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Academic Writing Notes

Carlos' notes FTW!!!

Personal and Expressive Writing To start a personal paper u should take into consideration all these aspects: Experiences, Freewrite, Select a writing idea, Explore your idea, List your goals, Examine your audience. After having all these in mind, star the first draft, for which you could use the following strategies: Description, Narration, Dialogue. The paper could be argumentative, which means that you inform your audience exactly which stance you are taking about something, and also could be Analytical, this can be used for exploration and evaluation Case Study Case studies are papers that demonstrate how a situation was identified and how a solution was chosen to resolve the problem. Case study writing includes a summary of the results of the study in order to demonstrate whether or not the method of treatment was successful. A case study should be broken into three sections: the problem, the treatment implemented, and the results.

Action Research Paper Action research is a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems.

Field study The Field Study’s purpose is to allow the student to gain experience in using theoretical perspectives learned in the classroom as means of gaining insight into the workings of organizations, other contexts. The Field Study entails ethnographic fieldwork (participant observation) that will allow the student to analyze and interpret the organization and its workings

Literature review Is the description of the relevant literature for a topic. The “literature” covers everything relevant that is written on a topic, books, journals, articles , historical records, theses etc.

Reflection: For the first type of writing, personal writing, I understood that it is a more informal one than the others, because the writer talks about his/her personal experiences, not so much of academic issues, the second type of academic writing was the Case study, this is a “report” of everything that happen in certain research, how the problem was identified and the results. The next one is the action research paper which is to report everything that is happening while solving certain problem. The Field study is when the writer has the opportunity to mix the theoretical framework with the practice. And the last one is the Literature review, which is all the written information regarding certain topic.

SEPTEMBER 14th 2010


Shaka’s essay

A new way of teaching

For many years education has been a just one way interaction, teacher talks-students receive information, According to Barr,R and Tagg,J, There is a type of method called " Instruction paradigm" which consists in giving the information to students and they just receive it, they do not have to make research to get their own information, they are just viewers of their own learning however, in recent times a new type of method has appeared into context, According to Barr,R and Tagg,J, it is called "learning paradigm". This so called method is opposite to the instruction paradigm because it allows students to search for their own learning. Which of these two methods could be the most appropriate? The traditional type or the new method?

The Instruction method base is the fact that teacher is the most important character in scene, He is in charge of providing information (knowledge) to the students and they just receive such information. Teacher is the boss and it is up to him to choose the activities and tasks for the class, he does the research and brings it to class just to give it. Students are merely spectators inside the classroom, doing as they are told to; they do not argue or try to ask for a second opinion.

The Learning paradigm is based in research, students are in charge of their own learning, they are asked to go and find their own knowledge. The teacher is an advisor and just interferes in the learning process when it is complicated for students to succeed in a task or activity but, in general he allows students to be independent. Students are autodidact, and this helps not only in their academic life, but also in every aspect of that person’s life.

To sum up, there are many differences between these two paradigms; one is about the classical way of teaching in which the instructor is in charge of the learning that the students produce, and the second one is that the students are in charge of their own learning, having the instructor only as support, not as a giver of information.

Retrieved from:

30 September 2010

Article's notes

To write an article review you have to:

1.-Read through the article with these questions in mind:

  • What is this trying to say?
  • How clearly is the message getting through?
  • How readable (word choice, language etc) is it?
  • How accurate is the information?
  • How useful did you find this information?

2.- Write the introduction paragraph, which should cite the source article and give a brief sketch of what it was about.

3.- Explain why the article is relevant. Why is the information in it important and how would it be of use to its readers?

4.- critique of the article. Did you think the article was good or bad? Why? Refer back to the questions in step 1.

5.- A quick conclusion restating why you would or would not recommend this article


Thesis statement

Tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. It is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.


"While both sides fought the Civil War over the issue of slavery, the North fought for moral reasons while the South fought to preserve its own institutions."

My own thesis statement

How Krashen's comprehensible input hypothesis helps L2 teachers to increse SS production of the target language in propedeutico.

The statement is very well definded and it can be probed.--IVAN 13:08, 21 October 2010 (UTC)

research questions

How do you develop a usable research question? Choose an appropriate topic or issue for your research, one that actually can be researched (Exercise 1). Then list all of the questions that you'd like answered yourself. Choose the best question, one that is neither too broad nor too narrow. Sometimes the number of sources you find will help you discover whether your research question is too broad, too narrow


Does education play a role in reducing juvenile delinquents' return to crime?

Own researche question

Does the comprehensible input hypothesis help SS produce the language?


A variable, as opposed to a constant, is simply anything that can vary.


If we were to study the effects of work experience on college performance, we might look at the grades of students who have worked prior to starting college and the grades of students who did not work prior to starting college.

own variables

production comprehensible input

Annotated Bibliography

Krashen,,S.,(1982) Principles and Practice In Second Language Acquisition. Pergamon Press Inc. University of Southern California.

This is the book that is going to help me the most regarding the comprehensible input hypothesis because Krashen is the one who started it.. The book develops all the aspects regarding the five hypotheses on language acquisition; the natural order, acquisition vs learning, the monitor model, the comprehensible input hypothesis and the affective filter hypothesis; it explains each of the aspects on its own and gives proof of why these aspects of the hypotheses work. Also it has a full chapter on comprehensible input and how to work with it.

Cook,V.,(2008) Krashen's Comprehension Hypothesis Model of L2 learning,Retrieved from: (October 28th 2010 )

This is a web page written by an applied linguistics expert, which gives arguments about Krashen’s hypothesis, it remains neutral on his stance , he doesn’t pick a side in his comments so its for general audiences, it contrasts different views in which Krashen’s hypotheses can be seen. This is going to be helpful because I will be able to see different points of view about Krashen

Wilson,R.,(2006) A Summary of Stephen Krashen's "Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition" retrieved from: 28th 2010 )

This is a shorter version of Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition, and this will only help me to get the references I need so I can check on krashen’s book, this will help me locate the information I need in a faster way. This is intended for people who only want to look at the surface of Krashen’s hypotheses and do not want to go deeper on them.

Sung-Park,E.,(2002) On Three Potential Sources of Comprehensible Input for Second Language Acquisition retrieved from (October 28th 2010 )

This is another helpful resource because it is giving me some aspects about different types of input, I think this document is intended for people who have deepened into Krashen’s hypotheses and want to go even deeper, I think the author is taking a stance in favor Krashen’s hypotheses. This is a different article because it is giving new information from the others and possibly it can help me get to some methodologies in language teaching using the comprehensible input hypothesis. The information that he uses comes form his own mind, but obviously taking into consideration Krashen’s hypothesis