# Distancelanguagelearning/English Web/writing/Academic Writing/class/Unit I/Introduction paragraph

## Luis Carro

(HOOK) Collocations are one of the areas that produce problems for learners of English as a foreign language. Iranian learners of English are by no means an exception.

(MAIN IDEA)

Iranians have too much problems when learning collocations.

(THESIS STATEMENT) "Teaching experience at schools, private language centers, and universities in Iran suggests that a significant part of EFL learners’ problems with producing the language, especially at lower levels of proficiency, can be traced back to the areas where there is a difference between source- and target-language word partners". Sadeghi (2009)

Sadeghi, K. (2009). Collocational Differences Between L1 and L2: Implications for EFL Learners and Teachers. TESL Canada Journal /revue TESL du Canada. Vol. 26, No. 2,pp.100

--Lcarroperez 13:19, 24 August 2010 (UTC)

I think the paragraph in quotation marks is a thesis statement because the author is saying what he thinks is the most correct explanation to the problem he is studying.

### Paragraph I

(HOOK): Collocation is an aspect of language generally considered arbitrary by nature and problematic to L2 learners who need collocational competence for effective communication.

(MAIN IDEA): SLA students from Hong Kong have too much problems when learning L2 collocations because of their L1 influence

(THESIS STATEMENT): "...the performance of the Hong Kong students in collocational use might be adversely affected by their L1, L2 as well as their inadequacy in the lexis and grammar of the target language.." Fan (2008)

Fan, M. (2008). "An exploratory study of collocational use by ESL students – A task based approach". Science direct Volume 37, Issue 1, March 2009, Pages 110-123, doi:10.1016/j.system.2008.06.004

### Paragraph II

(hook) Good language learner studies show that attending to form is associated with successful learning.

(MAIN IDEA): English may be learnt much better through imitation and repetition

(THESIS STATEMENT): "...text memorization and imitation are the most effective methods of learning English..." Ding (2006)

Ding, y. (2006) Text memorization and imitation: The practices of successful Chinese learners of EnglishScience direct, Volume 35, Issue 2, June 2007, Pages 271-280, doi:10.1016/j.system.2006.12.005

### Pagagraph III

(hook): How are foreign language/second language learners' beliefs about language learning related to their learning strategy use?

(Main idea) Beliefs are tightly related to the strategies a student uses to learn a language

(thesis statement): "language learners' self-eficacy beliefs about learning English were strongly related to their use of all types of learning strategies, especially functional practice strategies. Also, learners' beliefs about the value and nature of learning spoken English were closely linked to their use of formal oral-practice strategies." Dong Yang (1999)

Dong Yang, N. (1999). "The relationship between EFL learners' beliefs and learning strategy use", science direct Volume 27, Issue 4, December 1999, Pages 515-535, doi: doi:10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00048-2

--Lcarroperez 10:44, 26 August 2010 (UTC)

### My introductory paragraph

A current overview of Teaching Spanish as a Second Language to Native Speakers of French

Luis Ángel Carro Pérez

Spanish and French are languages that are alike, that means that they share many intelligible parts that we Spanish Speaking teachers can take into consideration in order to raise awareness among our French native speakers students who are now learning Spanish as a second language. This paper we will describe those elements and how they can help our students to reach a better performance and thus better scores.

## Alma Cardona

'"There's no denying that SLA (Second Language Acquisition) is different from NLA (Native Language Acquisition) and the influence of the latter or other previously acquired languages to the former is always inevitable. This issue of cross linguistic influence-language transfer, has been referred to as quite an important sub-area of SLA, and the thorough comprehension on the phenomenon of language transfer, especially on positive transfer the facilitative effect of learner's native language or other previously acquired languages to the SLA resulting from the existence of certain resemblance between the former and the latter will greatly enhance the study on SLA." (Li-di, 2008)

Li-di, M. (2008). Survey on the relationship between developments of language transfer theory and second language acquisition. US-China Foreign Language, 6(12), 15-22. --Alma Cardona 12:57, 24 August 2010 (UTC)

## Fabian Gonzalez O.

(Hook)The Plowden Report (Central Advisory Council for Education, 1967), the first major study of primary education in England.

(Main idea) the first major study of primary education in England, long ago recognised the importance of positive relationships between home and school for children’s learning.

(Thesis statement) schools in England have, since Plowden, prided themselves on what they see as their positive relationships with parents.

Conteh, J. Kawashima Y. (2008). Diversity in family involvement in children’s learning in English primary schools: Culture, language and identity, English Teaching: Practice and Critique 7(2),113-125.

I'm missin the two references I could not access to virtual library of UAA

(Hook)The communicative competence an important issue to make students produce the language in a group of first grade in aprimary school.

(Main idea)Students in primary schools are more likely to learn a second language because of their age, their brains are kind of sponges ready to absorbe knowledge.

(Thesis statement)A group of first grade of primary school in Mexico is the matter of investigation. --Fabian Gonzalez 13:17, 24 August 2010 (UTC)

(Hook)"Today's language classroom is vastly different from that of the mid- to late 20th century".
(Main Idea)"Traditional notions of education are giving way to newer, more innovative ways of thinking about how we learn, teach and acquire knowledge".
(Thesis Statement)"The field of language education is changing at an ever-increasing rate". Eaton,(2010)

'Eaton, S.(2010). Global trends in language learning in the twenty-first century. Calgary: Onate Press. --Dulce Maria Padilla 12:54, 24 August 2010 (UTC)
Maurais,J.Morris, A.Languages in a Globalising World. West Nyack, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

## Vero Orosco

(Hook)Self-regulation is defined as individual’s being active in his own learning process behaviorally, metacognitively, and motivationally, which is one of the most commonly accepted definition (Zimmerman, 1989; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986). According to Pintrich (2000) self-regulated learning is an active, applicable process that learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior.

Arsal Z. (2010) The effects of Diaries on Self – Regulation Strategies of Perservice Science Teachers. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2010, 85-103

--Veroorosco 13:29, 24 August 2010 (UTC)

Example II

Yuan, H. (2009). Online Reading Comprehension Strategies among General and Special Education Elementary and Middle School Students. Online Submission, Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University.

## Ale Rivera

• (HOOK) Most people working on linguistic meaning or communication assume that semantics and pragmatics are distinct domains, yet there is still little consensus on how the distinction is to be drawn.
• (THESIS STATEMENT) Some implications are considered for the favoured semantics/pragmatics distinction of the fact that there are linguistic elements (lexical and syntactic) which do not contribute to truth-conditional content but rather provide guidance on pragmatic inference.
• (MAIN IDEA) The position defended in this paper is that the semantics/pragmatics distinction holds between (context-invariant) encoded linguistic meaning and speaker meaning.

Carston, R. (2007). Linguistic Communication and the semantic/pragmatics distinction. Synthese. Vol.165, No.3, 321-345,. DOI: 10.1007/s11229-007-9191-8

### Example II

• (HOOK)It agues that life-forms must be understood as a synthesis of forms of speech, action and thought whose basic structures can be disclosed by the means of Schutzian theory of the life-world.
• (THESIS STATEMENT) In accordance to the Schutzian perspective, the paper develops some basic items of such meta-language and shows that they can be used to synthesize the relevant results of social and cultural sciences and thus to bridge the controversial positions in the present discourse on intercultural comparison.
• (MAIN IDEA)This contribution examines how far the concept of life-form can be used for intercultural understanding and comparisons.

Srubar, I. (2005). The Pragmatic Theory of the Life-World as a Basis for Intercultural Comparisons. Contributions To Phenomenology. Explorations of the Life-World Vol.53, No. 3, 235-266, DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-3220-X_10

### Example III

• (HOOK)Three major positions can be distinguished, all of which in varying degrees separate pragmatics from the propositional content itself, as a set of procedures and assumptions for the appropriate use of propositions. ??? (not clear)
• (THESIS STATEMENT)I did not find any thesis statement in this abstract, I would like you to read it, I think there is no a specific part that describes what the paper is going to be about in a specific form. So please read it and suggest me what do you think about!!! thanks
• (MAIN IDEA)The following describes a study of the acquisition of ‘pragmatic’ structures by Italian children.

Bates, E. (1974). Acquisition of pragmatic competence. Journal of Child Language. Vol. 1, 277-281, DOI:10.1017/S0305000900000702

### Ale's Introductory Paragraph

• For many years, linguists gave prime importance to the study of linguistic and grammatical abilities probably because most of the teaching approaches were centered on the development of those skills. However, new approaches in teaching have introduced innovative perspectives and this is why many linguists have centered their attention on studying elements involved with communication instead of grammar.

## Mayra-mtz

(Hook) The traditional mode of teaching, which is termed frontal teaching or chalk and talk, has not been successful for all students as is evidenced by the dropout rate of 50% in high schools in the United States (Snyder, 1999, p. 11).

(thesis statement) In 1983, Howard Gardner developed the theory of Multiple Intelligences which explains the presence of nine different Intelligences: these include Bodily/ Kinesthetic, Existential, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Logical/Mathematical, Musical, Naturalist, Verbal/Linguistic, and Visual/Spatial (Gardner, 1997, p. 8). The following are the personal learning styles based upon the nine Multiple Intelligences.

McClellan, A. & Conti, J. (2008). Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students.Journal of Adult Education. Volume 37, Number 1. p 32..--Mayra-mtz 13:37, 24 August 2010 (UTC)

example II

(Hook) In the multiple intelligence framework, newer and more contextualized cognitive tasks are suggested as alternative to more traditional psychometric tests.

(thesis statement) These results challenge Gardner's original position on refusing a general factor of intelligence, especially when considering the cognitive dimensions measured which do not coincide with the more traditional tests of intelligence.

Almeida, L., Prieto, M., Ferreira, A., Bermejo, M., Ferrando, M. & Ferrandiz, C. (2010). Intelligence Assessment: Gardner Multiple Intelligence Theory as an Alternative. Learning and Individual Differences, v20, n3 p225-230.--Mayra-mtz 00:57, 26 August 2010 (UTC)

Example III

(Hook) We are all smart in different ways.

(thesis Statement) The author outlines characteristics of existential learners, the arguments for and against the inclusion of existential as a multiple intelligence, and classroom strategies that will help an existential learner succeed.

McCoog, I. (2010). The Existential Learner. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, v83, n4. p126-128.--Mayra-mtz 00:57, 26 August 2010 (UTC)

## yezica

Once you have decided that teaching will be your life’s work, you will have to think about getting a job. Even though at first you will be concentrating on your schooling, it’s a good idea to find out as much as you can about the standards you will have to meet later on.

Fine, J. (2005).Opportunities in Teaching Careers, revised edition. Blacklick, OH, USA: McGraw-Hill Companies, The,. p 81.--YEJEE 13:38, 24 August 2010 (UTC)--YEJEE 13:40, 24 August 2010 (UTC)

## Nancy

(hook) Over the past few decades, grammar instruction has moved from its central position in traditional language teaching approaches to playing virtually no role in communicative approaches.

(thesis statement) Although recent studies have suggested that some form of grammar teaching is necessary in second language classrooms (Ellis, 2006),there is considerable controversy as to whether grammar teaching should be based on the traditional grammar teaching approach or on a focus on form approach where linguistic forms are addressed in a communicative language teaching context.

Huang, J. (2010). Journal for Adult Education.Grammar Instruction for Adult English Language Learners: A Task Based Learning. Vol. 39, No. 1, pp.29-37

During the 1980s materials for the teaching of literature in the context of English language teaching have operated according to a number of common theoretical and strategic principles. (Hook)

Such principles stress the mutual reinforcement and support of literary and linguistic skills and underlie an essentially integrated view of language and literature. (thesis statment)

Carter, R. (1997). Investigating English Discourse : Language, Literacy, Literature. London, Routledge.

## Alby

(hook) Nonverbal communication is important in foreign language teaching and learning because of its variation in form, meaning and distribution from one culture to another and because of its extensive use in the communicative process.

(thesis statement) Teachers can thus add life to the printed words in their textbooks and stimulate student interest and motivations.

(reference) Bachmann,J. (1973). English face to face: The non verbal dimension of conversation. paper presented at the annual meeeting of TESOL. San Juan Puerto Rico, May 1973.

## Anabell

Students love to argue. These classroom debate activities are designed to ensure that all students engaging in a classroom argument have the right to speak and be heard. Through these activities, students will be encouraged to argue ethically— supporting their claims with reason, evidence, and appropriate language.

HOOK:Students love to argue.

THESIS STATEMENT: These classroom debate activities are designed to ensure that all students engaging in a classroom argument have the right to speak and be heard.

REFERENCE:California High School Speech Association. (2004). Speaking Across the Curriculum : Practical Ideas for Incorporating Listening and Speaking in the classroom. International Debate Education Association

## Ivan

IVAN´s WORK

paragraph:

How can children build up their own knowledge and have fun at the same time? A man called Lev Vygotsky developed a method whose methodology allows students to learn by their own, interacting with the knowledge in a practical way; this method is called constructivism. The main idea about constructivism according to Vygotsky (1978),lies in the fact that students are able to work by their own, achieving the objectives of the course , teacher is just a mediator whose main function is to give back up to the students when they get stuck.

hook:

How can children build up their own knowledge and have fun at the same time?

thesis statement:

A man called Lev Vygotsky developed a method whose methodology allows students to learn by their own,
interacting with the knowledge in a practical way; this method is called constructivism.


references:

Vigotsky,L. (1982) mind in society. Harvard University,United States

## CARO

Hook

As for the age factor in L2 learning, to the casual observer the differences between younger and older L2 learners appear perfectly clear.

Thesis statement

. Young children in suitable environments pick up a second language with little trouble, whereas adults seem to struggle ineffectively with a new language and to impose the phonology of their mother tongue on the new language. (Macnamara, 1973a: 63).

Referencee

Singleton, D. & Ryan, L., (2004). Language Acquisition: "The Age Factor". (2nd edition).

Carlos

(hook)Much research has been performed in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) in
recent years.

(thesis statement)The burgeoning repertoire of professional literature related to the subject could be
a byproduct of expanding interest in the interdisciplinary field of language learning and
acquisition by theoretical linguists, cognitive and developmental psychologists, neuroscientists,
and educators alike.

This influx of interest and research is especially timely in the contemporary
society of the United States, which is subject to growing immigration from Mexico and Latin
America and increasing internationalization in the corporate and academic sectors.

Reference

L.Morett.(2007)Second Language Learning in an Undergraduate Population: Applications of Psycholinguistic Theory.DOI ED502164

## ale tellez:

introduction paragraph:

Families with two languages Background

There have always been those who have moved from one country to another to study or work for a while. The expansion of the European Union (EU) has led to ever-increasing numbers of Europeans who move from one country to another withing Europe. In addition, many people have come to the countries of Western Europe as refugees from conflicts in other parts of the world or in what was once Yugoslavia. In Japan, Korea and Taiwan , as well as parts of the Middle East, Africa, and South America, there are many foreign workers, ofter married to local people. USA,Canada and Australia, have by their nature, large immigrant populations. People are living abroad all over the world for innumerable reasons.

Cunningham, A. (1999) Growing up with Two Languages : A Practical Guide, Routledge.

HOOK:There have always been those who have moved from one country to another to study or work for a while.

THESIS STATEMENT:The expansion of the European Union (EU) has led to ever-increasing numbers of Europeans who move from one country to another withing Europe.

REFERENCE:Cunningham, A. (1999) Growing up with Two Languages : A Practical Guide , Routledge .

Hook: How does the L1 in the L2 classroom affect the learnig process of a foreing language?

Thesis statement: In the learning process of a second language emerges a crucial factor that in the most of the occasions affects the correct acquisition of a second language, it is the use of L1 in the L2 classroom.

Main idea: L2 students have the tendency to use their mother tongue in the classroom and most of the times it have and negative impact in the foering language acquisition, but what are the factors that affect the precess leaning.

## 'ESTHERSITA´S PARAGRAPH EXAMPLE'

Many times, people do not care about how a language behaves, and the wide field of study that it implies into the discourse analysis. In the same case, to talk about discourse is to talk about spoken conversations. This book focuses on turn-taking. Readers will be able to answer two main questions such as what turn-taking is. And what is the importance of turn taking in the discourse for ELT students?

HOOK: turn-taking

THESIS STATEMENT: Readers will be able to answer two main questions such as what turn-taking is. And what is the importance of turn taking in the discourse for ELT students?

REFERENCE: McCarthy, M. (1991). Discourse analysis for language. London: Cambridge language teaching library.

## Fatty

Introduction After studying the nature and role of authentic materials in teaching and learning, researchers have provided EFL teachers with a wealth of new information over the last fifteen years (e.g., Chavez, 1998; Davis, 1995; Davis, 1998; Furmanovsky, 1997; Mackenzie, 1997; Martinez, 2002; Melvin and Stout, 1987; Miggliacci, 1999; Ryan, 1998; Smith, 1997; Tatsuki, 1998; Taylor, 1994). The choice between using textbooks or authentic materials to help students to communicate in a natural way appears to be a clear one: Classes using only textbooks appear to be question-and-answer sessions while classes using authentic materials with or without textbooks seem more natural and communicative. Karpova (1999, p. 18) affirms: “Many textbooks create a climate for socially isolated learning . . . . Teachers need more materials that help students to become thoughtful participants in a socially rich environment for learning and that feature everyday uses of English." Lawrence (1987, p. 837) states that TV commercials “provide a refreshing alternative to the traditional textbook.” Karpova (1999), Lawrence (1987), and other researchers have introduced teachers to a variety of authentic materials from print to audio-visual and justified their use. It is fairly evident that authentic materials help students not only to communicate in a natural way but also to learn more about the target culture. In addition, they encourage students to become critical thinkers.

hook: TV commercials “provide a refreshing alternative to the traditional textbook.”

thesis statement: The choice between using textbooks or authentic materials to help students to communicate in a natural way appears to be a clear one: Classes using only textbooks appear to be question-and-answer sessions while classes using authentic materials with or without textbooks seem more natural and communicative.

reference: Rocha, O. (2005) "TV Commercials as Authentic Materials to Teach Communication, Culture and Critical Thinking". MEXTESOL Journal, Vol. 29. No. 1

## elizabeth

HOOK:Policymakers and educators have long struggled with how best to help newcomers to the United States learn English quickly and fully. The pressure to achieve this goal has increased substantially in the last decade with the rise in the English Learner (EL) population and new federal mandates that govern the testing of EL students. THESIS STATEMENT:In 2004, approximately 11% of the student population were designated EL, an increase of over 60% since 1994 (NCELA, 2006). Public schools are also now held accountable for the performance of their EL students on standardized reading and math exams. The 2001 federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires EL students to take standardized tests in English reading/language arts within three years after they enter the school system.1 Districts and schools that fail to demonstrate gains for EL students on these exams after the three-year time limit risk penalties that range from permitting parents to transfer to alternative schools to removing personnel or closing the school.

REFERENCES: C., Dylan (2008)"testing,time limits, and english learners: does age of school entry affect how quickly students can leran English?"

## Laura

This study investigates the effects of teaching and learning environments on student teachers' approaches to teaching and compares a lecture-based setting to a student-activating teaching environment, in which self-discovery learning by means of authentic tasks is central. Data collection was obtained by a pre-test/post-test design including the Approaches to Teaching Inventory. Though student teachers' approaches changed significantly, the direction is only consistent with the assumption that the student-activating experiences push students towards conceptual change/student-focused approaches; however, not away from information transmission/teacher-focused teaching. In fact, students' approaches to teaching at the start of the experiment are important predictors of their scores after they followed the course on child development under both conditions. Moreover, student teachers' changes in approaches to teaching tend to be affected by variables such as performance, academic self-esteem, perceived workload and students' changes in approaches to learning: variables that operate in distinct ways for diverse categories of approaches and work differently in both settings. In addition, the willingness of students to teach in the way they have been taught is not as straightforward as might be expected. Although several students became convinced of the use of the teaching methods in the experiment for their own practice, the majority of students demonstrate reflective practices, make critical judgements, formulate terms or suggest amendments to the teaching methods before simply adopting them for their own future pupils.

Hook: The impact of approaches and environments used when teaching and learning.

thesis statement: To research about the importants about the effects of teaching and learning environments on student teachers' approaches to teaching and compares a lecture-based setting to a student-activating teaching environment, in which self-discovery learning by means of authentic tasks is central.

Reference> Katrien, S. et al (2010( http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all?content=10.1080/026197609034578

LUPITA!!

Since its beginning in 1965 as a part of the War on Poverty, Head Start‘s goal has been to boost the school readiness of low-income children. Based on a ―whole child‖ model, the program provides comprehensive services that include preschool education; medical, dental, and mental health care; nutrition services; and efforts to help parents foster their child‘s development. Head Start services are designed to be responsive to each child‘s and family‘s ethnic, cultural, and linguistic heritage.

HOOK Since its beginning in 1965 as a part of the War on Poverty, Head Start‘s goal has been to boost the school readiness of low-income children.

THESIS STATEMENT Based on a ―whole child‖ model, the program provides comprehensive services that include preschool education; medical, dental, and mental health care; nutrition services; and efforts to help parents foster their child‘s development. Head Start services are designed to be responsive to each child‘s and family‘s ethnic, cultural, and linguistic heritage.

REFERENCE U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (January 2010). Head Start Impact Study. Final Report. Washington, DC.

## Mariana

PARAGRAPH I

HOOK: Every language teacher at some point has felt guilty, puzzled and frustrated about their students’ perceived overuse of their mother tongue in the classroom.

THESIS STATEMENT: In a monolingual context, that is to say where all students speak the same mother tongue (a classroom reality for the majority of language teachers), this perception can become quite a problem. The closest most get to dealing with the issue is to nag their students to “use English” and fine them for “lapsing” into mother tongue.

MAIN IDEA: There is nothing wrong with this strategy as far as it goes, but it rarely allows the teacher or the students a chance to understand why L1 was being used in the first place.

Reference: sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/files/dRPIUE/Double%20Talk.ppt

PARAGRAPH II

HOOK: The issue of whether or not to use the mother-tongue (L1) in the English (L2) classroom is a complicated one.

THESIS STATEMENT: Somewhere along the line (probably in the late 70s or early 80s) the idea came into fashion that using the mother tongue in the language teaching classroom was a bad thing.

MAIN IDEA: Everything should be done in the target language, giving the learners maximum exposure to that language (in this case English). This probably coincided with a time when ELT publishers realized that it would be cheaper to mass produce text books in which all the instructions were in English, and then ship these off to every country in the world.

REFERENCE: elt-teaching.blogspot.com/.../teaching-approaches-using-l1-in-class.html

PARAGRAPH III

Where did we get this idea that "only English" should be spoken in the English classroom? Is it based on any cohesive theory or substantiated research? Or more likely, is it the result of blind acceptance of certain dogma which conveniently serves the best interests of native speaker teachers? It is my purpose to show that, while our students are here to learn English (the L2) , there are many possible means toward that end, that there is a time and a place for everything, and that one of those means is, without doubt, the timely use of the students' first language (the L1); in our case -- Japanese.

REFERENCE: The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. III, No. 11, November 1997 http://iteslj.org/