# India/Knowledge Base/Maths/Geometry

## Grade 1

### Std 1.32

They use informal vocabulary to describe position and direction in space and thereby develop spatial sense - inside-outside, above-below, up-down, left-right, on-under, above-under, open-close, front-back, in front of-behind, top-bottom, here-there, near-far, next to, beside etc.

## Grade 2

### Std 2.32

They observe concrete examples of solid shapes - cube, cone besides cuboid, sphere and cylinder and flat shapes - square, rectangle, triangle, circle, semi-circle, quarter-circle. They are able to- give examples of these shapes from the environment and identify and name these shapes from a given set of objects of a variety of shapes. They recognize the examples that are not perfect and how they are different e.g. orange is spherical but not perfectly because it is curved at the bottom and protruded at the top.

- SWBAT identify squares, rectangles, triangles, and circles
- SWBAT identify cones, cylinders, spheres, and cuboids

### Std 2.33

They know the concept of straight line. They know about and identify a horizontal, a vertical, a slant line and a curved line (may use a grid to draw them), closed and open figures, straight and curved edges (draw along the edges and observe). They identify the edges of the solid shapes (cuboid, sphere, cylinder, cone) as straight or curved and sides of the flat shapes (rectangle, square, triangle, circle, semi-circle, quarter circle) as straight or curved sides.

- SWBAT identify a veritical, horizontal, and slanting line
- SWBAT identify the number of sides and corners in a 2-D Shape

### Std 2.34

They know the concept of a plane. They know the faces, edges and corners of solid shapes. They compare the shapes by describing these attributes/features and classify them according to an attribute mentioning the attribute chosen. They identify the shapes of the faces of the solids.

### Std 2.37

They observe, visualize, describe and interpret position, direction, movement in space using common language. They give and apply directions (up, down, left, right) for locating an object.

## Grade 3

### Std 3.44

They observe concrete examples of flat shapes – quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon and solid shapes - prism and pyramid. They grasp their features and name the shapes of the faces of a prism, pyramid. They are able to identify and name solid shapes including prism, pyramid and flat shapes including quadrilaterals and polygons - pentagon and hexagon from a given set of objects.

- / SWBAT identify triangles, squares, and rectangles and their characteristics (# of sides and verticies)/
- SWBAT name shapes (ex. Triangle ABC)
- SWBAT identify solid shapes (cuboid, cylinder, sphere, cones)

### Std 3.45

They know about and identify plane and curved faces/surfaces of solid shapes. They are able to describe the attributes (corners, edges, faces) of all known solid and flat shapes and classify the shapes according to an attribute mentioning the attribute chosen.

## Grade 4

### Std 4.39

They understand the meaning of an angle (amount of turn), its notation, its elements i.e. vertex and arms and interior/exterior of an angle. They know that angles are measured in degrees where one whole turn is 360 degrees and angles at a point total 360 degrees. They know how to measure an angle in degrees using a protractor/D. They know and recognize acute, obtuse and right angles.

- SWBAT identify vertices of a shape
- SWBAT identify right angles
- SWBAT identify angle measurements of 90, 180, 270, and 360

### Std 4.40

They understand the relations between lines as parallel, intersecting and perpendicular. They explore concretely the parallelism and perpendicularity of lines in the shapes and are able to identify and draw perpendicular and parallel lines using ruler and set squares.

### Std 4.41

They know about more flat/plane shapes - parallelogram, rhombus and trapezium. They are able to draw a square and a rectangle.

### Std 4.42

They know about the terms related to a circle - centre, radius, diameter, circumference, arc and chord. They understand the difference between a circle (name of the geometrical figure) and its circumference (a number which gives distance around the circle).

### Std 4.43

They deepen understanding of shapes by putting together and taking apart flat and solid shapes. SWBAT identify corners and faces of 3-D Shapes and describe 3-D shapes using these characteristics (EI 3.45)

### Std 4.46

They are able to recognize and visualize symmetry in the environment or in figures that are symmetric and identify all their lines of symmetry. They also create shapes that have symmetry.

### Geometry Extra Topics

## Grade 5

### Std 5.33

Students know about and recognize zero, straight, reflex and complete angles besides acute, obtuse and right angles. They find unknown angles in geometric figures based on these. They are also able to draw an angle using a protractor. They associate angles of 90, 180, 270 and 360 degrees with quarter, half, three-quarters and full turn/rotation.

- SWBAT identify acute, obtuse, and right angles
- SWBAT identify a right angle as 90 degrees, a half-turn as 180 degrees, a three-quarters turn as 270 degrees, and a full-turn as 360 degrees

### Std 5.34

They know about and are able to identify pairs of angles with a common vertex as - adjacent, linear, vertically opposite. They also know of complementary and supplementary angles. They understand facts like - two angles forming a linear pair are adjacent and supplementary while two supplementary angles may not form a linear pair.

### Std 5.35

They understand that triangle is a figure formed by joining three non-collinear points, know its elements - vertices, sides and angles, know the types of triangles according to sides (isosceles, equilateral, scalene) and according to angles (acute, obtuse and right).

### Std 5.36

They classify and describe quadrilaterals – square, rectangle, parallelogram, rhombus, trapezium and know their side and angle properties. They deepen understanding by drawing them using given information and their properties (they may not be unique) with appropriate tools like ruler, compass, protractor, set square. They check the figures using ruler and compass. They find unknown angles in geometric figures based on the properties of square, rectangle, parallelogram, rhombus, trapezium while stating the property (exclude diagonals and additional construction of lines).

- SWBAT identify squares are having 4 equal sides and 4 right angles
- SWBAT identify rectangles as having 2 sets of equals sides and 4 right angles
- SWBAT identify characteristics of non-square, non-rectangle quadrilaterals

### Std 5.37

They revise the terms related to a circle and know how to construct a circle with a given radius/diameter using a compass. They appreciate the beauty of the shape by drawing patterns and designs with circles.

### Extra Topics

Parallel and Perpendicular Lines