age. Characteristics: • Increase in the size of the body is the main characteristic of this stage. Physical growth becomes slow and steady. There is remarkable growth in height, weight and improvement in motor skills. • The major development is building up friends with peer team spirit. Social development takes place through the social experiences. • Maturity occurs rapidly. Girls mature faster than boys. • At this age children move from egocentric to socialized speech and thoughts. • The self-concept emerges in children. • The children show interests in comics, movies, and television. • Moral development also takes place. The child’s conscience begins to develop in identification with parents. • Affection, sympathy, and cooperation among the group members emerge during this period. • Emotional stability in the conduct and behaviour of the child takes place. He learns to have control over his emotional expressions. • Control over the mind is also an important aspect of this stage. Most children enjoy the feeling of having learned new and difficult things. AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT 1. Physical development: Physical development can be defined as the series of anatomic and physiologic changes taking place between the beginning of pre-natal life and senility. 1. The child begins to assume the body proportions for an adult. 2. Height: Generally after two and half years the child gains 2-2.5 inches every year up to 12 years. Approximately the height of male child becomes 45 inches and female 43 inches. 3. Weight: There is steady increase in weight, average growth per year 5 to 6 pounds. 4. Legs growth is rapid and represent about half of ones total height 5. The head is slow in growth but the trunk grows a little faster. 6. Towards puberty girls are a bit lighter and shorter. 7. At this age muscle develops at rapid speed.

2. Motor development: Motor development means development of strength, speed and accuracy in the use of muscular parts of the body such as arms, eyes, legs and neck muscles. Motor abilities involve bodily movements of various organs and coordinated functions of nerves and muscles. o Motor development adopts two directions - from head to foot and from the centre of the body to outward. o Motor development occurs in four major areas - the head region, the trunk, the arms and hands, and legs and feet. o Childhood is called the ideal age of learning motor skills. There are three reasons. 1. Young children enjoy repetition and are willing to repeat an activity until they have acquired the ability to do it well. 2. Young children are adventuresome. 3. Young children learn easily and quickly because their bodies are still pliable. o Spontaneous catching a ball, throwing a ball begins at 2-5 years onwards. o Painting, writing. o Standing, walking, running, climbing, skipping, hopping jumping and kicking the ball etc.

3. Emotional development: The word ‘emotion’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Emovere’ which means to stir up, to agitate or to excite. According to R.S. Woods Worth (1945) “Emotion is a moved or stirred up state of an organism. It is a stirred up state of feeling that is the way it appears to the individual himself. It is a disturbed muscular and glandular activity- that is the way it appears to an external observer.” Every child is born with the potential expression. Emotion is a label for vast range of psychosomatic states which involve feeling, perception, or awareness of an event or circumstances. The word emotion covers conditions of both positive and negative character. The condition in which an individual is eager, zestful, jubilant and moved is referred to as positive condition, while on the other hand the condition in which an individual feels disturbed, distressed and moved away is referred as negative condition. Common childhood emotions: 1. Fear: As the children pass from the pre-school to the elementary school they are faced with certain fears.  Children of six years show fear for the supernatural beings such as ghosts and witches.  By seven years children show fear for quarrels, wars and spies etc.  Fear of failure and not being liked by people is common among the children of 8 years. Ten to 12 year olds are fearful of things as being in the dark, animals. 2. Anger and rivalry against siblings 3. Jealousy 4. Joy and pleasure 5. Love and affection

4. Mental or intellectual development: Mental development implies the progressive changes in the mental process which goes on from birth to death. Mental development includes various aspects such as development of concepts, perception, language, memory, reasoning, thinking, intelligence and imagination. Mental growth continues in childhood also. The child seeks to satisfy his voracious curiosity by asking an infinite variety of questions to his parents. That is why this age is called a questioning age or an exploratory age. • At this stage reflex actions and instincts develop • Child’s interests grow in number and extents. • Child develops interests in reading short stories. • Child spends much time in reading history and visiting new places. • At this time power of memory increases. • At 6 years child displays ability to distinguish between right and left, to count up to 13 or 14 objects, to solve problems. • At 7 years child develops to distinguish between two objects. • At 8 years child is able to repeat sentences containing 16 to 17 words. • At 9 years child becomes conscious of day, time, date, recognizes coins of various denominations. Thus new concepts are picked up. • At 10 years child points out mistakes in short sentences and repeats 60-70 words in three minutes. • At 11 years child can recognize similarity and differences, make comparisons, distinguish between male and female, as well as birds and animals. • At 12 years child points out the cause of a thing and provides his own explanation. 5. Language development: A major feature that distinguishes the human being from animal is their ability to use vocal speech as a means of communication. Towards the end of babyhood 2-3 years child begins to use words and forming sentences. At 4-5 years child improves to form sentences considerably and is able to use grammar. After 5 he achieves comprehension of meanings of the words, builds up new vocabulary e.g. good, bad, this, that and learns to have correct pronunciation, identifies sound of the certain difficult letters e.g. Z, W, Sh, Stir etc. Language development according to Scissore is as follows: Age in years Words 4 5,600 5 9,600 6 14,700 7 21,200 8 26,300 10 34,300

Hyder brothers concluded from their studies that a. linguistic development is faster in the case of girls than that of boys b. girls construct longer sentences than boys c. girls are more skilled in expressing their thoughts coherently. The child learns three forms of language namely spoken, written and gesture. The individual’s linguistic development is profoundly influenced by the community, home, school, and the family’s social and economic status. Besides these important factors affecting are his intelligence, health, maturation, sex and personality.

6. Social development: 1. Social development is the process of learning to conform to group standards - Freeman and Showel. 2. Social development means acquisition of the ability to behave in accordance with social expectations - Crow and Crow. 3. Social development means the attaining of maturity in social setting- E.B. Hurlock. A social child behaves in a socially approved manner, plays the role which society prescribes for him and has favourable attitude towards people and social activities. • Between 2-6 years children learn to make social contacts and get along with people outside home, especially with children of their own. • In childhood, children have strong desires to be with children and to be accepted by them. • Peer groups have greater impact on some children than on others. • Children show kindness to others and defend the rights of younger children • Friendship at late childhood can easily be made and broken. • Maintain individual friendships. • Girls have groups. • 8-10 years (gang age) often reject adult’s standard. Characteristics of social development

1. Early social response 2. Response to other children 3. Group activities 4. Social perception 5. Resistant behavior 6. Sympathy 7. Fights and quarrels 8. Cooperation 9. Competition

7. Moral development: The term moral comes from the Latin word mores which means manners, custom, and folkways. Moral behaviour means human behviour in conformity with moral code of social group. It is carried out in a voluntary way. Moral behaviour is accompanied by a feeling of a personal responsibility for one’s acts. In this respect the young child’s intellectual development has not yet reached the point where he can learn or apply abstract principles of right and wrong. The child has to learn what is good and what is bad which is a slow process. Piaget has divided moral development into three parts of childhood in which the child learns such behaviour: 1. During this period (4-5) he begins to imitate the actions of parents and others who are in close touch with him. 2. At 5-8 years he learns to respect parents, teachers, and other adults. Morality of obedience and duty is inculcated happily and spontaneously. 3. At this age (9-13) there is the morality of cooperation through free, reciprocal relationship with his peers. Child develops a morality of mutual respect and cooperation. This stage is considered as the golden year of life because experiences of the child of this period remain life long. Moral development of child implies inculcation in the child a number of qualities for which curriculum provides ample opportunities. E.g. Honesty in words and deeds, truthfulness, self respect and desire to respect others, righteousness, self control, duty consciousness and compassion. In spite of hazards the child develops conscience. Here the role of discipline is very essential in the moral development of the child.

CONCLUSION Childhood is the time when the individual’s basic outlooks, values and ideals are to a great extent shaped. The experiences a child has at school, home and larger community during these formative years well determine, for example, whether he is to be a fearful child or a one possessed with confidence in himself or whether he will be tolerant or intolerant towards others. ‘No period during the life cycle is more important than childhood from an educational point of view.’

Purposes: Developmental task serve three very useful purposes. 1. Developmental task is the guidance that enables a person to know what society expects from them at a given age. 2. Individuals are motivated to do what the social group expects them to do at (certain ages) different periods of the life span. 3. It indicates what lies ahead and what will be expected to do when they reach the next stage of development.

Hazards: There are three very common potential hazards related to developmental tasks. 1. The first one is the inappropriate expectations; either individual themselves or the social group may expect the development of behaviour that is impossible at the time because of physical or psychological limitations. 2. The second one is the Bypassing of a stage of development as results of failure of master the tasks for that stage of development. 3. The crises individuals experience when they pass from one stage to another comprise the third one.

Factors influencing mastery of developmental task: 1. A retarded developmental level 2. Lack of opportunity to learn developmental tasks or lack of guidance in their mastery 3. Lack of motivation 4. Poor health 5. Physical defects 6. A low intellectual level

Implications: o The concept of developmental task is very helpful in specifying course’s content and its objectives. o The pupil can know in advance, what the society expects from his/her at that age. o Parents and teachers can guide the children to acquire skills to live in the society. o The teachers and parents can prepare appropriate climate or atmosphere to achieve a developmental task.

CONCLUSION The developmental tasks concept has a long and rich tradition. Its acceptance has been partly due to recognition of sensitive periods in our lives and partly due to the practical nature of Havighurst's tasks. Knowing that a youngster of a certain age is encountering one of the tasks of that period (learning an appropriate sex role) helps adults to understand a child's behavior and establish an environment that helps the child to master the tasks. Another good example is that of acquiring personal independence, an important task for the middle childhood period. Youngsters test authority during this phase and, if teachers and parents realize that this is a normal, even necessary phase of development, they react differently than if they see it as a personal challenge.

Arul Lawrence (talk)02:08, 10 December 2017

## NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

PSYCHOLOGY

Meaning The word psychology was used for the first time in 1590 by Rudolf Geockle. It is made up of two Greek words: “Psyche” which means ‘soul’ and “logos” which means ‘study’ or ‘science’. Therefore, literally psychology means “science of soul”. 1. Science of Soul: In the beginning psychology continued to be studied as the science of soul. But such an inscrutable and imperceptible object as the soul has not been discovered or identified yet. Scientists have failed to locate and identify the entity of soul. Therefore this definition of psychology as the science of soul was not accepted. 2. Science of Mind: Later Psychology was considered as the “science of the mind”. This definition too gave rise to such questions as: Can the mind be studied scientifically? How can the functioning of the brain be rendered concrete? Can it be studied in the laboratory? Secondly, it is not clear what is mind. It can be interpreted in various ways. So, this definition of psychology also was abandoned as it was unacceptable. 3. Science of Consciousness: Man is a conscious being and because of this consciousness he reacts to the environment. Therefore, Psychology was considered ‘a science of consciousness. Psychologists have established that consciousness does not have any impact upon behaviour and psychology studies not merely the consciousness but also the sub-conscious and the unconscious. Therefore, this definition of psychology also was not acceptable. 4. Science of behaviour: At the beginning of 20th century as a result of many new hypotheses psychology was called ‘the science of behaviour’. Broadly, anything that an organism does, including overt physical action, internal physiological and emotional processes and implicit activity is called behaviour. In fact action, reaction and interaction is called behaviour. It includes all the activities of an organism which can be observed by another person or by means of an experimenter’s instruments. Thus, as Woodworth ironically puts it – “First psychology lost its soul, then it lost its mind, then it lost its consciousness, it still has behaviour of sort.”

Definition o Psychology is the science of human behaviour - W. B. Kolesnik o Psychology is the study of adjustments of organism, especially the human organism to changing environment - C.V. Good. o Psychology is the scientific study of the activities of the individual in relation to his environment - Woods Worth. o Psychology is the study of human behaviour and human relationships -Crow and Crow. o Psychology gives scientific analysis of the working of human mind –Russell. o Psychology as a discipline falls in the category of pure sciences: 1. It is empirical; experimental. 2. It is a systematic study. 3. It uses measurements and tools of measurement. 4. It arrives at generalizations, principles, laws and theories. 5. It has definitions of terms. o Psychology is an art. The application of knowledge to practical problems is an art.

METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology is considered as a science. Scientific methods are now used in Educational Psychology. The most important methods are following:

DEFINITIONS OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: o Educational psychology is (i) the investigation of psychological problems involved in education, together with the practical application of psychological principles to education (ii) a study of nature of learning - C.V. Good. o Educational Psychology is a systematic study of educational growth - J.M. Stephon. o Educational psychology is that branch of psychology which deals with teaching and learning – Skinner. o Educational psychology describes and explains the learning experiences of an individual from birth through old age -Crow and Crow. NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY o Educational Psychology is an applied form of psychology. The application of the principles of Psychology to education is Educational Psychology. It is the basic science of Psychology used to help to solve the practical problems of education. o Educational Psychology is a practical science, the utility of which is measured by the changes brought about in behaviour through education. o Educational Psychology became a positive science after adopting the principles of psychology. o Educational Psychology is helpful in the achievement of the practical ideals of life. o Educational Psychology is a field of knowledge with which students, teachers and parents must be familiar. o Educational Psychology is a systematic study. o Educational Psychology collects facts and data using the scientific methods especially through observation of phenomenon under natural and under controlled conditions. o Educational psychology is an applied branch of the subject psychology. o Psychology deals with all the behaviour of all individuals. But educational psychology deals only the behaviour of the students. o It gives the technical guidance to the pupil in a satisfactory way. o Educational psychology is not a perfect science. o It employs scientific method and adopts scientific approach to study the behaviour of an individual in educational situation. o Educational psychology mainly focused the following concept, 1. The learner 2. The teacher 3. The learning process 4. The learning experiences and learning Situation

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IS DIFFERENT FROM GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY: The field of General Psychology is wider. It deals with every kind of human behaviour and with every kind of problem related to life. All forms of life processes, adjustments, activities and experiences of the organism may become the scope of General Psychology. Educational Psychology deals with the behaviour and experiences which are related to education only. It selects from the whole field of General Psychology those facts and principles that are specific to teaching and learning. In other words, General Psychology is basically academically oriented and consists of general principles of behaviour. Educational Psychology is professionally oriented and interested in finding out practical solutions to educational problems. Thus, Educational Psychology is just a specialised branch of General Psychology. SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: Educational psychology is a practical science which takes the aid of psychology in solving educational problems. Its field of study consists of and comprehends any and every situation in which psychology becomes applicable to education. As a discipline it is a collection of the facts and principles of behaviour. It studies human behaviour in the educational environment. In 1945, the Department of Educational Psychology in the American Scientific Council set up a committee to determine the field of Educational Psychology. After numerous surveys and considerable thought the fields of educational psychology were determined as follows: 1. Human Growth and Development: The field of educational psychology comprehends within itself the scientific study of the various stages in human development. It studies the process as well as the stages of this development. It studies: o Heredity and environment. o General growth and development. o Social, mental and emotional development o Motivation o Individual differences on the basis of knowledge. o Intelligence, aptitudes, interests and o Frames programmes for guidance. 2. Learning: In this sphere educational psychology undertakes the study of the many activities involved in a child’s learning, i.e., the principles underlying such learning and various factors which influence learning. o General nature of learning o Factors influencing learning o Motivation and devices in teaching o Skills o Reasoning and problem solving o Attitude o Learning of particular school steps o Transfer of training. 3. Personality and Adjustment: Educational Psychology also makes a study of the personality of students and teachers as well as the problems related to them. An individual’s personality is not the outcome of one factor, cause or tendency but a product of many different traits. Educational Psychology, therefore, comprehends the study of such problems as the formation or development of personality. o Emotions o Mental life of the pupils o Mental health of the teacher. o Exceptional children o Social interaction o Character. 4. Measurement and Evaluation: Educational psychology pays considerable attention to the measurement of the educational achievement, determination of standards, etc. In this context it also makes a study of: o Measurement of intelligence an aptitudes. o Measurement of learning o Measurement of adjustment o Applications on results of measurement o Measurement of changes resulting form evaluation. 5. Techniques and Methods of study: Educational psychology as a discipline is still in its developmental stage. The existing methods of study have been found to be wanting in many situations. Hence, one major sphere of concern for educational psychology is the development of new methods and their establishment as standard techniques; for – o Scientific study of educational problems o Statistical techniques o Implementation of research for the class-room teacher.

     In short, whatever is educational or whatever touches the child in his class-room behaviour comes within the scope of educational psychology.  All the above 5 areas come within the scope of educational psychology.
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Educational psychology is useful in: 1. Educational administration 2. in the curriculum 3. in the teacher training. It helps to answer question: (i) How of the learning process (ii) Why of the learning process (iii) What of the learning process (iv) When of the learning process. The impact of educational psychology on the teacher and the teaching process has been varied and deep. Without its help education will be non-psychological and lack romantic and human background. In sum educational psychology has given a new direction to education. In fact, it has given rise to a revolution. IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY TO TEACHERS: 1. To know the learner: Educational psychology helps the teacher for understanding the child in the following different ways: • Students interest, attitudes, aptitudes • the stages of development • adjustment problems • creativity and motivation pattern • level of aspiration • his conflicts and mental health

2. To select and organize the subject matter or learning experiences: The teacher should know the characteristic of the learner at each stage of his development, the nature and laws of learning. 3. To suggest art and techniques of learning as well as teaching: Educational psychology explains the process of learning and suggests the means for effective and permanent learning. It also suggests that not a single method or technique is suitable for all kinds of learners in all circumstances. A teacher should select a proper device or method according to the learning situations. 4. To arrange learning situations or environment: The educational psychology helps the teacher for taking care of the desirable learning situations or environment. 5. To explain him with the mechanism of heredity and environment: The growth and development of the students is very essential for the teacher. So that, the teacher can teaches according to their mental ability. 6. Helping in maintaining discipline: It helps the teacher to have a creative type of discipline as it acquaints him with the nature of the child, his strength and weakness. 7. Giving Guidance and Counseling: Educational psychology helps the teacher to give guidance and counseling to the students. The guidance may be educational, personal and vocational. With the help of the educational psychology, the teacher can show the right direction to his pupils for their total development. 8. Helping in Evaluation and Assessment: In educational psychology, as applied behavioural science, evaluation, measurement and appraisal find its place which makes the teacher well-equipped in the task of evaluation with proper professional skill. 9. Solving Class-room problems: The study of the characteristic of the problem children, the dynamics of the group, behavioural characteristics and adjustment etc. equip the teacher to solve the actual class-room problems. 10. Knowing about himself: It helps the teacher to know about himself. His own behaviour pattern, personality characteristics, likes and dislikes, motivation, anxiety, conflicts, adjustment etc. the teacher also learns the psychology of being and characteristics of effective teaching.

Arul Lawrence (talk)02:10, 10 December 2017

## PIAGET’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Introduction Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the 20th century’s most influential researchers in the area of developmental psychology. He was a child prodigy who published his first article at the age of 11. He originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and considered himself a “genetic epistemologist.” He was mainly interested in the biological influences on “how we come to know”. And believed that what distinguishes human beings from other animals is our ability to do “abstract symbolic reasoning.” While working in Binet’s test lab in Paris, Piaget became interested in how children think. He noticed that young children's answers were qualitatively than older children. This suggested to him that the younger children were not less knowledgeable but, instead, answered the questions differently than their older peers because they thought differently. This implies that human development is qualitative (changes in kind) rather than quantitative (changes in amount).

What is Cognition? o How people think and understand. o The act or process of knowing in the broadest sense; specifically, an intellectual process by which knowledge is gained from perception or ideas-Webster's Dictionary.

What is Cognitive Development? o The acquisition of the ability to think, reason, and problem solve. o It is the process by which people's thinking changes across the life span. o Piaget studied cognitive development by observing children in particular, to examine how their thought processes change with age. o He pioneered a way of thinking about how children grow psychologically. o It is the growing apprehension and adaptation to the physical and social environment.

Cognitive Structure

Process of Cognitive Development As a biologist, Piaget was interested in how an organism adapts to its environment (Piaget described this ability as intelligence.) o Schema: To know an object one must act upon it either physically or mentally. The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together. o Organization: The way cognitive acts are grouped and arranged to form sequences, mental “folders” or schemata. o Assimilation: The process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures. For Example: an infant uses a sucking schema that was developed by sucking on a small bottle when attempting to suck on a larger bottle. o Accommodation: The process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment. For Example: the infant modifies a sucking schema developed by sucking on a pacifier to one that would be successful for sucking on a bottle. o Equilibration: This adaptation is driven by a biological drive to obtain balance between schemes and the environment.

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Stage One: Sensory motor Stage (birth to 2 years - Infancy) o It is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world. o An infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to their sensory perceptions and motor activities. Sub-stages of the Sensory motor Stage: It can be divided into six separate sub-stages. o Reflexes (0-1 month): the child understands the environment purely through inborn reflexes such as sucking, grasping and looking. o Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months): It involves coordinating sensation and new schemas. For example: A child may such his or her thumb by accident and then later intentionally repeat the action. These actions are repeated because the infant finds them pleasurable. o Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months): The child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. For example: A child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth. o Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months): The child starts to show clearly intentional actions. The child may also combine schemas in order to achieve a desired effect. For example: A child might realize that a rattle will make a sound when shaken. o Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months): Children begin a period of trial-and-error experimentation. For example: A child may try out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver. o Early Representational Thought (18-24 months): Children begin to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world. The child is clearly developing mental representation, that is, the ability to hold an image in their mind for a period beyond the immediate experience.

Stage Two: Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years - Toddler and Early Childhood) o The child is capable of more complex mental representations (i.e. words and images). o Now that the child has mental representations and is able to pretend, it is a short step to the use of symbols. o A drawing, a written word, or a spoken word comes to be understood as representing a real dog. The use of language is, of course, the prime example, but another good example of symbol use is creative play, wherein checkers are cookies, papers are dishes, a box is the table, and so on. o Cannot yet use logic or other organized thinking processes. o The child has very narrow thinking. o Does not understand Conservation - that objects can have the same basic properties even if it appears differently. o Find difficulty with Reversibility-realizing that an action can be reversed by other actions. o Ability to solve conservation problems depends on an understanding of three basic aspects of reasoning: identity, compensation, and reversibility. o With mastery of 1. Identity: The student realizes that material remains the same if nothing is added to or subtracted from the material. 2. Compensation: The student realizes that changes in one dimension can be offset by changes in another. 3. Reversibility: The student realizes that a change may be canceled out by mentally reversing the steps and returning to the origin. 4. Centrism: Focuses completely on one point, and so cannot see the bigger picture. 5. Egocentrism: Thinks that everyone sees things from his/her point of view. E.g.:” If I can’t see you, you can’t see me!” 6. Animism: Treating inanimate objects as living ones. E.g.: Children bathing, dressing and feeding their dolls as if they are alive.

Stage Three: Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 12 years - Childhood and Early Adolescence) o The word operations refer to logical operations or principles we use when solving problems. In this stage, the child not only uses symbols representationally, but can manipulate those symbols logically. o The child learns classification and seriation (putting things in order) in this stage. o Able to form a mental representation of a series of acts. o Transversibility is known i.e., If A=2B and A=2C, then can understand B=C. o Can play any game according to rule. o Develops abstract thinking, problem-solving ability good at the use inductive logic, but not the deductive method. o Continue to show narrow thinking when abstract reasoning is required, cannot think “outside of the box!”. o Masters various conservation and reversibility concepts and begins to perform logical manipulations. o The children develop the ability to conserve number, length, and liquid volume. Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance. For examples: 1. We show a child four marbles in a row, then spread them out, the preoperational child will focus on the spread, and tend to believe that there are now more marbles than before. o 2. We have two five inch sticks laid parallel to each other, then move one of them a little, she may believe that the moved stick is now longer than the other.

Stage Four: Formal Operational Stage (from 11 to 12 years and up - Adolescence and Adulthood) o The most complete stage of development. o Thought becomes increasingly flexible and abstract, i.e., can carry out systematic experiments. o The ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way. o Understand that nothing is absolute; everything is relative. o Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning develop inductive as well as deductive logic. o Understand that the rules of any games or social system are developed by man by mutual agreement and hence could be changed or modified. o The child’s way of thinking is at its most advanced, although the knowledge it has to work with will change.