# User:Sindazichisha/my sandbox

                                          =<b>ABSTRACT</b>=


This Study was based on investigating the causes and effects of deforestation in Ituntwe Forest Reserve in Chinsali District. The overall objective of the study was to investigate the causes and effects of deforestation in Ituntwe Forest Reserve and the specific objective was to investigate the impact of the various livelihood strategies carried out by the local communities within and on the fringes of Ituntwe Forest Reserve. Primary Data was collected through a survey conducted using questionnaires and field observations in eight villages within and on the fringes of Ituntwe Forest Reserve while Secondary Data was obtained from library sources, the internet and various case studies. The data collected was analyzed using Scientific Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Both descriptive and quantitative results showed that various livelihood strategies practiced by the local communities have a profound influence on accelerating the rate of deforestation in Ituntwe Forest Reserve; livelihood strategies like farming, charcoal making, timber harvesting and fuel wood collection among others. The results of this study reveal that various livelihood strategies practiced by the local communities have contributed to the deforestation of Ituntwe Forest Reserve.

This Study therefore, concludes that various livelihood strategies;( farming, charcoal making, timber harvesting and fuel wood collection) among others employed by the local communities within and on the fringes of Ituntwe Forest Reserve are the causes of deforestation, as they were very detrimental to the state of Ituntwe Forest Reserve. This study recommends that the government through the Forestry Department should sensitize the local communities in various alternative livelihoods strategies such as bee-keeping, various agroforestry techniques, Nursery establishment and management, Carpentry, and food processing and preservation. This measure has the ability to broaden the local community’s ability to understand the sustainable management of forest resources whilst practicing sustainable income generating activities. </dd>

# DECLARATION

I, hereby declare that this dissertation is entirely my own work and that it has never been submitted for any degree or examination at this university or indeed any other institution of learning for this purpose or any other cause including publication whatsoever. All sources I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged for complete reference. </dd>

Signed…………………………….…Date………………………………….. Frank Sindazi 08135800 Student Signed……………………………….Date…………………………………. Jane Kwenye Ndhlovu (Mrs.) Supervisor. Signed……………………………….Date…………………………………. Robby Kasubika Ass/Dean - School of Natural Resources

# ABSTRACT

This Study was based on investigating the causes and effects of deforestation in Ituntwe Forest Reserve in Chinsali District. The overall objective of the study was to investigate the causes and effects of deforestation in Ituntwe Forest Reserve and the specific objective was to investigate the impact of the various livelihood strategies carried out by the local communities within and on the fringes of Ituntwe Forest Reserve. Primary Data was collected through a survey conducted using questionnaires and field observations in eight villages within and on the fringes of Ituntwe Forest Reserve while Secondary Data was obtained from library sources, the internet and various case studies. The data collected was analyzed using Scientific Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Both descriptive and quantitative results showed that various livelihood strategies practiced by the local communities have a profound influence on accelerating the rate of deforestation in Ituntwe Forest Reserve; livelihood strategies like farming, charcoal making, timber harvesting and fuel wood collection among others. The results of this study reveal that various livelihood strategies practiced by the local communities have contributed to the deforestation of Ituntwe Forest Reserve. This Study therefore, concludes that various livelihood strategies;( farming, charcoal making, timber harvesting and fuel wood collection) among others employed by the local communities within and on the fringes of Ituntwe Forest Reserve are the causes of deforestation, as they were very detrimental to the state of Ituntwe Forest Reserve. This study recommends that the government through the Forestry Department should sensitize the local communities in various alternative livelihoods strategies such as bee-keeping, various agroforestry techniques, Nursery establishment and management, Carpentry, and food processing and preservation. This measure has the ability to broaden the local community’s ability to understand the sustainable management of forest resources whilst practicing sustainable income generating activities.

# ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to acknowledge and thank the following people for their vital contributions on the accomplishment of this work. I express my sincere gratitude to the community members in the following villages; Fonkofonko, Yuda, Chewe, Mbutuka, Kapela, Chimbele, Malalo and Kaloswe for their willingness to provide me with information without resentment and reservations and also the District Forestry Officer Mr. Kunda for allowing me to use Ituntwe Forest Reserve. I also thank, the assistant District Forestry Officer Mrs. Mutukwa Kunda for her valuable contribution and encouragement rendered to me every time whilst seeking assistance from her office. My gratitude is further extended to Mrs. Jane Kwenye Ndhlovu my supervisor for her valuable contribution, encouragement and direction throughout the period of this study. Finally, I express my sincere gratitude to all those who contributed either directly or indirectly to making this research possible and of the quality this document is now. To all of you, I can only say may the almighty God richly bless you.

<p><p>=DEDICATIONS I, dedicate this document to my wife Charity Sindazi, my own son Taizya Sindazi and my daughter Mwansa Sindazi for their moral and spiritual support throughout my studies at the Copper belt University. To my own mother, Eva Luka, who is in her 70s, my elder brother Edward Chisha, elder sister Mable Nandazi and all my dependents, thanks a lot to you all.

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=DECLARATION= i =ABSTRACT= ii =ACKNOWLEDGEMENT= iv =DEDICATIONS= v =TABLE OF CONTENTS= vi =LIST OF FIGURES= xi =ACRONYMS= xii

1. INTRODUCTION=
2. General Information 1
3. Background Information 3
4. Problem Statement 4
5. Research Justification 4
6. Overall Objective 5

1.5.1 ===Specific Objective=== 5

1. Hypothesis 5

1.6. Scope of Study 5 2.0. LITERATURE REVIEW 6 2.1. Vegetation and Forest Growth 6 2.1.1. Closed Forests 6 2.1.2 Dry Evergreen Forests 6 2.1.3 Dry Deciduous Forests 7 2.1.4 Montane Forests 7 2.1.5 Swamp Forests 7 2.1.6 Riparian Forests 8 2.1.7 Open Forests 8 2.1.8 Miombo Woodland 8 2.1.9 Kalahari Woodland 9 2.1.10 Mopane Woodland 9 2.1.11 Savanna Woodland 10 2.1.12 Termitaria 10 2.1.13 Grasslands 10 2.2. CURRENT STATUS OF FORESTS IN ZAMBIA 11 2.3. MAJOR CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION IN ZAMBIA 11 2.3.1. Increased Pressure on Forests. 11 2.3.2. Agriculture and Settlements 12 2.3.3. Lack of Community Participation in Forest Management. 13 2.3.4. Weak Institutions 13 2.3.5. Unpopular Conservation Laws 14 2.4. Effects of Deforestation in Zambia 15 2.4.1. Increased Surface Runoffs 15 2.4.2. Loss of Biodiversity 16 2.4.3. Low Annual Rainfall 16 2.4.4. Poverty and Food Insecurity 17 3.0 METHODS AND DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA. 18 3.1. Location and Description of Ituntwe forest reserve. 18 3.1.2. Current Condition of Ituntwe forest reserve. 19 3.2. Research Methodology 20 3.2.1. Sampling Design. 20 3.2.2. Population Size 21 3.3. Data Collection 21 3.3.1. Questionnaire Administering 22 3.3.2. Field Observations. 22 3.3.3. Literature Review 22 3.4. Data Analysis. 23 3.5. Tools, Materials and Equipment. 23 4.0 RESULTS 24 4.1. Employment History 24 4.2. Educational and Forest Management Sensitization Status of Respondent Households 25 4.3. Causes of the Encroachment of Ituntwe Forest Reserve. 27 4.4. Livelihood Strategies. 27 4.5. Land Use. 28 4.6. State of Ituntwe Forest. 29 4.7. The Impact of Deforestation of the Ituntwe Forest Reserve. 32 4.8. Sample Correlation Coefficient. 32 4.9. Coefficient of Determination. 33 4.10. Management Problems’ Impact on Ituntwe Forest Reserve. 33 5.0. DISCUSSION. 35 5.1. Impact of Various Livelihood Strategies on the State of Ituntwe Forest Reserve. 35 5.1.1. Farming. 35 5.1.2. Charcoal Production. 36 5.1.3. Fire wood collection. 37 5.1.4. Weak Institution. 38 5.1.5. Lack of political Will. 39 5.1.6. Lack of Employment Opportunities. 41 5.1.7. Current State of Ituntwe Forest Reserve. 42 5.1.8. Extent of Deforestation of Ituntwe Forest Reserve by the Local Communities. 42 6.0. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 44 6.1. Conclusions. 44 6.2. Recommendations 46 7.0. APPENDICES. 53 Appendix 1. Questionnaire. 53 Appendix 2. Reliability Analysis 60 Appendix 4. Determination of Deforestation Rate Basing Only On Farming 64 Appendix 5. List of Respondents. 65

# LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1. Map showing the study area (Ituntwe Forest Reserve)…..……..18 Figure. 4.2. Types of Organization/Companies worked for by Respondents.24 Figure 4.3. Income generating activities of the communities within and

                  on the fringes of Ituntwe Forest Reserve…………………….…28


Figure 4.4. Practices local communities execute which they believe

                  contribute to change in the state of Ituntwe Forest Reserve…...29


Figure 4.5. Chitemene field in Ituntwe Forest Reserve…………….………30

Figure 4.6.  Change of Forest Reserve to Chipya Woodland…………..…..31


Figure 4.7 A Dugout Canoe undergoing construction…………………….…32 Figure. 5.8. Respondents in make-shifts producing charcoal for sell………37

# ACRONYMS

• ECZ ENVIRONMENTAL COUNCIL OF ZAMBIA
• FAO FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION
• FDDAR FORESTRY DEPARTMENT DISTRICT ANNUAL REPORT
• GRZ GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OFZAMBIA
• MTENR MINISTRY OF TOURISM ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES.
• NWFP NONWOOD FOREST PRODUCTS
• PFAP PROVINCIAL FORESTRY ACTION PLAN
• SADC SOUTHERN AFRICA DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY
• SPSS SOCIAL PACKAGE FOR SCIENTIFIC SCIENCES

# INTRODUCTION

## General Information

Zambia is a landlocked country lying between latitude 8o and 18oS and longitude 22° and 34°E and has a total area of about 752,600 km2. Of this, 57.1% or 42,452,000 hectares is forested (WWF, 2005). According to Shakacite (2000), the total area of indigenous forests in Zambia is 44.6 million hectares representing 60% of the total land area, out of which 9.6% are gazetted forests. The country has a total of 481 protected forest areas, 181 national forests and 300 local forest reserves (World Database, 2009). These naturally growing forests are set aside in various districts as protected forest areas to preserve the natural flora and fauna existing in the country and to meet the aspirations of the Zambian people in as far as their requirements for timber, food security, biodiversity, a sound environment and other requirements are concerned. From the 752,614 km2 total land area of Zambia, woodlands and forests cover constitute 600,000 km2. (GRZ, 1998). Forest resources have however shown a decrease in total coverage over the years such that current forest cover would be in the range of 60% (about 450,00km2) of the total land area (GRZ, 1998). Generally, forest reserves can be categorized into the following groups: National Forest – This forest type is classified as such because of its national importance. It is usually set aside to provide benefits that are of national significance. Such a forest type serves purposes such as providing valuable tree species and protecting watersheds, headwaters and river sources. (WWF, 2005). Local Forest- This forest type is significant for the local people residing around a particular forest. For example the local people residing around a particular forest area have their wood and non wood forest products supplied by that particular forest. (WWF, 2005). Ituntwe Forest Reserve is one of the nine forest reserves located in Chinsali District of Zambia. The major environmental problem faced by Ituntwe Forest Reserve has been deforestation. By definition, Deforestation is the process of converting forest lands into non-forest sites that are ideal for crop raising, urbanization and industrialization (Fiset, 2007). According to Kangwa (2001), Forest Reserves have become settlements for most migrants from urban areas and within districts thereby causing high rates of deforestation. Considering the high rate of deforestation in Ituntwe Forest Reserve, this study therefore investigated the causes and effects of deforestation in this forest reserve.

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<a _fcknotitle="true" href="University of zambia">University of zambia</a> http//www.unza.zm website

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