# Help:LaTeX Symbol Tables - Mathematics

 Home Body-Text Mathematics Science and Technology Dingbats Miscellaneous

### Math Alphabets

code Alphabet, Numbers & Symbols
\mathrm{ }
\mathit{ }
\mathsf{ }
\mathbf{ }
\mathcal{ }
\mathbb{ }
\mathfrak{ }

### Greek Symbols

Name LaTeX Code Lowcase LaTeX Code Capital LaTeX Code Bold Lowcase LaTeX Code Bold Capital
ALPHA \alpha \Alpha \boldsymbol{\alpha} \boldsymbol{\Alpha}
BETA \beta \Beta \boldsymbol{\beta} \boldsymbol{\Beta}
GAMMA \gamma \Gamma \boldsymbol{\gamma} \boldsymbol{\Gamma}
DIGAMMA \digamma \boldsymbol{\digamma}
DELTA \delta \Delta \boldsymbol{\delta} \boldsymbol{\Delta}
EPSILON \epsilon \Epsilon \boldsymbol{\epsilon} \boldsymbol{\Epsilon}
VAREPSILON \varepsilon \boldsymbol{\varepsilon}
ZETA \zeta Z \boldsymbol{\zeta} \boldsymbol{Z}
ETA \eta \Eta \boldsymbol{\eta} \boldsymbol{\Eta}
THETA \theta \Theta \boldsymbol{\theta} \boldsymbol{\Theta}
VARTHETA \vartheta \boldsymbol{\vartheta}
IOTA \iota \Iota \boldsymbol{\iota} \boldsymbol{\Iota}
KAPPA \kappa \Kappa \boldsymbol{\kappa} \boldsymbol{\Kappa}
VARKAPPA \varkappa \boldsymbol{\varkappa}
LAMBDA \lambda \Lambda \boldsymbol{\lambda} \boldsymbol{\Lambda}
MU \mu \Mu \boldsymbol{\mu} \boldsymbol{\Mu}
NU \nu \Nu \boldsymbol{\nu} \boldsymbol{\Nu}
XI \xi \Xi \boldsymbol{\xi} \boldsymbol{\Xi}
OMICRON o O \boldsymbol{o} \boldsymbol{O}
PI \pi \Pi \boldsymbol{\pi} \boldsymbol{\Pi}
VARPI \varpi \boldsymbol{\varpi}
RHO \rho \Rho \boldsymbol{\rho} \boldsymbol{\Rho}
VARRHO \varrho \boldsymbol{\varrho}
SIGMA \sigma \Sigma \boldsymbol{\sigma} \boldsymbol{\Sigma}
VARSIGMA \varsigma \boldsymbol{\varsigma}
TAU \tau \Tau \boldsymbol{\tau} \boldsymbol{\Tau}
UPSILON \upsilon \Upsilon \boldsymbol{\upsilon} \boldsymbol{\Upsilon}
PHI \phi \Phi \boldsymbol{\phi} \boldsymbol{\Phi}
VARPHI \varphi \boldsymbol{\varphi}
CHI \chi \Chi \boldsymbol{\chi} \boldsymbol{\Chi}
PSI \psi \Psi \boldsymbol{\psi} \boldsymbol{\Psi}
OMEGA \omega \Omega \boldsymbol{\omega} \boldsymbol{\Omega}

### Hebrew Symbols

LaTeX Code Aleph LaTeX Code Beth LaTeX Code Gimel LaTeX Code Daleth
\aleph \beth \gimel \daleth

### Arrows

LaTeX Code Output LaTeX Code Output LaTeX Code Output LaTeX Code Output
\Downarrow \longleftarrow \nwarrow \downarrow
\Longleftarrow \Rightarrow \hookleftarrow \longleftrightarrow
\rightarrow \hookrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \searrow
\longmapsto \swarrow \leftarrow \Updownarrow
\Longrightarrow \uparrow \Leftarrow \longrightarrow
\Uparrow \Leftrightarrow \mapsto \updownarrow
\leftrightarrow \nearrow ↑

1. Accents
2. Arrows
3. Binary and relational operators
4. Delimiters
5. Greek letters
6. Miscellaneous symbols
7. Math functions
8. Variable size math symbols
9. Math Miscellany

The AMS dot symbols are named according to their intended usage: \dotsb between pairs of binary operators/relations, \dotsc between pairs of commas, \dotsi between pairs of integrals, \dotsm between pairs of multiplication signs, and \dotso between other symbol pairs.

## Functions, symbols, special characters

### Accents/Diacritics

\acute{a} \grave{a} \hat{a} \tilde{a} \breve{a}
\check{a} \bar{a} \ddot{a} \dot{a}

### Standard functions

\sin a \cos b \tan c
\sec d \csc e \cot f
\arcsin h \arccos i \arctan j
\sinh k \cosh l \tanh m \coth n\!
\operatorname{sh}\,o\,\operatorname{ch}\,p\,\operatorname{th}\,q\!
\operatorname{arsinh}\,r\,\operatorname{arcosh}\,s\,\operatorname{artanh}\,t
\lim u \limsup v \liminf w \min x \max y\!
\inf z \sup a \exp b \ln c \lg d \log e \log_{10} f \ker g\!
\deg h \gcd i \Pr j \det k \hom l \arg m \dim n

### Modular arithmetic

s_k \equiv 0 \pmod{m}
a\,\bmod\,b

### Derivatives

\nabla \, \partial x \, dx \, \dot x \, \ddot y\, dy/dx\, \frac{dy}{dx}\, \frac{\partial^2 y}{\partial x_1\,\partial x_2}

### Sets

\forall \exists \empty \emptyset \varnothing
\in \ni \not \in \notin \subset \subseteq \supset \supseteq
\cap \bigcap \cup \bigcup \biguplus \setminus \smallsetminus
\sqsubset \sqsubseteq \sqsupset \sqsupseteq \sqcap \sqcup \bigsqcup

### Operators

+ \oplus \bigoplus \pm \mp -
\times \otimes \bigotimes \cdot \circ \bullet \bigodot
\star * / \div \frac{1}{2}

### Logic

\land (or \and) \wedge \bigwedge \bar{q} \to p
\lor \vee \bigvee \lnot \neg q \And

### Root

\sqrt{2} \sqrt[n]{x}

### Relations

\sim \approx \simeq \cong \dot= \overset{\underset{\mathrm{def}}{}}{=}
\le < \ll \gg \ge > \equiv \not\equiv \ne \mbox{or} \neq \propto

### Geometric

\Diamond \Box \triangle \angle \perp \mid \nmid \| 45^\circ

### Arrows

\leftarrow (or \gets) \rightarrow (or \to) \nleftarrow \nrightarrow \leftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow \longleftarrow \longrightarrow \longleftrightarrow
\Leftarrow \Rightarrow \nLeftarrow \nRightarrow \Leftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow \Longleftarrow \Longrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow (or \iff)
\uparrow \downarrow \updownarrow \Uparrow \Downarrow \Updownarrow \nearrow \searrow \swarrow \nwarrow
\rightharpoonup \rightharpoondown \leftharpoonup \leftharpoondown \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \rightleftharpoons \leftrightharpoons
\curvearrowleft \circlearrowleft \Lsh \upuparrows \rightrightarrows \rightleftarrows \Rrightarrow \rightarrowtail \looparrowright
\curvearrowright \circlearrowright \Rsh \downdownarrows \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \Lleftarrow \leftarrowtail \looparrowleft
\mapsto \longmapsto \hookrightarrow \hookleftarrow \multimap \leftrightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow

### Special

\And \eth \S \P \% \dagger \ddagger \ldots \cdots
\smile \frown \wr \triangleleft \triangleright \infty \bot \top
\vdash \vDash \Vdash \models \lVert \rVert \imath \hbar
\ell \mho \Finv \Re \Im \wp \complement
\diamondsuit \heartsuit \clubsuit \spadesuit \Game \flat \natural \sharp

### Unsorted (new stuff)

 \vartriangle \triangledown \lozenge \circledS \measuredangle \nexists \Bbbk \backprime \blacktriangle \blacktriangledown
 \blacksquare \blacklozenge \bigstar \sphericalangle \diagup \diagdown \dotplus \Cap \Cup \barwedge
 \veebar \doublebarwedge \boxminus \boxtimes \boxdot \boxplus \divideontimes \ltimes \rtimes \leftthreetimes
 \rightthreetimes \curlywedge \curlyvee \circleddash \circledast \circledcirc \centerdot \intercal \leqq \leqslant
 \eqslantless \lessapprox \approxeq \lessdot \lll \lessgtr \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \doteqdot \risingdotseq
 \fallingdotseq \backsim \backsimeq \subseteqq \Subset \preccurlyeq \curlyeqprec \precsim \precapprox \vartriangleleft
 \Vvdash \bumpeq \Bumpeq \geqq \geqslant \eqslantgtr \gtrsim \gtrapprox \eqsim \gtrdot
 \ggg \gtrless \gtreqless \gtreqqless \eqcirc \circeq \triangleq \thicksim \thickapprox \supseteqq
 \Supset \succcurlyeq \curlyeqsucc \succsim \succapprox \vartriangleright \shortmid \shortparallel \between \pitchfork
 \varpropto \blacktriangleleft \therefore \backepsilon \blacktriangleright \because \nleqslant \nleqq \lneq \lneqq
 \lvertneqq \lnsim \lnapprox \nprec \npreceq \precneqq \precnsim \precnapprox \nsim \nshortmid
 \nvdash \nVdash \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq \varsubsetneq \subsetneqq \varsubsetneqq \ngtr
\subsetneq
 \ngeqslant \ngeqq \gneq \gneqq \gvertneqq \gnsim \gnapprox \nsucc \nsucceq \succneqq
 \succnsim \succnapprox \ncong \nshortparallel \nparallel \nvDash \nVDash \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \nsupseteq
 \nsupseteqq \varsupsetneq \supsetneqq \varsupsetneqq
\jmath \surd \ast \uplus \diamond \bigtriangleup \bigtriangledown \ominus
\oslash \odot \bigcirc \amalg \prec \succ \preceq \succeq
\dashv \asymp \doteq \parallel
\ulcorner \urcorner \llcorner \lrcorner

## Larger Expressions

### Subscripts, superscripts, integrals

FeatureSyntaxHow it looks rendered
HTMLPNG
Superscripta^2a2
Subscripta_2a2
Groupinga^{2+2}a2 + 2
a_{i,j}ai,j
Combining sub & super without and with horizontal separationx_2^3
{x_2}^3
Super super10^{10^{ \,\!{8} }
Super super10^{10^{ \overset{8}{} }}
Super super (wrong in HTML in some browsers)10^{10^8}
Preceding and/or Additional sub & super\sideset{_1^2}{_3^4}\prod_a^b
{}_1^2\!\Omega_3^4
Stacking \overset{\alpha}{\omega}
\underset{\alpha}{\omega}
\overset{\alpha}{\underset{\gamma}{\omega}}
\stackrel{\alpha}{\omega}
Derivative (forced PNG)x', y'', f', f''\!
Derivative (f in italics may overlap primes in HTML)x', y'', f', f''x',y'',f',f''
Derivative (wrong in HTML)x^\prime, y^{\prime\prime}
Derivative (wrong in PNG)x\prime, y\prime\prime
Derivative dots\dot{x}, \ddot{x}
Underlines, overlines, vectors\hat a \ \bar b \ \vec c
\overrightarrow{a b} \ \overleftarrow{c d} \ \widehat{d e f}
\overline{g h i} \ \underline{j k l}
Arrows A \xleftarrow{n+\mu-1} B \xrightarrow[T]{n\pm i-1} C
Overbraces\overbrace{ 1+2+\cdots+100 }^{5050}
Underbraces\underbrace{ a+b+\cdots+z }_{26}
Sum\sum_{k=1}^N k^2
Sum (force \textstyle)\textstyle \sum_{k=1}^N k^2
Product\prod_{i=1}^N x_i
Product (force \textstyle)\textstyle \prod_{i=1}^N x_i
Coproduct\coprod_{i=1}^N x_i
Coproduct (force \textstyle)\textstyle \coprod_{i=1}^N x_i
Limit\lim_{n \to \infty}x_n
Limit (force \textstyle)\textstyle \lim_{n \to \infty}x_n
Integral\int\limits_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx
Integral (alternate limits style)\int_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx
Integral (force \textstyle)\textstyle \int\limits_{-N}^{N} e^x\, dx
Integral (force \textstyle, alternate limits style)\textstyle \int_{-N}^{N} e^x\, dx
Double integral\iint\limits_D \, dx\,dy
Triple integral\iiint\limits_E \, dx\,dy\,dz
Quadruple integral\iiiint\limits_F \, dx\,dy\,dz\,dt
Line or path integral\int_C x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy
Closed line or path integral\oint_C x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy
Intersections\bigcap_1^n p
Unions\bigcup_1^k p

### Fractions, matrices, multilines

Feature Syntax How it looks rendered
Fractions \frac{2}{4}=0.5
Small Fractions \tfrac{2}{4} = 0.5
Large (normal) Fractions \dfrac{2}{4} = 0.5 \qquad \dfrac{2}{c + \dfrac{2}{d + \dfrac{2}{4}}} = a
Large (nested) Fractions \cfrac{2}{c + \cfrac{2}{d + \cfrac{2}{4}}} = a
Binomial coefficients \binom{n}{k}
Small Binomial coefficients \tbinom{n}{k}
Large (normal) Binomial coefficients \dbinom{n}{k}
Matrices
\begin{matrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{matrix}
\begin{vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{vmatrix}
\begin{Vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Vmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
0      & \cdots & 0      \\
\vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\
0      & \cdots & 0
\end{bmatrix}
\begin{Bmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Bmatrix}
\begin{pmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{pmatrix}
\bigl( \begin{smallmatrix}
a&b\\ c&d
\end{smallmatrix} \bigr)

Case distinctions
f(n) =
\begin{cases}
n/2,  & \mbox{if }n\mbox{ is even} \\
3n+1, & \mbox{if }n\mbox{ is odd}
\end{cases}
Multiline equations
\begin{align}
f(x) & = (a+b)^2 \\
& = a^2+2ab+b^2 \\
\end{align}

\begin{alignat}{2}
f(x) & = (a-b)^2 \\
& = a^2-2ab+b^2 \\
\end{alignat}

Multiline equations (must define number of colums used ({lcr}) (should not be used unless needed)
\begin{array}{lcl}
z        & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z
\end{array}
Multiline equations (more)
\begin{array}{lcr}
z        & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z
\end{array}
Breaking up a long expression so that it wraps when necessary

$f(x) \,\!$
$= \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n x^n$
$= a_0+a_1x+a_2x^2+\cdots$



Simultaneous equations
\begin{cases}
3x + 5y +  z \\
7x - 2y + 4z \\
-6x + 3y + 2z
\end{cases}
Arrays
\begin{array}{|c|c||c|} a & b & S \\
\hline
0&0&1\\
0&1&1\\
1&0&1\\
1&1&0\\
\end{array}


### Parenthesizing big expressions, brackets, bars

Feature Syntax How it looks rendered
Bad ( \frac{1}{2} )
Good \left ( \frac{1}{2} \right )

You can use various delimiters with \left and \right:

Feature Syntax How it looks rendered
Parentheses \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )
Brackets \left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack
Braces \left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace
Angle brackets \left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle
Bars and double bars \left | \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \|
Floor and ceiling functions: \left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil
Slashes and backslashes \left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash
Up, down and up-down arrows \left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow
Delimiters can be mixed,
as long as \left and \right match
\left [ 0,1 \right )</code> <br/> <code>\left \langle \psi \right |
Use \left. and \right. if you don't
want a delimiter to appear:
\left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X
Size of the delimiters \big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( \dots \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]/<code> 
<code>\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ \dots \Bigg\rangle \bigg\rangle \Big\rangle \big\rangle
\big\| \Big\| \bigg\| \Bigg\| \dots \Bigg| \bigg| \Big| \big|
\big\lfloor \Big\lfloor \bigg\lfloor \Bigg\lfloor \dots \Bigg\rceil \bigg\rceil \Big\rceil \big\rceil
\big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow \dots \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow
\big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow \dots \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow \Big\Updownarrow \big\Updownarrow
\big / \Big / \bigg / \Bigg / \dots \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash

## Alphabets and typefaces

Texvc cannot render arbitrary Unicode characters. Those it can handle can be entered by the expressions below. For others, such as Cyrillic, they can be entered as Unicode or HTML entities in running text, but cannot be used in displayed formulas.

Greek alphabet
\Alpha \Beta \Gamma \Delta \Epsilon \Zeta
\Eta \Theta \Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu
\Nu \Xi \Pi \Rho \Sigma \Tau
\Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega
\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta
\eta \theta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu
\nu \xi \pi \rho \sigma \tau
\upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega
\varepsilon \digamma \vartheta \varkappa
\varpi \varrho \varsigma \varphi
Blackboard Bold/Scripts
\mathbb{A} \mathbb{B} \mathbb{C} \mathbb{D} \mathbb{E} \mathbb{F} \mathbb{G}
\mathbb{H} \mathbb{I} \mathbb{J} \mathbb{K} \mathbb{L} \mathbb{M}
\mathbb{N} \mathbb{O} \mathbb{P} \mathbb{Q} \mathbb{R} \mathbb{S} \mathbb{T}
\mathbb{U} \mathbb{V} \mathbb{W} \mathbb{X} \mathbb{Y} \mathbb{Z}
boldface (vectors)
\mathbf{A} \mathbf{B} \mathbf{C} \mathbf{D} \mathbf{E} \mathbf{F} \mathbf{G}
\mathbf{H} \mathbf{I} \mathbf{J} \mathbf{K} \mathbf{L} \mathbf{M}
\mathbf{N} \mathbf{O} \mathbf{P} \mathbf{Q} \mathbf{R} \mathbf{S} \mathbf{T}
\mathbf{U} \mathbf{V} \mathbf{W} \mathbf{X} \mathbf{Y} \mathbf{Z}
\mathbf{a} \mathbf{b} \mathbf{c} \mathbf{d} \mathbf{e} \mathbf{f} \mathbf{g}
\mathbf{h} \mathbf{i} \mathbf{j} \mathbf{k} \mathbf{l} \mathbf{m}
\mathbf{n} \mathbf{o} \mathbf{p} \mathbf{q} \mathbf{r} \mathbf{s} \mathbf{t}
\mathbf{u} \mathbf{v} \mathbf{w} \mathbf{x} \mathbf{y} \mathbf{z}
\mathbf{0} \mathbf{1} \mathbf{2} \mathbf{3} \mathbf{4}
\mathbf{5} \mathbf{6} \mathbf{7} \mathbf{8} \mathbf{9}
Boldface (greek)
\boldsymbol{\Alpha} \boldsymbol{\Beta} \boldsymbol{\Gamma} \boldsymbol{\Delta} \boldsymbol{\Epsilon} \boldsymbol{\Zeta}
\boldsymbol{\Eta} \boldsymbol{\Theta} \boldsymbol{\Iota} \boldsymbol{\Kappa} \boldsymbol{\Lambda} \boldsymbol{\Mu}
\boldsymbol{\Nu} \boldsymbol{\Xi} \boldsymbol{\Pi} \boldsymbol{\Rho} \boldsymbol{\Sigma} \boldsymbol{\Tau}
\boldsymbol{\Upsilon} \boldsymbol{\Phi} \boldsymbol{\Chi} \boldsymbol{\Psi} \boldsymbol{\Omega}
\boldsymbol{\alpha} \boldsymbol{\beta} \boldsymbol{\gamma} \boldsymbol{\delta} \boldsymbol{\epsilon} \boldsymbol{\zeta}
\boldsymbol{\eta} \boldsymbol{\theta} \boldsymbol{\iota} \boldsymbol{\kappa} \boldsymbol{\lambda} \boldsymbol{\mu}
\boldsymbol{\nu} \boldsymbol{\xi} \boldsymbol{\pi} \boldsymbol{\rho} \boldsymbol{\sigma} \boldsymbol{\tau}
\boldsymbol{\upsilon} \boldsymbol{\phi} \boldsymbol{\chi} \boldsymbol{\psi} \boldsymbol{\omega}
\boldsymbol{\varepsilon} \boldsymbol{\digamma} \boldsymbol{\vartheta} \boldsymbol{\varkappa}
\boldsymbol{\varpi} \boldsymbol{\varrho} \boldsymbol{\varsigma} \boldsymbol{\varphi}
Italics
\mathit{A} \mathit{B} \mathit{C} \mathit{D} \mathit{E} \mathit{F} \mathit{G}
\mathit{H} \mathit{I} \mathit{J} \mathit{K} \mathit{L} \mathit{M}
\mathit{N} \mathit{O} \mathit{P} \mathit{Q} \mathit{R} \mathit{S} \mathit{T}
\mathit{U} \mathit{V} \mathit{W} \mathit{X} \mathit{Y} \mathit{Z}
\mathit{a} \mathit{b} \mathit{c} \mathit{d} \mathit{e} \mathit{f} \mathit{g}
\mathit{h} \mathit{i} \mathit{j} \mathit{k} \mathit{l} \mathit{m}
\mathit{n} \mathit{o} \mathit{p} \mathit{q} \mathit{r} \mathit{s} \mathit{t}
\mathit{u} \mathit{v} \mathit{w} \mathit{x} \mathit{y} \mathit{z}
\mathit{0} \mathit{1} \mathit{2} \mathit{3} \mathit{4}
\mathit{5} \mathit{6} \mathit{7} \mathit{8} \mathit{9}
Roman typeface
\mathrm{A} \mathrm{B} \mathrm{C} \mathrm{D} \mathrm{E} \mathrm{F} \mathrm{G}
\mathrm{H} \mathrm{I} \mathrm{J} \mathrm{K} \mathrm{L} \mathrm{M}
\mathrm{N} \mathrm{O} \mathrm{P} \mathrm{Q} \mathrm{R} \mathrm{S} \mathrm{T}
\mathrm{U} \mathrm{V} \mathrm{W} \mathrm{X} \mathrm{Y} \mathrm{Z}
\mathrm{a} \mathrm{b} \mathrm{c} \mathrm{d} \mathrm{e} \mathrm{f} \mathrm{g}
\mathrm{h} \mathrm{i} \mathrm{j} \mathrm{k} \mathrm{l} \mathrm{m}
\mathrm{n} \mathrm{o} \mathrm{p} \mathrm{q} \mathrm{r} \mathrm{s} \mathrm{t}
\mathrm{u} \mathrm{v} \mathrm{w} \mathrm{x} \mathrm{y} \mathrm{z}
\mathrm{0} \mathrm{1} \mathrm{2} \mathrm{3} \mathrm{4}
\mathrm{5} \mathrm{6} \mathrm{7} \mathrm{8} \mathrm{9}
Fraktur typeface
\mathfrak{A} \mathfrak{B} \mathfrak{C} \mathfrak{D} \mathfrak{E} \mathfrak{F} \mathfrak{G}
\mathfrak{H} \mathfrak{I} \mathfrak{J} \mathfrak{K} \mathfrak{L} \mathfrak{M}
\mathfrak{N} \mathfrak{O} \mathfrak{P} \mathfrak{Q} \mathfrak{R} \mathfrak{S} \mathfrak{T}
\mathfrak{U} \mathfrak{V} \mathfrak{W} \mathfrak{X} \mathfrak{Y} \mathfrak{Z}
\mathfrak{a} \mathfrak{b} \mathfrak{c} \mathfrak{d} \mathfrak{e} \mathfrak{f} \mathfrak{g}
\mathfrak{h} \mathfrak{i} \mathfrak{j} \mathfrak{k} \mathfrak{l} \mathfrak{m}
\mathfrak{n} \mathfrak{o} \mathfrak{p} \mathfrak{q} \mathfrak{r} \mathfrak{s} \mathfrak{t}
\mathfrak{u} \mathfrak{v} \mathfrak{w} \mathfrak{x} \mathfrak{y} \mathfrak{z}
\mathfrak{0} \mathfrak{1} \mathfrak{2} \mathfrak{3} \mathfrak{4}
\mathfrak{5} \mathfrak{6} \mathfrak{7} \mathfrak{8} \mathfrak{9}
Calligraphy/Script
\mathcal{A} \mathcal{B} \mathcal{C} \mathcal{D} \mathcal{E} \mathcal{F} \mathcal{G}
\mathcal{H} \mathcal{I} \mathcal{J} \mathcal{K} \mathcal{L} \mathcal{M}
\mathcal{N} \mathcal{O} \mathcal{P} \mathcal{Q} \mathcal{R} \mathcal{S} \mathcal{T}
\mathcal{U} \mathcal{V} \mathcal{W} \mathcal{X} \mathcal{Y} \mathcal{Z}
Hebrew
\aleph \beth \gimel \daleth
Feature Syntax How it looks rendered
non-italicised characters \mbox{abc} abc
mixed italics (bad) \mbox{if} n \mbox{is even} ifnis even
mixed italics (good) \mbox{if }n\mbox{ is even} if n is even
mixed italics (more legible: ~ is a non-breaking space, while "\ " forces a space) \mbox{if}~n\ \mbox{is even}

## Color

Equations can use color:

• {\color{Blue}x^2}+{\color{YellowOrange}2x}-{\color{OliveGreen}1}
• x_{1,2}=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{\color{Red}b^2-4ac}}{2a}

See here for all named colors supported by LaTeX.

Note that color should not be used as the only way to identify something, because it will become meaningless on black-and-white media or for color-blind people. See.

## Formatting issues

### Spacing

Note that TeX handles most spacing automatically, but you may sometimes want manual control.

Feature Syntax How it looks rendered
text space a\ b
text space without PNG conversion a \mbox{ } b a b
large space a\;b
medium space a\>b [not supported]
small space a\,b
no space ab
small negative space a\!b

### Alignment with normal text flow

Due to the default css

img.tex { vertical-align: middle; }

an inline expression like should look good.

If you need to align it otherwise, use <math style="vertical-align:-100%;">...[/itex] and play with the vertical-align argument until you get it right; however, how it looks may depend on the browser and the browser settings.

Also note that if you rely on this workaround, if/when the rendering on the server gets fixed in future releases, as a result of this extra manual offset your formulae will suddenly be aligned incorrectly. So use it sparingly, if at all.

### Examples

A sample conforming diagram is commons:Image:PSU-PU.svg.

## Examples

ax2 + bx + c = 0

$ax^2 + bx + c = 0$


### Quadratic Polynomial (Force PNG Rendering)



$ax^2 + bx + c = 0\,\!$




$x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}$


### Tall Parentheses and Fractions



$2 = \left( \frac{\left(3-x\right) \times 2}{3-x} \right)$



$S_{\text{new}} = S_{\text{old}} - \frac{ \left( 5-T \right) ^2} {2}$



### Integrals



$\int_a^x \int_a^s f(y)\,dy\,ds = \int_a^x f(y)(x-y)\,dy$


### Summation



$\sum_{m=1}^\infty\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{m^2\,n} {3^m\left(m\,3^n+n\,3^m\right)}$


### Differential Equation



$u'' + p(x)u' + q(x)u=f(x),\quad x>a$


### Complex numbers



$|\bar{z}| = |z|, |(\bar{z})^n| = |z|^n, \arg(z^n) = n \arg(z)$


### Limits



$\lim_{z\rightarrow z_0} f(z)=f(z_0)$


### Integral Equation



$\phi_n(\kappa) = \frac{1}{4\pi^2\kappa^2} \int_0^\infty \frac{\sin(\kappa R)}{\kappa R} \frac{\partial}{\partial R} \left[R^2\frac{\partial D_n(R)}{\partial R}\right]\,dR$


### Example



$\phi_n(\kappa) = 0.033C_n^2\kappa^{-11/3},\quad \frac{1}{L_0}\ll\kappa\ll\frac{1}{l_0}$


### Continuation and cases



$f(x) = \begin{cases} 1 & -1 \le x < 0 \\ \frac{1}{2} & x = 0 \\ 1 - x^2 & \mbox{otherwise} \end{cases}$


### Prefixed subscript



${}_pF_q(a_1,...,a_p;c_1,...,c_q;z) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(a_1)_n\cdot\cdot\cdot(a_p)_n}{(c_1)_n\cdot\cdot\cdot(c_q)_n} \frac{z^n}{n!}$


### Fraction and small fraction


$\frac {a}{b}\ \tfrac {a}{b}$


### Table 40: Binary Operators

Code Output Code Output Code Output Code Output
\amalg \cup \oplus \times
\ast \dagger \oslash \triangleleft
\bigcirc \ddagger \otimes \triangleright
\bigtriangledown \diamond \pm \unlhd * Failed to parse (unknown function\unlhd): \unlhd
\bigtriangleup \div \rhd * Failed to parse (unknown function\rhd): \rhd \unrhd * Failed to parse (unknown function\unrhd): \unrhd
\bullet \lhd * Failed to parse (unknown function\lhd): \lhd \setminus \uplus
\cap \mp \sqcap \vee
\cdot \odot \sqcup \wedge
\circ \ominus \star \wr

* Not predefined in . One of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym is required.

### Table 41: AMS Binary Operators

Code Output Code Output Code Output
\barwedge \circledcirc \intercal
\boxdot \circleddash \leftthreetimes
\boxminus \Cup \ltimes
\boxplus \curlyvee \rightthreetimes
\boxtimes \curlywedge \rtimes
\Cap \divideontimes \smallsetminus
\centerdot \dotplus \veebar
\circledast \doublebarwedge

### Table 42: stmaryrd Binary Operators

Code Output Code Output Code Output Code Output
\baro Failed to parse (unknown function\baro): \baro \bbslash Failed to parse (unknown function\bbslash): \bbslash \binampersand Failed to parse (unknown function\binampersand): \binampersand \bindnasrepma Failed to parse (unknown function\bindnasrepma): \bindnasrepma
\boxast Failed to parse (unknown function\boxast): \boxast \boxbar Failed to parse (unknown function\boxbar): \boxbar \boxbox Failed to parse (unknown function\boxbox): \boxbox \boxbslash Failed to parse (unknown function\boxbslash): \boxbslash
\boxcircle Failed to parse (unknown function\boxcircle): \boxcircle \boxdot \boxempty Failed to parse (unknown function\boxempty): \boxempty \boxslash Failed to parse (unknown function\boxslash): \boxslash
\curlyveedownarrow Failed to parse (unknown function\curlyveedownarrow): \curlyveedownarrow \curlyveeuparrow Failed to parse (unknown function\curlyveeuparrow): \curlyveeuparrow \curlywedgedownarrow Failed to parse (unknown function\curlywedgedownarrow): \curlywedgedownarrow \curlywedgeuparrow Failed to parse (unknown function\curlywedgeuparrow): \curlywedgeuparrow
\fatbslash Failed to parse (unknown function\fatbslash): \fatbslash \fatsemi Failed to parse (unknown function\fatsemi): \fatsemi \fatslash Failed to parse (unknown function\fatslash): \fatslash \interleave Failed to parse (unknown function\interleave): \interleave
\leftslice Failed to parse (unknown function\leftslice): \leftslice \merge Failed to parse (unknown function\merge): \merge \minuso Failed to parse (unknown function\minuso): \minuso \moo Failed to parse (unknown function\moo): \moo
\nplus Failed to parse (unknown function\nplus): \nplus \obar Failed to parse (unknown function\obar): \obar \oblong Failed to parse (unknown function\oblong): \oblong \obslash Failed to parse (unknown function\obslash): \obslash
\ogreaterthan Failed to parse (unknown function\ogreaterthan): \ogreaterthan \olessthan Failed to parse (unknown function\olessthan): \olessthan \ovee Failed to parse (unknown function\ovee): \ovee \owedge Failed to parse (unknown function\owedge): \owedge
\rightslice Failed to parse (unknown function\rightslice): \rightslice \sslash Failed to parse (unknown function\sslash): \sslash \talloblong Failed to parse (unknown function\talloblong): \talloblong \varbigcirc Failed to parse (unknown function\varbigcirc): \varbigcirc
\varcurlyvee Failed to parse (unknown function\varcurlyvee): \varcurlyvee \varcurlywedge Failed to parse (unknown function\varcurlywedge): \varcurlywedge \varoast Failed to parse (unknown function\varoast): \varoast \varobar Failed to parse (unknown function\varobar): \varobar
\varobslash Failed to parse (unknown function\varobslash): \varobslash \varocircle Failed to parse (unknown function\varocircle): \varocircle \varodot Failed to parse (unknown function\varodot): \varodot \varogreaterthan Failed to parse (unknown function\varogreaterthan): \varogreaterthan
\varolessthan Failed to parse (unknown function\varolessthan): \varolessthan \varominus Failed to parse (unknown function\varominus): \varominus \varoplus Failed to parse (unknown function\varoplus): \varoplus \varoslash Failed to parse (unknown function\varoslash): \varoslash
\varotimes Failed to parse (unknown function\varotimes): \varotimes \varovee Failed to parse (unknown function\varovee): \varovee \varowedge Failed to parse (unknown function\varowedge): \varowedge \vartimes Failed to parse (unknown function\vartimes): \vartimes
\Ydown Failed to parse (unknown function\Ydown): \Ydown \Yleft Failed to parse (unknown function\Yleft): \Yleft \Yright Failed to parse (unknown function\Yright): \Yright \Yup Failed to parse (unknown function\Yup): \Yup

### Table 43: wasysym Binary Operators

Code Output Code Output Code Output Code Output
\lhd Failed to parse (unknown function\lhd): \lhd \ocircle Failed to parse (unknown function\ocircle): \ocircle \RHD Failed to parse (unknown function\RHD): \RHD \unrhd Failed to parse (unknown function\unrhd): \unrhd
\LHD Failed to parse (unknown function\LHD): \LHD \rhd Failed to parse (unknown function\rhd): \rhd \unlhd Failed to parse (unknown function\unlhd): \unlhd

### Table 44: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators

Code Output Code Output Code Output
\circledbar Failed to parse (unknown function\circledbar): \circledbar \circledwedge Failed to parse (unknown function\circledwedge): \circledwedge \medcirc Failed to parse (unknown function\medcirc): \medcirc
\circledbslash Failed to parse (unknown function\circledbslash): \circledbslash \invamp Failed to parse (unknown function\invamp): \invamp \sqcapplus Failed to parse (unknown function\sqcapplus): \sqcapplus
\circledvee Failed to parse (unknown function\circledvee): \circledvee \medbullet Failed to parse (unknown function\medbullet): \medbullet \sqcupplus Failed to parse (unknown function\sqcupplus): \sqcupplus

### Table 45: mathabx Binary Operators

Code Output Code Output Code Output
\ast \curlywedge \sqcap
\Asterisk Failed to parse (unknown function\Asterisk): \Asterisk \divdot Failed to parse (unknown function\divdot): \divdot \sqcup
\barwedge \divideontimes \sqdoublecap Failed to parse (unknown function\sqdoublecap): \sqdoublecap
\bigstar \dotdiv Failed to parse (unknown function\dotdiv): \dotdiv \sqdoublecup Failed to parse (unknown function\sqdoublecup): \sqdoublecup
\bigvarstar Failed to parse (unknown function\bigvarstar): \bigvarstar \dotplus \square
\blackdiamond Failed to parse (unknown function\blackdiamond): \blackdiamond \dottimes Failed to parse (unknown function\dottimes): \dottimes \squplus Failed to parse (unknown function\squplus): \squplus
\cap \doublebarwedge \udot Failed to parse (unknown function\udot): \udot
\circplus Failed to parse (unknown function\circplus): \circplus \doublecap \uplus
\coasterisk Failed to parse (unknown function\coasterisk): \coasterisk \doublecup \varstar Failed to parse (unknown function\varstar): \varstar
\coAsterisk Failed to parse (unknown function\coAsterisk): \coAsterisk \ltimes \vee
\convolution Failed to parse (unknown function\convolution): \convolution \pluscirc Failed to parse (unknown function\pluscirc): \pluscirc \veebar
\cup \rtimes \veedoublebar Failed to parse (unknown function\veedoublebar): \veedoublebar
\curlyvee \sqbullet Failed to parse (unknown function\sqbullet): \sqbullet \wedge

### Table 49: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators

Code Output
\odplus Failed to parse (unknown function\odplus): \odplus

### Table 50: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators

Code Output Code Output Code Output
\blacktriangledown \boxright Failed to parse (unknown function\boxright): \boxright \ominus
\blacktriangleleft \boxslash Failed to parse (unknown function\boxslash): \boxslash \oplus
\blacktriangleright \boxtimes \oright Failed to parse (unknown function\oright): \oright
\blacktriangleup Failed to parse (unknown function\blacktriangleup): \blacktriangleup \boxtop Failed to parse (unknown function\boxtop): \boxtop \oslash
\boxasterisk Failed to parse (unknown function\boxasterisk): \boxasterisk \boxtriangleup Failed to parse (unknown function\boxtriangleup): \boxtriangleup \otimes
\boxbackslash Failed to parse (unknown function\boxbackslash): \boxbackslash \boxvoid Failed to parse (unknown function\boxvoid): \boxvoid \otop Failed to parse (unknown function\otop): \otop
\boxbot Failed to parse (unknown function\boxbot): \boxbot \oasterisk Failed to parse (unknown function\oasterisk): \oasterisk \otriangleup Failed to parse (unknown function\otriangleup): \otriangleup
\boxcirc Failed to parse (unknown function\boxcirc): \boxcirc \obackslash Failed to parse (unknown function\obackslash): \obackslash \ovoid Failed to parse (unknown function\ovoid): \ovoid
\boxcoasterisk Failed to parse (unknown function\boxcoasterisk): \boxcoasterisk \obot Failed to parse (unknown function\obot): \obot \smalltriangledown Failed to parse (unknown function\smalltriangledown): \smalltriangledown
\boxdiv Failed to parse (unknown function\boxdiv): \boxdiv \ocirc Failed to parse (unknown function\ocirc): \ocirc \smalltriangleleft Failed to parse (unknown function\smalltriangleleft): \smalltriangleleft
\boxdot \ocoasterisk Failed to parse (unknown function\ocoasterisk): \ocoasterisk \smalltriangleright Failed to parse (unknown function\smalltriangleright): \smalltriangleright
\boxleft Failed to parse (unknown function\boxleft): \boxleft \odiv Failed to parse (unknown function\odiv): \odiv \smalltriangleup Failed to parse (unknown function\smalltriangleup): \smalltriangleup
\boxminus \odot
\boxplus \oleft Failed to parse (unknown function\oleft): \oleft

### Table 52: Variable-sized Math Operators

Code Output Code Output Code Output Code Output
\bigcap \bigotimes \bigwedge \prod
\bigcup \bigsqcup \coprod \sum
\bigodot \biguplus \int
\bigoplus \bigvee \oint

### Table 53: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators

Code Output Code Output
\idotsint Failed to parse (unknown function\idotsint): \idotsint \iiint
\iiiint \iint

### Table 54: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators

Code Output Code Output
\bigbox Failed to parse (unknown function\bigbox): \bigbox \biginterleave Failed to parse (unknown function\biginterleave): \biginterleave \bigsqcap Failed to parse (unknown function\bigsqcap): \bigsqcap
\bigcurlyvee Failed to parse (unknown function\bigcurlyvee): \bigcurlyvee \bignplus Failed to parse (unknown function\bignplus): \bignplus \bigtriangledown
\bigcurlywedge Failed to parse (unknown function\bigcurlywedge): \bigcurlywedge \bigparallel Failed to parse (unknown function\bigparallel): \bigparallel \bigtriangleup

### Table 55: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators

Code Output Code Output Code Output
\iiint \oiint Failed to parse (unknown function\oiint): \oiint \varoint Failed to parse (unknown function\varoint): \varoint
\iint \varint Failed to parse (unknown function\varint): \varint

### Table 101: stmaryrd Arrows

Code Output Code Output Code Output
\leftarrowtriangle Failed to parse (unknown function\leftarrowtriangle): \leftarrowtriangle \Mapsfrom Failed to parse (unknown function\Mapsfrom): \Mapsfrom \shortleftarrow Failed to parse (unknown function\shortleftarrow): \shortleftarrow
\leftrightarroweq Failed to parse (unknown function\leftrightarroweq): \leftrightarroweq \mapsfrom Failed to parse (unknown function\mapsfrom): \mapsfrom \shortrightarrow Failed to parse (unknown function\shortrightarrow): \shortrightarrow
\leftrightarrowtriangle Failed to parse (unknown function\leftrightarrowtriangle): \leftrightarrowtriangle \Mapsto Failed to parse (unknown function\Mapsto): \Mapsto \shortuparrow Failed to parse (unknown function\shortuparrow): \shortuparrow
\lightning Failed to parse (unknown function\lightning): \lightning \nnearrow Failed to parse (unknown function\nnearrow): \nnearrow \ssearrow Failed to parse (unknown function\ssearrow): \ssearrow
\Longmapsfrom Failed to parse (unknown function\Longmapsfrom): \Longmapsfrom \nnwarrow Failed to parse (unknown function\nnwarrow): \nnwarrow \sswarrow Failed to parse (unknown function\sswarrow): \sswarrow
\longmapsfrom Failed to parse (unknown function\longmapsfrom): \longmapsfrom \rightarrowtriangle Failed to parse (unknown function\rightarrowtriangle): \rightarrowtriangle
\Longmapsto Failed to parse (unknown function\Longmapsto): \Longmapsto \shortdownarrow Failed to parse (unknown function\shortdownarrow): \shortdownarrow

### Table 105: mathabx Harpoons

Code Output Code Output Code Output Code Output
\barleftharpoon Failed to parse (unknown function\barleftharpoon): \barleftharpoon \barrightharpoon Failed to parse (unknown function\barrightharpoon): \barrightharpoon \downdownharpoons Failed to parse (unknown function\downdownharpoons): \downdownharpoons \downharpoonleft
\downharpoonright \downupharpoons Failed to parse (unknown function\downupharpoons): \downupharpoons \leftbarharpoon Failed to parse (unknown function\leftbarharpoon): \leftbarharpoon \leftharpoondown
\leftharpoonup \leftleftharpoons Failed to parse (unknown function\leftleftharpoons): \leftleftharpoons \leftrightharpoon Failed to parse (unknown function\leftrightharpoon): \leftrightharpoon \leftrightharpoons
\rightbarharpoon Failed to parse (unknown function\rightbarharpoon): \rightbarharpoon \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoon Failed to parse (unknown function\rightleftharpoon): \rightleftharpoon
\rightleftharpoons \rightrightharpoons Failed to parse (unknown function\rightrightharpoons): \rightrightharpoons \updownharpoons Failed to parse (unknown function\updownharpoons): \updownharpoons \upharpoonleft
\upharpoonright \upupharpoons Failed to parse (unknown function\upupharpoons): \upupharpoons

### Table 156: yhmath Math-Mode Accents

Code Output Code Output

### Table 157: Extensible Accents

Code Output Code Output
\widetilde{abc} * Failed to parse (unknown function\widetilde): \widetilde{abc} \overleftarrow{abc}
\overline{abc} \overbrace{abc}
\sqrt{abc} \widehat{abc}
\overrightarrow{abc} \underline{abc}
\underbrace{abc} \sqrt[n]{abc}

* The yhmath package is required.

### Table 159: yhmath Extensible Accents

Code Output Code Output
\wideparen{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\wideparen): \wideparen{abc} \widetriangle{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\widetriangle): \widetriangle{abc}
\widering{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\widering): \widering{abc}

### Table 160: AMS Extensible Accents

Code Output Code Output
\overleftrightarrow{abc} Failed to parse (PNG conversion failed;

check for correct installation of latex, dvips, gs, and convert): \overleftrightarrow{abc}

\underleftrightarrow{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\underleftrightarrow): \underleftrightarrow{abc}
\underleftarrow{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\underleftarrow): \underleftarrow{abc} \underrightarrow{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\underrightarrow): \underrightarrow{abc}
\xleftarrow{abc} \xrightarrow{abc}

### Table 163 mathabx Extensible Accents

Code Output Code Output
\overbrace{abc} \widebar{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\widebar): \widebar{abc}
\overgroup{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\overgroup): \overgroup{abc} \widecheck{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\widecheck): \widecheck{abc}
\underbrace{abc} \wideparen{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\wideparen): \wideparen{abc}
\undergroup{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\undergroup): \undergroup{abc} \widering{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\widering): \widering{abc}
\widearrow{abc} Failed to parse (unknown function\widearrow): \widearrow{abc}

The braces shown for \overbrace and \underbrace appear in their minimum size. They can expand arbitrarily wide, however.

### Table 164: esvect Extensible Accents

Code Output Code Output
\vv{abc} with package option a Failed to parse (unknown function\vv): \vv{abc} \vv{abc} with package option b Failed to parse (unknown function\vv): \vv{abc}
\vv{abc} with package option c Failed to parse (unknown function\vv): \vv{abc} \vv{abc} with package option d Failed to parse (unknown function\vv): \vv{abc}
\vv{abc} with package option e Failed to parse (unknown function\vv): \vv{abc} \vv{abc} with package option f Failed to parse (unknown function\vv): \vv{abc}
\vv{abc} with package option g Failed to parse (unknown function\vv): \vv{abc} \vv{abc} with package option h Failed to parse (unknown function\vv): \vv{abc}

esvect also defines a \vv* macro which is used to typeset arrows over vector variables with subscripts.

### Table 174: Dots

Code Output Code Output
\cdotp Failed to parse (unknown function\cdotp): \cdotp \colon * :
\ldotp Failed to parse (unknown function\ldotp): \ldotp \vdots
\cdots \ddots
\ldots

* While “:” is valid in math mode, \colon uses different surrounding spacing.

### Table 175: AMS Dots

Code Output Code Output
\dotsb \dotsi Failed to parse (unknown function\dotsi): \dotsi
\dotso Failed to parse (unknown function\dotso): \dotso \dotsc Failed to parse (unknown function\dotsc): \dotsc
\dotsm Failed to parse (unknown function\dotsm): \dotsm

 Work in progress, expect frequent changes. Help and feedback is welcome. See discussion page.