Effects of deforestation:
1 Erosion' (Geosphere gets affected meaning erosionsee table below)
The lushness of the world s tropical forests is somewhat deceptive. Although these forests assume to be lush and full, the underlying soils are very poor, almost all the nutrients being bound up in the vegetation. The problem is that once forests have been cut down, essential nutrients are washed out of the soil all-together. This leads to soil erosion. As of now, about 80% of the soils in the humid tropics are acidic and infertile. When there are no trees to keep the soil in place, the soil becomes ripe for erosion. It dries and cracks under the sun's heat. Once the soil temperature exceeds 25 degrees centigrade, volatile nutrient ingredients like nitrogen can be lost, further reducing the fertility of the remaining soil. Furthermore, rainfall washes remaining nutrients into rivers. This means that replanting trees will not necessarily help to solve the problems of deforestation; by the time the trees have matured, the soil might be completely stripped of essential nutrients. Eventually, cultivation in the forest regions will be impossible, and the land will be useless. The soil erosion will lead to permanent impoverishment of huge land areas.
2 Hydrosphere gets affected . Less oxygen in water ways, water temperature changes, sediment at mouth of rivers. (sediment definition: Material that settles to the bottom of a liquid) Solid fragments of inorganic or organic material that come from the weathering of rock and are carried and deposited by wind, water, or ice. Aquatic habitat degraded. Water temperature near bank rises.
3.Atmosphere: Burned trees releases more co2 meaning plants take co2 and release oxygen. if there are less trees they take less co2 therfore release less oxygen.(threat to living organisms) More sunlight , less photosynthesis, more evaporation.
4.Biosphere: Loss of vegetation loss of species, increase in infestation, decrease of pollination and seed dispersers.
Although all consequences of deforestation are potentially serious, perhaps the most serious consequence is that of climate change due to the loss of trees. Earth has an atmosphere which contains a variety of gases, all in a delicate balance, to ensure life on Earth. One of these gases in Earth's atmosphere is carbon dioxide; a gas which helps moderate heat loss to outer space. Insulating gases such as carbon dioxide are called "greenhouse gasses because their function is much like that of the glass in a greenhouse: they allow solar heat into the system, but discourage its escape". Other greenhouse gases include methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and ozone. If there are additional greenhouse gases, there will be a gradual increase in temperature on Earth s surface. This could lead to changes in weather patterns, sea levels, and other cycles in nature that directly affect life on Earth. The process of greenhouse gas increase is quite simple. Carbon dioxide levels increase for a number of reasons; but one of the main factors contributing to the increase of carbon levels is decay of woody material. The only way to help moderate the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is through plant life. Alive plants and trees absorb the carbon dioxide from decaying plants and trees. With a decrease in trees and plant life (due to deforestation) it is much harder to moderate these levels. Ultimately, the amount of carbon will increase due to a lack of plant life present to keep the carbon dioxide levels in check. This whole process leads to an "albedo effect which reflects more heat and light back into the atmosphere than would be the case if the sun shone on green trees " The bottom line is that the increase in the carbon level and other greenhouse gas levels into the atmosphere leads to an increase in temperature, and eventually a change in climate and weather.
The effects of deforestation are widely ranging and can be irreversible if not stopped