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Bread Dough

Content outline

Essential ingredients in bread preparation

Selecting the ingredients

Steps in bread dough preparation



Concept Map


This OER enable you to:

1. list the essential ingredients to make Bread Dough

2. explain the importance of choosing the right type of flour for bread making & the

proportion of water, Yeast in making bread dough

3. use of the steps followed in making bread dough


Let us see how much do you know about the bread and then shall see what all goes in preparing dough for bread.


Q1. Which one of the following flour you think is commercially used for Bread making .

a) Rice flour

b) Refined flour

c) maize flour

Q2.For making bread which equipment you need




Q3 Which one of the following preparation require yeast






1.Which is the most widely used micro – organism used in preparing fermented dough?

2.Which are the three most essential ingredients required to make fermented dough.

a) water b) yeast c) honey d) flour e) salt d)milk powder

3 In large factories how are large quantities of bread manufactured?


The cereal grain most abundantly used for making bread is wheat flour which is processed to get Refined flour. Other grains used are Rye, maize. But its use is limited.To prepare bread dough the basic ingredients required are

Refine Flour



The refined flour which is obtained from hard wheat which means flour from wheat variety having higher percentage of protein ie. around 12—14% of protein .


The proportion of water to flour is the most important measurement in a bread recipe, as it affects texture and crumb the most.

Professional bakers use a system of percentages known as baker's percentage in their recipe formulations. They measure ingredients by weight instead of by volume, because measurement by weight is much more accurate and consistent than measurement by volume, especially for the dry ingredients.


The amount of flour is always stated as 100%, and the amounts of the rest of the ingredients are expressed as a percent of that amount by weight.

Common table bread in the U.S. uses about 50% or more of water, resulting in a finely textured, light bread. In yeast breads, the higher water percentages result in more CO2 bubbles and a coarser bread crumb. One pound (450 g) of flour will yield a standard loaf of bread or two French loaves.

Once the right kind of flour is chosen the steps involved in making dough for bread making are

Sr.No. Steps Tool req. Importance/Function
== 1 == == Sifting == == Sieve == == To remove impure material if any to incorporate air ==

== 2 == == Ferment == == Bowl == == To multiply yeast cells ==

== 3 == == Mixing == == Mixing bowl / mixer == == To combine ferment + flour +water ==

== 4 == == Kneading == == Dough scraper and Flat heavy duty table top , or Kneading machine == == Thoroughly mixing and by mechanical action develop gluten. ==

== 5 == == Fermenting ==

and Knocking

== Bowl or Flat working top == == To relax the dough and yeast cells to grow and release Co2 gas ==

To evenly distribute the Co2 gas and make even smooth dough to retain gas.

Kneading dough for white bread

Once the bread dough is kneaded it is allowed to rest which is known as bulk fermentation. The end of fermentation is seen when dough doubles in size as shown below


[[Image:]] [[Image:]]

Dough before first rising. Dough after first rising