Bamboo and Rattan/Rattan/Course-1 Unit-8
- 1 Block 4 : Rattan Cultivation Practices
- 2 Unit 8: Plantation Establishment
- 3 8.0 OBJECTIVES
- 4 8.1 INTRODUCTION
- 5 8.2: Site Selection
- 6 8.3: Planting
- 7 8.4: Cultivation cost
- 8 8.5: Key words
- 9 8.6: References
- 10 USES OF CANE
- 11 STATUS
- 12 NURSERY TECHNIQUES OF CANE
- 13 SEED SOWING TECHNIQUE:
- 14 POLYBAG NURSERY:
- 15 OUTPLANTING:
- 16 PROPAGATION BY WILDINGS:
- 17 PROPAGATION BY SUCKERS/OFFSETS:
- 18 PROPAGATION BY RHIZOME:
- 19 PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS:
- 20 8.6: Key words
- 21 8.7: References
- 22 8.8: Quiz
Block 4 : Rattan Cultivation Practices
Unit 8: Plantation Establishment
After going through this unit, you should be able to:
- Describe about the establishment of rattan plantations;
- List steps undertaken during plantations; and
- Estimate the cost involvement
Rattan is one of the most important renewable non-wood forest products in Indian. The rattans were found in abundance in natural forests in the past, due to unscientific exploitation & management, conversion of cane growing areas into agricultural fields and intensive logging and opening of natural forests and degradation of natural habitat, many of rattan wealth are threatened to the verge of extinction and natural population is also reducing drastically and to some extent eroded genetically. Because of commercial demand, the major pressure mounted on natural rattan population only as there is no sufficient commercial rattan plantation in Government forest land or private holdings. The species like Calamus .tenuis, C.latifolius, C. guruba ,C. flagellum etc are abundantly growing in North East region are now diminishing in the natural stage and most of the endemic species are in alarming state. The C. namborensis is endemic to Nambor Reserve Forest of Assam is in rare state. Also C. Khasianus is infrequently restricted in some sacred groves of Khasi Hills of Meghalaya and P.bractealis could not be traced at all after type collection. As such, to meet the growing demand, commercial rattan plantations should raised in large scale in forest and private land with selected species. Such type of rattan plantations has lead to a marked decrease in new clearings for shifting cultivation also.( Weidelt,1996)
8.2: Site Selection
Rattan resources in India are distributed in evergreen, semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests of three regions, viz. Western Ghats,North East and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In these regions, rattan areas are diverse in terms of their populations and habitats. Therefore, the planting site should be selected in natural evergreen, semi-evergreen or moist deciduous forest depending on the species. The rattans require the support of trees, shade and it require canopy opening for more sunlight. The selected site should be rich in humus and having moderate number of trees. The secondary or disturbed forests with gaps in the canopy provide these ideal conditions for vigorous growth of most rattans. Also, the homestead garden of Northeast Indian is ideally suited for growth and development of rattans. Even spaced plantations of tree species can also be used for commercial cultivation of rattans.
8.2.1: Species Selection
Though India is represented with 51 species, a limited number of species are being utilized in the commercial sector.North Eastern India is represented by 3 genera –Calamus, Daemonorops and Plectocomia. There are altogether 19 species reported from this region and out of which 10 species are mostly used in the handicrafts industries, hence you may consider these species for large scale plantations e.g. Calamus tenuis(Jati), C. erectus (Jeng), C. flagellum (Raidang), C. floribundus (lazai), C. guruba (chundi), C. nambariensis (haoka), C. latifolius (pakhori),C.gracilis (chuli), C. leptospadix (rankoli) and Daemonorops jenkinsianus (golla). The species viz.Calamus bandisii, C. gamblei, C. hookerianus, C.Pseudotenuis, C.rotang, C. thwaitesii,C. trvancoricus, C. dransfieldii, C. vattaylla and C. viminalis, C.rotang, C. andamanicus, C. pseudorivalis are commonly used in South India and Andaman & Nicober Islands and may be considered for plantations in forests/farmers’ field. Besides, some of the exotic rattans, C. trachycoleus, C.manan, C.C.simplicifoloius and C. caesius may also introduced on trial basis.
Rattans prefer areas with abundant and well-distributed rainfall, where the soil is fine clay and rich in humus (Balagopalan et al 1992). Goswami et al (2000) have analyzed the soils under rattan growing areas of Arunachal Pradesh and reported that rattans prefer strong to medium acidic, dark coloured loamy soils with moderate water holding capacity.
The ideal climatic condition for rattan plantation is:
Altitude: between sea level to 3000m
Temperature: 80C to 360C
Annual rainfall requirement: 1200 to 6350 mm
Humidity: more than 60 %
Taking up of large-scale rattan cultivation offers immense promise and could help overcome problems in its natural regeneration and prevent the reduction of the cane growing area due to various factors. The planting space depends on the habit of canes. Clump forming species require 5 m and more space while single stemmed require 2-5 m spacing. In the secondary forest, planting lines are prepared by clearing 1-1.5 m wide grooves at a distance of 5 m interval and 9-12 months old seedlings are planted out in pits of 30 x 30 x 30 cm or 50 x 50 x50 cm at 5 m interval in the planting lines before the onset of monsoon. At the time of site clearing it is important to keep some trees to provide shade to the seedlings and also to serve as support for the seedlings to grow and climb. The supporting trees influence the yield and quality of rattan (Weidelt, 1990). The supporting trees should be strong enough to bear the considerable weight of rattan plants and should not break when the shoots are pulled down. The supporting trees should not have too large and dense crowns that may hamper optimum light conditions. Once the plants are established, very little attention is necessary beyond occasional loosening of the soil around the clumps for 2 –3 years. In tree plantations, rattans are planted 1.5 away from the support plants in rows. The plant to plant spacing is varied from 4-6m depending on the original spacing of the plantation. However, certain factors have to considered, such as, underplanting of rattan is not recommended in a plantation of trees with long branchless boles, the plant should not be a short rotation one and heavy weight of rattan may deformed the trees and may suppress their growth. In case of homestead gardens or community forests where trees are sparsely distributed, 4 nos. of seedling can be planted 1.5m away from the trees around the support trees.
8.3.1: Pit gigging
The pits should be dug at the prescribed distance and size well before the rainy season and kept as such for weathering. The big size pits is to provide adequate working space for easy establishment and growth of rhizomes. Before planting, fortify the dugout soil with 100 gm Urea, 100gm Single super phosphate and 50gm Muriate of Potash, mix thoroughly together and place back in the pits.
8.3.2: Planting material
The most common propagation method for rattans is by seed. In addition, rattans can be propagated by suckers, rhizomes, wildlings collected in the forests or by tissue culture (Aziah & Manokaran, 1985). Suckers with intact roots are the best propagules in clump forming species. The rhizome network developed in the ground is taken out wholly for planting. This traditional method is still prevalent in rural areas and is very effective. In some regions, where the rattan resource is intensively exploited, the shoots no longer reach the flowering and fruiting age and seeds become scarce. Aziah (1985) has reported a potential vegetative method using tissue culture technique, initiated by Forest Research Institute, Malaysia (FRIM) and Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM).
Plant out the seedlings during the rainy season (June-July). Remove the polybags without disturbing the soil around the roots. Put the seedlings along with the intact soil into grooves made in the plantation area. Compact the soil around the plant and irrigate immediately.
8.4: Cultivation cost
|Item||Man days required||Cost( @ Rs 60/ MD)|
|Nursery bed preparation||2.0||120.00|
|Cost of polythene bags Size-15X20 cm.(3kg)||-||270.00|
|Soil preparation and polybag filling||5.0||300.00|
|Jungle cutting & Planting site preparation||40.00||2400.00|
|Pit digging, fertilizer mixing and planting||10.00||600.00|
|Transportation of seedling to the site||-||200.00|
|Cost of insecticides & fungicides||-||200.00|
|Maintenance cost for 12 months (weeding, watering and other cultural operations)||-||4000.00|
8.5: Key words
Rattan planting System:
Aminuddin, M., Nur Surpadi, Md. Noor. and W. C. Woon (1992). Economics of cultivation of large diameter rattan. In: Wan Mohd., Wan Razali, Dransfield, J.and Manokaron, N. (eds.). A. guide to the cultivation of rattan. Malayan For. Rec. 35.
Aziah, M. Y. (1985). Rattan tissue culture research in Malaysia. Rattan Information Centre Bulletin, 4 (1): 4.
Aziah, M. Y. and Manokaran, N. (1985). Seed and vegetative propagation of rattans. Proc. Rattan Seminar, Kuala Lumpur, 2-4 October 1984. Pp. 13-21.
Balagopalam, M. and Sankar, S. (1993). Ecological condition of cane(rattan)growing areas with special reference to soil properties. In: Chand Basha, S. and Bhat, K.M. (Eds.). Rattan Management and Utilization. KFRI, Kerala and IDRC, Canada.Pp 118-123.
Basu, S.K. (1985). The present status of rattan palms in India-an overview. In : Wong, K. M. and Manokaron, N. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Rattan Seminar. Kuala Lumpur, Malayasia. Pp. 77-94.
Basu, S. K.(1992). Rattans (Canes) in India- A monographic Revision. Rattan Information Centre, Kepong,52109 Kuala Lumpur.
Bhuyan,T.C.et el (2003).Rattans for prosperity. Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat, Assam.
Dransfield, J. (1979). A manual of the rattans of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan For. Rec. 29. 1-270.
Dransfield, J. and Uhl, N. W. 1986. An outline of a classification of Palms. Princeps, 30(1) : 3-11.
Goswami, M., Haridasan, K.and Barik, S.K. (2000) Soil characteristics of some cane (rattan) bearing areas in Arunachal Pradesh –a preliminary investigation. Arunachal Forest News.18 (1&2) 107 – 109.
|Manokaran, N. and Wong, K. M. (1983). The silviculture of rattan- An overview with emphasis on experiences with Malaysia. Paper presented at the Bangladesh small and cottage industries corporation training course on rattan (Cane) furniture||manufacturing, Dhaka, 21st march 5th April, 1983.|
Parameswarappa, S. and Lakshamana, A C. (1992). Calamus thwaitesii Becc. - its silviculture and performance in Karnataka. Pp. 138-141. In: Chand Basha, S. and Bhat, K. M. (eds.). Rattan Management and Utilization. KFRI, Kerala and IDRC, Canada.
Pattanaik, S., Pathak, K.C., Bhuyan, T.C. and Prasad, K.G. (2003). An insight into the utilization pattern of bamboo and canes in handicraft industries of Assam and Manipur. In project compilation report –Resource enhancement and processing of Cane and Bamboo species suitable for Handicrafts.
Renuka, C. (1992 b). Rattans of the Western Ghats- a taxonomic manual. KFRI, Peechi, Kerala, India.
Uhl, N. W. and Dransfield, J. (1987). Genera Palmarum. The L.H. Bailey Hortorium and the International Palm Society, Kansas.
Weidelt H.J (1990). Rattan growing in South-East Asia – an ecological well – adapted form of land use Plant Research and Development 31, (26-32).
Weidelt H.J.(1996) Rattan-distribution, morphology, use and ecologically well adapted cultivation pp. 627-647. In : Schulte, A and Scone, D. (eds.). Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystem-towards sustainable management. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore.
CANE Plantation Techniques
Rattan commonly known as Cane, one of the most important Non Wood Forests produce after timber is a spiny climbing palm belonging to the sub-family Calamoideae of the large family Palmae or Arecaceae. 13 genera comprising about 600 species found growing in evergreen, semi-evergreen or moist deciduous forests around the world mainly in South East Asian countries. In India, about 60 species under 5 genera are found distributed in 3 major regions i.e. the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the North Eastern region.
Western Ghats have only one genus-Calamus while the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have Calamus, Daemonorops and Korthalsia. North Eastern region is represented by 3 genera –Calamus, Daemonorops and Plectocomia. There are altogether 20 species and 4 varieties reported from the North Eastern India. About 10 species are mostly used in the handicrafts industries in North East e.g. Calamus tenuis(Jati), C. erectus (Jeng), C. flagellum(Raidang), C. floribundus(lazai), C. guruba(chundi), C. nambariensis(haoka), C. latifolius(pakhori),C.gracilis(chuli), C. leptospadix(rankoli) and Daemonorops jenkinsianus(golla).
USES OF CANE
Due to its flexibility, durability and lightness, rattans are considered as unique multifunctional raw materials for handicraft industries. The saying ’from cradle to coffin’ is aptly said for cane. Though a non-wood forest produce, they are used for furniture, baskets, working sticks, decorative pieces etc. The pulp of fruits of some species is edible. Tender shoots are used as vegetables. Some are used as indigenous medicines and also in religious practices.
Though it is a minor forest produce, it is in great demand in the industrial centers. Consequently, over exploitation has led to the scarcity of raw materials. Indiscriminate extraction has also led to harvest of young canes even before they flower. This drastically affects the seed production. Continuous exploitation has led to the depletion of natural cane resources. The demand of raw materials is increasing day by day and the existing stock of resource is not enough to meet the present requirement due to over-exploitation, conversion of cane growing areas into agricultural fields and intensive logging and opening of natural forests.
Though seeds are mostly used, it cannot be depended as monkeys and birds eat ripe seeds.
NURSERY TECHNIQUES OF CANE
Fruit collection: Collects the fruits while they are still on the mature plants as fallen fruits are prone to fungal infections. Pack the fruits in plastic bag or gunny sacks and bring to the nursery. It is best to collect the fruits when they turn yellow and the outer pericarp is more or less ruptured. Generally at this stage the fruits fall down by slight shaking and the fallen seeds can also be collected whick gives better germination percentage..Separation of the ripe fruits: Soak the fruits in water for 48 hrs. . Take the fruits that settle to the bottom and discard the floating ones.
Seed extraction and cleaning: Extract the seeds immediately when the fruits are received. Remove the mucilaginous protective coat by rubbing in water. Remove the sarcotesta by using wire mesh. To prevent any moisture loss before sowing, keep the seeds in moist sawdust.
SEED SOWING TECHNIQUE:
Seed bed preparation: Select a flat or gently sloping area having reliable water source. Prepare rectangular beds about 1m wide and of convenient length. Raise the beds above the ground to prevent infection or nematode attacks. Fill the raised beds with a layer of sandy loam soil 7-10cm thick and covered by 3cm thick saw dust. Make a shade for keeping out harsh sunlight and heavy rain from the bed.
Seed sowing: Firstly treat the seeds with fungicide (1g/100g of seeds). Press them into the seeds bed with the germination pore facing upwards. Cover the beds with 1-2cm of soil and then with 3cm of sawdust. The distance between the seeds can vary according to the size of the seeds. Water should be sprayed daily to retain moisture content. Care should be taken that the seeds are not exposed. Weeding of the seedbed should be carried out often.
Choice of the site:
The polybags nursery should near the seed bags.
It should be flat with a reliable water source.
It should be accessible and located within the plantation area.
Overhead shade should be constructed.
Polybag size: Minimum bag size is 20*26cm for raising the seedlings until it is of optimum planting age .
Polybag filling: Fill the poly bags with 1:1:1 mixture of soil: sand: FYM. Arrange them in the nursery over a thick polythene sheet spread on the ground.
Transplant the healthy seedlings-(4-6mm high) into the polybags when the first seedling leaves are fully expanded. Before transplanting, water the seed bed to loosen the roots from the soil. Plant the seedlings into the polybags by making a hole in the center deep enough to accommodate the seedling root. Fill up the hole with soil and take care not to crumple the roots. After transplanting, immediately water the seedlings thoroughly with a spray or a hose with a rose head. Weeding should be carried out as often as necessary. The crust of the soil should be broken up every now and then.
Plant out the seedlings during the rainy season (June-July). Remove the polybags without disturbing the soil around the roots. Put the seedlings along with the intact soil into grooves made in the plantation area.
PROPAGATION BY WILDINGS:
Limitations: Wildings are found in remote and inaccessible areas.
PROPAGATION BY SUCKERS/OFFSETS:
This method is used when seeds are of limited supply. Separate the suckers from the clump with a few roots intact during the monsoon season. These suckers should then be potted immediately in 1:1:1 mixture of soil: sand: FYM. The suckers could then be transplanted into the field.
PROPAGATION BY RHIZOME:
Cut the stems of a clump to the base level leaving the young suckers intact. Dug up the whole plant. Divide the rhizome into sections with intact suckers and plant out separately.
PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS:
As the North Eastern cane species do not branch out aerially, stem cuttings are not used for propagation.
Rattans prefer areas with abundant and well-distributed rainfall, where the soil is fine clay and rich in humus (Balagopalan et al 1992). Goswami et al (2000) have analysed the soils under rattan growing areas of Arunachal Pradesh and reported that rattans prefer strong to medium acidic, dark coloured loamy soils with moderate water holding capacity.
Taking up of large-scale rattan cultivation offers immense promise and could help overcome problems in its natural regeneration and prevent the reduction of the cane growing area due to various factors. The planting space depends on the habit of canes. Clump forming species require 5 m and more space while single stemmed require 2-5 m spacing. In the secondary forest, planting lines are prepared by clearing 1-1.5 m wide grooves at a distance of 5 m interval and 9-12 months old seedlings are planted out in pits of 30 x 30 x 30 cm at 5 m interval in the planting lines before the onset of monsoon. At the time of site clearing it is important to keep some trees to provide shade to the seedlings and also to serve as support for the seedlings to grow and climb. The supporting trees influence the yield and quality of rattan (Weidelt, 1990). The supporting trees should be strong enough to bear the considerable weight of rattan plants and should not break when the shoots are pulled down. The supporting trees should not have too large and dense crowns that may hamper optimum light conditions. Once the plants are established, very little attention is necessary beyond occasional loosening of the soil around the clumps for 2 –3 years. Mulching with humus may be done to boost the development of new shoots. Initially, the young plants do not require much light and it is only when thorns start developing that additional light is required. This is provided by clearing unwanted growth around young plants.