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Questions I Need Answers to...

  • What do you do when you have multiple quotes from a single source, but it's Mackintosh, 2008, but you can't tell the date
  • What about in-text citations - (Babbie (2008), p. 350) do I quote the page number
  • What do you do, when subsequent paras reference the same source (wiki process section)

Web References

(from Barclay)

These should be part of the main body of references. Each web reference should have the name of an author (which may be an institution). Some resources:

  • Good simple guideline, online, for APA: (The OMD Fielding “Semi-Official Guide”)

  • Also, (more complete) from U. Wisconsin: (The following is all one link, broken up here to fit in the normal forum margins) _M.pdf+APA+reference+republished+work&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us

  • APA Guide to Electronic media:

Be sure to check that the link has not been closed out. Use the phrase, … “Retrieved December 2, 2008, from … “ (or whatever date you last checked the URL)


  • What do you do, when you're referring to a reference with no subject in thread in an electronic discussion group - do you refer to the gist of the message, or leave it blank? - here's an example:

Mackintosh, Wayne (2008). Clarification of a free curriculum. Message posted to WikiEducator Discussion Group, November 4. Retrieved December 2, 2008 from

  • Is the year of the conversation acceptable enough, or the exact day and month of the conversation (i.e., November 4)
  • I have several web references from the same fellow, but in previous years -

Mackintosh, Wayne (2007) Mackintosh, Wayne (2008)

Is it appropriate to put the earliest years first, up to the current year, or is there another way I should be doing it?

  • Books, articles and web references

Should I be separating these out - as in:

    • In some cases, the articles are print (PDF), but also available on the web. Shall I be referring to the URL and Retrieval Date as well?)
  • Interviews & Informal Conversations.

In some situations, I've been chatting with folks on a phone or skype chat, and they've said some things that are really helpful in sharing their needs or motivations (I've asked their permission of course) .... How do I refer to these conversation or statements?)

APA suggests something like:

E-mail or other personal communication (cite in text only)

   (A. Monterey, personal communication, September 28, 2001)

Is this OK?

  • Asterisks

Maybe a silly question, but on the wiki for readability, I've used asterisks to distinguish separate reference entries - is this OK to use in print form, or shall I remove the asterisks

Adding References

  • Question - quoting folks who quote others