# Talk:Life Skills Development/Module Two/Archive

                          PRESENTING HIV/AIDS


Terminology:

HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Syndrome: A collection of signs and symptoms common in a disease Incubation Period: The period when disease germs remain in a human before causing disease This,in the case of HIV and AIDS can be less than two years or more than ten years. It must be noted, however, that in the case of HIV, the virus multiplies very slowly ofer the period of time. Enzyme: Any group of complex proteins that can act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions. In other words, any enzyme causes something to change Reverse Transcriptase: An enzyme that HIV uses to gain entry into the command centre of the cells that fight viruses Integrase: Another enzyme that HIV uses to get inside the command centre Protease: This enzyme cuts out and assembles new viral parts into new copies of the virus Window Period: The period between someone getting the virus and when antibodies first appear in the blood. This period is generally two months in most people. It may be longer (about six months)in others.

History of HIV and AIDS

It is 1980 and Dr Michael Gottlieb (Assistant Professor at UCLA) is in a dilemma. He is fresh from training at Stanford and at the age of thirty-two this immunologist is anxious to find something stimulating and interesting about the immune system. There is a patient who is suffering from a yeast infection in his throat. It is so severe that he could hardly swallow. This thrush (Candidiasis) is seen in babies born with defects in their immune system. Some cancer patients who are on immune-suppressive chemotherapy sometimes suffer from this. Gottlieb had never seen such a condition in a thirty-one year old who appeared to be otherwise healthy. Two days later the patient complained of shortness of breath and a slight cough. He had pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Blood work showed the absence of T helper cells. Nothing in the medical world can explain it. The patient dies within a week. April 1981, is rrembered for an outbreak of Kaposi's Sarcoma in New York. The first official announcement of what would later become known "as the AIDS epidemic" was done on JUne 5th 1981 in the official publication of the US Centre for Disease Control in Atlanta. Since 1978, however, observations of patients with unusual clinical manifestations were recorded in a developed country.

How HIV Works in the Body

(Insert a picture of the virus here)

The immune system of the body fights off disease. The B cells fight of Bacteria,while The T Lymphocytes (also called T Helper cells or CD4 cells) fight off viruses. HIV is a retrovirus which attacks the CD4 cells. This is what happens, HIV uses a special enzyme to unlock and enter the CD4 cell. The chemical is like a key on the surface of the virus - ready to open CD4 cells for invasion and infection. HIV uses another chemical "Reverse Transcriptase" to change so it can gain entry into the cell's command centre. HIV uses another enzyme known as "Integrase" to get inside the command centre. Using the enzyme "Reverse Transcriptase" HIV disguises itself as a CD4 worker. In the command centre, CD4 workers are making substances to protect the body against diseases. HIV takes control of the command centre and reprogrammes the CD4 cell to make a new virus. HIV would have put in its own codes. The new infected CD4 cell is now nn HIV factory. It puts out new viral parts. A third enzyme - "Protease" cuts out and assembles the new viral parts into new copies of the virus. These new copies leave the host cell and go off to seek other CD4 cells. This manufacturing process continues and HIV multiplies in the body. There is a strange occurrence. The virions manufacture are different from the first virus. after a while there are so many virions in the body that the CD4 cells are unabvle to ward off disease. The individual eventually gets ill and dies.

Lets us look at the sources of infection.

Assessment One

Infection is acquired in the following ways:

Circle the correct response

Body fluids (blood, semen, vaginal secretions) holding hands From cups, spoons or other eating utensils Infected mother to child (in the womb, during birth or through breast milk) Car seats Sharing needles, razors and toothbrushes with infected blood on them Receiving contaminated blood Playing games Sex with an HIV positive partner

Someone habits put him/her at risk. The following assessment looks at risky behaviours

Tick the habits which expose the individual to risky.

Having sex (oral, anal or vaginal)with an HIV negative person Running around the park Having unprotected sex with partners whose status is unknown Playing with HIV positive children Feeding AIDS patients Using drugs Sharing a dweling with HIV positive people Deep throat kissing with an individual who has bleeding gums or sores in the mouth Having sex with a partner who has had a history of sexually transmitted Infections Having sex with a partner who has given you a sexually transmitted infection Having sex with a partner who has other partners Swimming in a pool Being bitten by insects Using unclean sex toys Working with HIV positive people Practising serial monogamy

Let us look at our risk. This is personal and you are advised to download the assessment and then do it in order to maintain your privacy. DO NOT DO THIS TEST ON LINE.

Am I At Risk

Tick 'Yes' or 'No" under the headings as the sentence applies to you

                                                                Yes                   No


I have had more than one sexual partner I practise unprotected sex I have had sex under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol I share sex toys without cleaning them between use I have had sex with a partner who has had other partners I have had unprotected sex with someone whose status is unknown I have had a sexually transmitted infection I have been raped I am a victim of incest I have received blood from doubtful sources I have shared needles with someone whose HIV status is unknown

If you have answered "Yes" to anyone of the statements you have exposed yoourself to HIV and you need to be tested.

The film "Positive" may be shown here

What Does Testing Mean

Test results are either positive or negative.If a testis positive, it means that antibodies to the virus have been seen in the blood. It does not say when you will come down with AIDS. If the test is negative it means that at the time of teating antibodies to the virus have not been seen in your blood. You may have HIV but the window period has not been developed. A further test is necessary for confirmation. It is expected that another test would be done six months later. The individual, however, must be careful and either abstain or practise safe sex. A sero negative test may also mean that the individual does not have HIV

Do I practise serial monogamy

Practising serial monogamy

| I have certain responsibilities as a citizen. || || |- | I have certain responsibilities at home. || || |- | I have certain responsibilities at school. || || |-

### Seven Power Skills

• Relax Opitimistically: non threatening environment appear comfortable for example, smile even if you are meeting one for the first time.
• Listen Deeply: listen to what the person is saying and to what he is not saying. Focus and listen to the messages conveyed behind and between words. Notice facial expression/body language, tone of voice and speech rhythm. Discern what the person wants you to hear and also what they want you to feel.
• Feel Empathetically: That is seeing from another person's perspectives regardless of your opinion or belief. Rejoice with them in their success(es) and offer support/encouragement in times of difficulty. Genuine feelings of empathy will strengthen the bond of trust.
• Respond Carefully: Choose emotions and words wisely (words can build or destroy trust). Measure your emotions according to the person's moods and needs. Reflect your interpretation of the person's moods and needs. Reflect your interpretation of the person's message back to them. Validate your understanding of their message. complement them where necessary. This shows appreciation and encourages fyrther dialogue.
• Synchronize cooperatively: Individual actions should occur on time to produce an intended outcome, relationships, require ongoing cooperative action to survive and thrive. As relationship mature the needa and value of the individuals and relationship will change. Cooperative actions build trusting alliances.
• Act authentically: That is acting with integrity, be yourself when you are with someone else. Find out what your relationshp partners want also. Being auhentic creates mutual trust and respect.
• Acknowledge generously: Look for and highlight/show the positive qualities in others. Express appreciation for their life.

1) DECISION MAKING : The ability to choose a course of action from a number of options which may result in a specific outcome or involve the decision to adopt a specific behaviour path.

D : Determine the question. What is the question that needs to be answered?

E : Examine the choices. What are the possible choices?

C : Collect Information. Weigh the choice versus consequence.

I : Investigate consequences. State reasons for and against each choice.

D : Decide. Make the best choice.

E : Evaluate. Did you make the right decision?