The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Library of Resources
- 1 Websites
- 2 The Digestive System
- 3 Urinary System
- 4 Reproductive System
- 5 Nervous System
- 6 Senses
- 7 Endocrine System
Survey of the living world organic molecules. A good summary of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
In fact much more than that. There is an elementary cell biology and classification quiz but the best thing about this website are the links to tables of characteristics of the different animal groups, for animals both with and without backbones.
Careful! You could waste all day exploring this wonderful website. Chose an animal or group of animals you want to know about and you will see not only the classification but photos and details of distribution, behaviour and conservation status etc.
Nice clear explanation of the different categories used in the classification of animals.
Cell to test yourself on by dragging labels.
Cells Alive gives good animations of the animal cell.
A good and clear illustration of diffusion.
Great animations here of diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, endo and exocytosis and the development and action of lysosomes. A bit higher level than you need but still not to be mssed.
Nice simple osmosis animation.
Diffusion and osmosis. Watch what happens to the water and the solute molecules.
Even better osmosis demonstration - you get to add the salt.
Do an online experiment to illustrate osmosis and osmotic pressure.
Great interactive animal cell.
The Virtual Cell has beautiful pictures of lots of (virtual?) cell organelles.
Wikipedia is good for almost anything you want to know about cells. Just watch as there is much more here than you need to know.
A fabulous site showing you actual photos of microscope sections of the different tissues with short explanations of each and even quizzes.
Overview of the different organ systems (in humans) and their functions in maintaining homeostasis in the body.
Directional terms for animals. A little more detail than required but still great.
Good on keratin skin structures - hairs, feathers, horns etc.
All about hairy mammalian skin.
Fantastic article on bird feathers with great pictures.
Wikipedia on (human) skin. Good as usual, but more information than you need.
A good diagram of the bird skeleton.
A great introduction to the mammalian skeleton. A little above the level required but it has so much interesting information it's worth reading it.
Test yourself on the names of the bones of the (human) skeleton.
Quite a good article on the different kinds of joints with diagrams.
Wikipedia is disappointing where the skeleton is concerned. Most articles stick entirely to the human skeleton or have far too much detail. However this one on compact and spongy bone and the growth of bone is quite good although still much above the level required.
Description of the three types of muscles and how skeletal muscles work.
The Cardiovascular System
An animation of blood flow through the heart with step-by-step annotated breakdown. Also an animation putting heartbeat, valve operation and blood flow all together.
Great animation showing parts of heart plus constituents of blood including RBCs, white cells, platelets and plasma. Even shows how to make a blood smear and identify the white cells on it as well as make and read a haematocrit. Some parts are a little too advanced.
Drag and drop animation of the human heart. Great for revision but note the terms bicuspid and tricuspid valves are used. These are equivalent to the left and right atrio-ventricular valves in animals.
A good animation of the heartbeat showing the valves opening and closing with appropriate heart sounds. Plus a good diagram showing the difference between the atrio-ventricular and semilunar valves.
A great animation where you use the mouse to point to parts of the heart and a voice over tells you what part it is. Just note this is of the human heart so the terms superior and inferior vena cava are used instead of caudal and cranial as for an animal.
- Again Wikipedia is a wonderful resource, although remember, most of the material is on the human system.
The Respiratory System
A good interactive explanation of breathing and gas exchange in humans with diagrams to label, animations to watch and questions to answer.
Although this is of the human respiratory system there is a good diagram that gives the functions of the various parts as you move your mouse over it. Also an animation of gas exchange and a quiz to test your understanding of it.
Wikipedia on the lungs. Lots of good information on the human respiratory system with all sorts of links if you are interested.
The Lymphatic System
A nice clear explanation here with great diagrams of the (human) lymphatic system.
Introduction to the Lymphatic System. A good description of lymph circulation with an animation.
Good information here on the (human) lymphatic system, lymph circulation and lymphoid organs.
The Digestive System
- Second opinion A good comparison of the guts of carnivores and herbivores
- The gastrointestinal system A good comparison of the guts of carnivores and herbivores with more advanced information than in the previous site.
- Wikipedia on digestion with links to further information on most aspects. Like most websites this is mainly about human digestion but much is applicable to animals.
- Biology Corner A fabulous drawing of the kidney and nephron to print off, label and colour in with clear explanation of function.
- How Stuff Works This animation traces the full process of urine formation and reabsorption in the kidneys, its path down the ureter to the bladder, and its excretion via the urethra. Needs Shockwave.
- Wikipedia A bit more detail than you need but still good clear explanations and lots of information.
- Anatomical travel images of fertilisation and the development of the (human) embryo through to birth.
- Fertilisation A great animation of fertilisation, formation of the zygote and first mitotic division. A bit advanced but still worth watching.
- Sonic An animation showing the foetal blood circulation through the placenta to the changes allowing circulation through the lungs after birth.
- Wikipedia As always, good interesting information although some terms and concepts are beyond the requirements of this level.
- Wikipedia Lots of good information here but as usual a warning that there are terms and concepts that are beyond the scope of this course. Also try ‘reflex action’ ; ‘autonomic nervous system’ ;
- How Stuff Works This site is for the neuron but try ‘neuron types’, ‘brain parts’ and ‘balancing act’ too.
- Reflex Arc Nice clear and simple animation of a reflex arc.
- Wikipedia The old faithful. You can explore here to yours hearts desire. Try ‘eye’, ‘ear’, ‘taste’ etc. but also ‘equilibrioception’, and ‘echolocation’.
- BBC Science and Nature BBC animation of (human) olfactory organ and smelling.
- [*BBC Science BBC animation of (human) taste buds and tasting.
- Cataract and Laser Institute A nice interactive exploration of the structure and function of the (human) eye.
- Eye Diagram A diagram of the eye to label and test your knowledge.
- BBC on Hearing BBC animation of hearing. Well worth looking at.
- Ear Animation Another great animation of the ear and hearing.
- BBC Balance Animation An animation of the action of the otolith organ (called macula in this animation)
- Wikipedia. Much, much more than you ever need to know about hormones and the endocrine system but with a bit of discipline you can glean lots of useful information from this site.
- Drag and drop A drag and drop hormone and endocrine organ matching exercise.