Y11 History - NZ's Search for Security 1945-1980

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Key focusing questions for this topic:
  1. What new directions did New Zealand foreign policy take after World War II?
  2. Why and how has New Zealand become increasingly involved in South-East Asia and the Pacific since World War II?
  3. What was New Zealand’s role on the international stage 1970–1985?
This NZOER resource is designed to become a collaborative textbook for New Zealand secondary school students studying the above topic. Guiding questions for this topic are: 

(a) What new directions did New Zealand foreign policy take after World War II?

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Define the following, as fully as you can. Give details about which countries were involved, the date they were signed and why they were significant.

  • The Canberra Pact: The Canberra Pact was signed in 1944 by Australia and New Zealand. It gave Australia and New Zealand their own region of defence in the South Pacific. This meant that the larger powers- America, France and Britain were being told to leave the South Pacific area. South Pacific native people were encouraged to govern themselves.
  • The Commonwealth: NZ decided to stay after NZ became independent in 1947. The Commonwealth involves 54 countries including European, Asian, African, and Pacific countries, that was from the old British Empire. It provided a voluntary/peaceful forum to discuss issues. NZ benefited by The Commonwealth because it keep its trade links and diplomatic. The Commonwealth is a form of Collective Security. It was a 'sentimental, political and economical advantages' from Defending NZ by George Brown. The Commonwealth promoted 'democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism and world peace.' from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations.
  • The Colombo Plan: The Columbo Plan began in 1951. New Zealand takes students from Malaysia and Singapore and trains them in New Zealand giving them skills to take back to their own country to help with economic things. This is also known as aid.
  • The United Nations:*The United Nations:Setup in 1945, many countries joined as it is a form of Collective Security. It was established after World War 2. It was setup to solve international problem peacefully.
  • The South Pacific Commission (1947): This is an organisation consisting of the USA, Great Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands. These countries gave aid to the Pacific area by giving educational and technical training, loans and medical help for economic development and social welfare.
  • ANZUS:Setup in 1951, ANZUS was a form of collective security that involved Australia, New Zealand and the USA. If any members were attacked it was seen as a danger to the rest. Members would consult together if one or more were threatened. If any members were attacked the other members were to act according to the situation.
  • SEATO: A pact formed in 1954. Signed by New Zealand, Australia, the Phillipines, Pakistan, Thailand, Great Britain and the United States of America. It's motives are alike to ANZUS (i.e. an attack to 1 member is an attack to all) except with the condition that it is a communist attack or subversion. It applied to all of South East Asia as well as the SEATO members in an anti-communist movement.
  • ANZAM:

ANZAM was signed in 1955. It is an agreement between New Zealand, Australia and Malaysia. The agreement was made so that if Malaysia was attacked by communist groups, outside countries (Particularly New Zealand and Australia) would be able to respond with troops immediately.

Article Summary Significance Links
The article is explaining how NZ needed better security so they left Britain for a larger more dominant world power like USA. They joined ANZUS but then were under the risk of getting caught in unwanted conflicts. They were seen as a reliable ally against the spread of communism.
The sigificance of these events saw New Zealand grow in an ever stronger reliance on the US for security and a voice in world affairs. As well as the the hesitances by New Zealand to follow in Americas rejection of the 'not so great' Britain.

-Vietnam war 1945-1975

-Middle east.

-New Zealand bans nuclear material 1985

-Korea 1950's

Closer to Home: The Korean War, ANZUS and SEATO

1. NZ followed Britain into the Korean War
2. The involvement in the Korean War reinforced NZ's commitment to anti- communism, and made NZ focus more on the sercurity of our own region. (Asia, Pacific)
3. After WW2 America became the major power.
4. New Zealand could no longer rely on Britain to provid sercurity.
5. NZ turned to America for security guareentee
6. NZ , Australia and USA signed the ANZUS treaty. 'The cental message of ANZUS was that each country would regard an attak on treaty partner in the Pacific as an attack on itself, and respond according to it's laws'*. The treaty also established and ongoing cooperation between the ANZUS members.
7. Before 1950 the American could not provided the guaratee that NZ wanted because of Isolism policty. But after NZ's involvement in the Korean War and have agreed 'generous' peace with Japan, US offered NZ the ANZUS defence treaty.
8. Britain complained about being left out of the ANZUS. This treaty was the first treaty that New Zealand and Australia signed with a foreign power without involving Britain. Churchhill worried that thh ANZUS would be seen as further sign of Britains declining power.
9. To satisfy Britain without sacrificing ANZUS, ANZUS and Britain formed a wider regional pact called SEATO.
10. SEATO involved five Western countries (ANZUS, Britain and France) and three Eastern countries (Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand).

  • All quotes are taken from Chapter 3 CLOSER TO HOME: The Korean War , ANZUS and SEATO.
The most significant information in the source is how communist events, like the Korean War, influenced New Zealand's foreign policy to focus on anti-communist security measures - leading them to form alliances (ANZUS , SEATO) with like-minded countires like Australia and the USA instead of Britain.

-Japan is referred to and given much of the same treatment by New Zealand at this time as Germany was given by the Allies after WWI

-Korea is also alike to Vietnam in the way it has been split into communist/democratic areas.

The American Invasion
In June 1942 more than 80,000 American troops came to New Zealand, both men and women. They settled in both Auckland and Wellington. The Americans made a big impact in New Zealand. For example they bought coffee-drinking to New Zealand. American men appealed to New Zealand women because of the different demeanour and manners that the American soldiers had. Although the Americans and New Zealanders usually got on well together there were the odd clash as during the infamous 'Battle of Manners Street' in April 1943 in Wellington that was thought to be started by a confrontation between some Americans and some New Zealand merchant seamen. Soon the Pacific fighting shifted north, so the Americans moved out of New Zealand. Most of the American men and women had left New Zealand by the end of 1944.
That they brought new habits to New Zealand like coffee drinking
World War II - 1939 - 1945
The Transitional Period
during this time NZ was increasing its relationship and involvement with the USA. NZ was also going from having Britain as a mother as one of their trade partners as to the US which supplied security.

the domino theory
this theory is basically like dominoes as each country fell to communism the next would fall. like North Korea was the start of the theory and then each country would fall.

The Manilla Treaty

this treaty ws to allow military intervention if necessary. this alowed the USAto bring in their policy of containment in exercise.this is to contain the threat to the country is needed. this was also to eliminate communism.
this is the alliance between the AU, NZ and Malaya. this prevented the maylay communists overrunning the country. all countries involved had to help.

A New Prosperity, The Cold War Becomes Local
A New Prosperity
| The prosperity in New Zealand after WW1 was at an all time high. Prime Minister Michael Joseph Savage, was the most genuinely loved Prime Minister this country has ever had,' and New Zealand was 'bursting with energy, optimism and pride.' NZ was the first to introduce welfare provisions, this lead to a 'Friendly Society' When WW2 was looming prosperity in NZ dropped away and in WW2 NZ helped Britian to fight another European war. In the 20th century NZ saw the, 'most effective Minister of Education, NZ had ever seen.'
The Cold War Becomes Local
Sidney George Holland of the National Party was Prime Minister from 1949 – 1957 and an aggressive debator. He saw socialism as 'a scourge moving around the world to obliterate the sturdy independence of character promoted by private enterprise.' New Zealand became a single-chamber parliament. The militant union as well as others started expressing opinions and in February 1951 the national Waterfront Workers Union called for a ban on overtime. Holland moved to break the unions by using the Public Saftey Conservation Act of 1932. The wharves were unoperational while a political divide opened, protest marches were marched and violence ensued between striking unionists and government supporters. The government won after five bitter months.
A much larger dispute happened in Korea in 1950 when the Communist north invaded Western-orintated south. In the wars shadow, the ANZUS treaty was signed.
Holland retired in 1957 and Labour won the election. New Zealand changed from annual tax payments to Pay As You Earn.
Revolution in the 1950s caused a technology boom that changed the countrys way of living. Everything became cheaper, more effective and less constrained. Credit cards were invented in the 1970s and many banks were set up.

(b) Why and how has New Zealand become increasingly involved in South-East Asia and the Pacific since World War II

Niue and Tokelau:

Tokelau has a lesser degree of de jure independence than the Cook Islands and have, and had been moving toward free association status. New Zealand's representative in Tokelau is the Administrator of Tokelau and has the power to overturn rules passed by the general fono. The people of Tokelau have generally rejected accepting a system of governance equivocal to that of Niue and the Cook Island's by the means of several referenda conducted by New Zealand and with the United Nations request.
Despite their close relationship to New Zealand, both the Cook Islands and Niue maintain some diplomatic relations in their own name. Both countries maintain High Commissions in New Zealand and have New Zealand High Commissioners resident in their capitals. In Commonwealth practice, High Commissioners represent their governments, not the Head of State.

Cook Islands: NZAID has allocated $756 Million for Pacific development over the next 3 years. In 2008/09 NZAID spent approximately $471.3 Million on overseas development assistance. Cook Islands became self-governing in free association with NZ on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action.

(Western) Samoa How NZ helped Western Samoa become independent: During WWI New Zealand seized Western Samoa from the Germans through a series of battles. Although Germany did not initially reliquish Western Samoa they were forced to by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. Western Samoa became first a UN mandate under New Zealand's advisory then changed to a UN trusteeship under NZ's administration. However New Zealands power over Western Samoa was not popular and so in 1962 Western Samoa became an independent country under it's first PM Fiame Mata'afa Faumuina Mulinu'u II. It wasn't until July 1997 that Western Samoa dropped the first part of it's name and became Samoa.

New Zealand began helping with development in 1947. In the Samoa Amendment act it helped Samoa set up its self governance. From the 1970's New Zealand's aid was mostly in the form of technical training. NZAID's Strategy for the Development of Samoa 2008-2012: ensuring sustainable economic and social progress reflects a vision of 'Improved Quality of Life for All'.

NZAID is providing over NZ$5 million annually towards initiatives that support human resource development in Samoa.

(c) What was New Zealand’s role on the international stage 1970–1985?

Refusal of the U.S.S. Buchanan

What lead up to the refusal of the U.S.S. Buchanan? The Labour Government came into power in 1984 with a policy to pursue anti-nuclear New Zealand. This was supported by over 40 New Zealand towns and suburbs who had already declared themselves 'Nuclear Free'. The Auckland Peace Squadron, who had already been involved in multiple protests in NZ waters against other Nuclear armed ships, and the largely supported Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament group, who had organised many protests and movements against Nuclear powers, especially in the Southern Pacific, backed this government strongly in their efforts to create a Nuclear-Free NZ. However, the opinion of the U.S.A was different - and they decided to test the NZ Labour Government on their resolve to secure this policy by sending the request to let the nuclear-capable U.S.S Buchanan to sail into NZ waters without confirming or denying whether it had nuclear arms on board.

What actually happened with the refusal of the U.S.S. Buchanan? Upon the arrival of US ships, New Zealander's protested the entry of US ships into New Zealand waters because of the reason that US ships were either nuclear powered or nuclear capable, the protests went on as way to show the government that New Zealander's wanted a Nuclear free country. The government finally caved in when they saw the USS Buchanan. They denied entry of the USS Buchanan into New Zealand waters.

What were the consequences of the refusal of the U.S.S. Buchanan? After New Zealand declined the USS Buchanan access into New Zealand waters there were a number of consequenses. A couple of days after the USS Buchanan was denied entry into New Zealand waters Washington broke off military ties and intelligence with New Zealand as well as cutting back political and diplomatic exchanges. George Schultz confirmed that although the ANZUS treaty remained the United States was not willing to maintain it security agreement. In 1987 Labour passed the New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act.

The Oxford Union Debate – David Lange

Cause : The mass protests (through out 1984 ~ 1985) and the USS Buchanan (Januaray 1985) Labour made stand against the Americans . Labour was elected and the nuclear free was the election issue.

Details about the Oxford Union Debate : The debate was held on 1985 and was widely televised. NZ (David Lange) was for 'nuclear weapons are morally indefensible'. During the debate David Lange argued that nuclear weapons are not exceptable for humanity, he competed against the U.S. right wing Jerry Falwell. Many viewed this debate as 'as Lange's finest hour on the world stage' (quote taken from wikipedia).

Most famous qoute from the debate was - Arguer for the negative: What I should like to know, sir, is why you don't do the honourable and the consistent thing and pull out of the ANZUS alliance. For whether you are snuggling up to the bomb or living in the peaceful shadow of the bomb, New Zealand benefits, sir. And that's the question with which we charge you. And that's the question with which we would like an answer, sir. David Lange: And I'm going to give it to you if you hold your breath just for a moment ... I can smell the uranium on it as you lean towards me!

Outcome : It cause international awarness of where NZ stand in the nuclear arms race. ANZUS inoperable

Rainbow Warrior:

-what lead up to this event: NZ protests against nuclear activity in south pacific region. Greenpeace flag ship the Rainbow Warrior entered NZ waters boosting public morale that would potentially interfere with French intentions. NZ had previously taken France to the world court Nuclear testing in south Pacific region, this was followed by Norman Kirk sending two frigates to stop French nuclear testing.

-what actually occurred: On July 10th 1985 the Greenpeace flag ship 'the Rainbow Warrior' was bombed by two French agents (Alain Mafart and Dominique Prieur). A Portuguese photographer (Fernando Pereira) lost his life retrieving his camera.

-what were the consequences for NZ: First act of international terrorism against NZ.