User:Undurthy/My Sandbox for Randy/OER

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my content

Winter Leaves.

I would be presenting my content in this page. My content would pertain to professional development of teachers. The areas that I would be presenting are:

1. Motivating Teachers

2. Competencies in academing reporting

3. Science Process Skills

4. Measurement and Evaluation

5. Teacher Education

Strategies of Motivation

It is our common experience that sometimes we do our job effectively and at times indifferently. The main reason for this is motivation. We work effectively when we are motivated and indifferently when we are de-motivated. Motivation helps us to work as effectively as possible to the best of our abilities. As every individual is unique, there is no single strategy of motivation that would be effective for all. Motivating teachers is the prime concern, today, to yield better educational outcomes.

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After going through this module you would be in a position to –

1. Understand different strategies of motivation.

2. Select suitable strategy of motivation.

3. Implement these strategies in real school situations.


In the real school situation, motivation is considered to be the art of creating conditions that allow every teacher to work efficiently. Number of motivational strategies may be tried out for maintaining and enhancing motivational levels of teachers. It is true that teachers can put their best efforts for school effectiveness, provided they are all well motivated. Some of the important strategies of motivation are dealt in this module. You have to choose a particular strategy or group of strategies of motivation depending on the individual, group or the situational demand.


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Operationalize Target Plans: It is necessary to define targets as clearly as possible. After finalization of objectives, link them to the ability of the team.

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Operationalize any target plan of your choice with the help of following steps:

1. Identification of targets/objectives

2. Assess abilities of the team

3. Visualize the whole situation

4. Select suitable behavioral strategies

5. Assign responsibilities to right persons

6. Decide right moment to start

7. Assume individual performance

8. Feedback

9. Eliminate ineffective behavior

10. Maintain interest among group until target is achieved

Decision Making:

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Involve staff in Decision Making: Better way of motivating your staff is by involving them in decision making. Collective decision making leads to collective responsibility.

Work Load:

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Distribution of Work Load: Some teachers like to have more and more work. They feel happy when more duties within their capacities, are assigned to them. These teachers will be motivated if large number of duties is assigned to them. This may be called as ‘horizontal loading’. For some teachers it is necessary to assign higher level of duties for retaining and enhancing their motivation. This type of work distribution may be called as ‘vertical job loading’. Some teachers get motivation in their professional development. Through refresher courses and in-service training programs, professional skills can be developed among teachers. This kind of job enrichment motivates these teachers.


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Democratic Administration: Autocratic administration may yield to good results but here there is a definite possibility of de-motivation among teachers. On the other hand democratic administration gives good results and enhances motivational levels of teachers.


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Dealing with Enlightened Colleagues: Educational administrators should realize that they are working with a set of enlightened colleagues. They are supposed to motivate such intellectuals who respect logic and rationality. These enlightened teachers are curious to know. Educational officers can motivate them by giving more relevant information related to a particular work. Organize staff seminars on staff development where motivation occupies the central theme of discussion. While doing this, administrators should be aware of their interests and preferences. These entry behaviors can be used as input in this motivational strategy.


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Key points

Through introspection, teachers can discover their self – image.

Teachers are allowed to answer to questions – ‘who am I?’ and ‘what do I want?’

Teachers with positive self – concept will work with a high degree of motivation.

Those teachers who are in congenial environment with full support and encouragement will have positive self – concept.

But for those teachers who are in adverse environment with little support and encouragement, administrators should provide help in discovering their self – image.

Discovering self – image is a vital step towards motivating the individual.


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Suitable Reinforcement: Precaution should be taken in matching the intensity of reinforcement with the intensity of action. This matching is possible through selection of right incentive for right situation. As far as possible result – oriented incentives are suggested. If the incentives are available without much effort, they lose motivational value.


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Effective Communication: Major barrier of motivation is ineffective communication. Motivation will improve when communication improves.

Some suggestions for effective communication are provided here under.

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Key points

1. Define why you need to communicate. Set clear objectives. Communication should be pre – planned.

2. Look at your message through receiver’s view point.

3. Each message should have a purpose.

4. Select right time for the communication.

5. Use variety of media and methods to communicate your ideas.

6. Special care should be taken for opening and closing statements.

7. Get your listeners involved in the message.

8. Center on the desired results of your communication.

9. One well stated message is worth of a dozen vague messages.

10. Effective listening.


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Caring but not Scaring: Most of the educational administrators use fear as a powerful motivator. Though fear motivates powerfully, it has negative effects. Educational administrators more frequently and easily impose fear, even though it should never be imposed. It may motivate persons for a moment but in long run causes de-motivation. Fearful teachers cannot work effectively. Hence motivate teachers by CARING rather than by SCARING. Persuasion, a challenging assignment, encouragement, sincere praise or a pat on the back are all long – term effective motivators that motivate a teacher and enhance their morale.


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Career Counseling: Career counseling can help the teachers to adopt and progress in their career. This is essential to teachers to retain their level of motivation and to protect them from being ‘burnt out’. Educational administrators should help teacher by providing necessary information for their career development.

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Following are the main points to be kept in mind to motivate teachers:
  • Operatinalisation of Target Plans
  • Involving staff in Decision Making
  • Judicious Distribution of Work Load
  • Democratic Administration
  • Properly Dealing with Enlightened Colleagues
  • Introspection
  • Suitable Reinforcement
  • Effective Communication
  • Caring but not Scaring
  • Career Counseling

Techniques of Motivational Supervision


The main purpose of academic supervision is to motivate the teachers for better performance. The type of supervisor that motivates teachers is called as motivational supervisor. Some of the important techniques of motivational supervision are mentioned here under.

Ideal versus Real:

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Often academic supervisors expect ideal performance from teachers.
The ideal seeks to motivate a teacher through an artificial structure.
The real seeks to utilize the real world structure.
It is far more effective to use a structure that has naturally evolved than one you try to impose.
Motivational supervisor is not to force teachers into an ideal.
But it is being aware of and capitalizing on what is real.

The Distance Factor:

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The farther you get from your teachers, in terms of organizational structure, the less effective you will be.
Hence try to maintain a close rapport with your teachers for effective motivational supervision.

Strengths and Weaknesses:

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It is necessary to minimize weaknesses and maximize strengths of your teachers through your supervision.
Try to avoid emphasizing their weaknesses frequently.
Motivate them on the basis of their strengths.


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Every teacher intends to know how they performed.
Feedback mechanism informs them how well they are performing toward reaching an objective.
Without feedback they are unable to evaluate problems and cannot improve their performance.
The important function of an academic supervisor is to provide effective feedback.

Rewarding Performance:

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Rewarding performance is the most important motivational approach.
Teachers work hard and more effectively when they are rewarded for their performance.
There are many kinds of rewards other than money and to many teachers they are even more important than money.
Some of them are – recognition, popularity, praise, safety, efficiency, encouragement, freedom etc.
Performance can be improved when these rewards are linked properly to the performance.