Lesson 9.Industrial Occupational Distribution of Human Resource
Lesson 9: Industrial Occupational Distribution of Human ResourceItalic text
One of the striking events in the employment of the labor force by industry is the relative decline in the importance of goods-producing industries and the increase in the importance of service industries. Goods producing industries include agriculture, mining, manufacturing and construction The service industry includes trade, finance, service, government, transportation and public utilities. John Maher pointed out that this phenomenon of decline in the one and rise in the other is probably an integral part of evolution of industrial societies. From the time of industrial revolution to now there has been a radial shift from agriculture to manufacturing and a great increase in the work force in the manufacturing sector. Consequently the increase in the growth of industry leads to increase incomes and the rise in standards of living and those things associated with the good-producing industries and demanding more of those services associated with affluence. The gadgets we produce now require ever mire and adjustment John Maher (1965). The status of a people was full belies demands that they spent more money to have service repairmen fix their mechanical devices and doctors and lawyers mend their physical and social relationships. Analysis in United State shows that in recent years there has been drastic decline in industries in employment. For example, in mining industry, employment as noted has fallen by about one-third since 1947: from just under one million workers to about two-third of a million in 1964. Manufacturing shows a level of stability over last few years at a figure of about 17 million workers. Transportation according to John Maher indicated that on other hand, has declined slightly while retail trade, finance, service, and government have risen appreciable. It is worth noting at this point that it is not the federal government which is responsible for most of the rise in employment since 1947 but rather the state and local governments, who have nearly, double number of workers in their service. Accordingly, Maher observed that textile mill products shows the most pronounced decline in employment, from a level of about 1.3 million workers in 1947 to less than 9 million in 1963. It is noticed that generally rising employment in manufacturing, both wholesale and retail trade, in government, and in the service industries: near stability in transportation and finance, and a declining trend in mining. The effect of cyclical is noted clearly and contractive in business activity. The recession of 1961 shows as a marked through in several of the series.
Science and technology innovation have dramatic impact on skill and talent needs. Surpluses skills are often been created by obsolete products, equipment or work method, for example the need for personnel clerks has declined markedly as human resources professionals increasingly use computers. Shortage of special skills in the external labor market may suggest the need to develop specialized internal training programmes, to redesign certain jobs, or to encourage educational institutions to expand programmes in some of these skills. It is forecasted that demand for workers will vary widely among different occupational groupings. The service occupation is likely to command greater demand and this is followed by professional specialty, marketing and sales occupation. The demand for technician and related support will likely be less. These wide differences of course extend to specific occupations, for example, employment in the category of “system analysts” will grow approximately 95%, while employment in the category of “operation research analysts” will grow by only 50%. It should be noted however that these projections are based on percentage change, not absolute numbers. Thus it is important to look at both the rate of growth and the absolute numbers.
It is noted that fewer old Americans in the work force now than in the previous years but demographers expect this to be reversed within the next decade. Human resource planning will need to include the possibility of fewer retirements and a work force that will have different benefit needs. The most important dimension with this demographical development is that the organizations that fail to fully utilize the latent of all segments of society will increase