User:Nadia El Borai/=Subject:Simple rules to write a paper=

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Subject: Simple rules to write a paper

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== To simplify the process of writing a paper ==

This is a practical guide to write a scientific paper, based on practical experience. In Japan, to obtain a Ph.D. one of the pre-requisites is to publish papers, usually five. At least one paper should be with your name as the first author. This practical guide is to help with this task.

Step 1. Choose the title

The title is very important because this will make someone decide if they are going to read the paper

Step 2. Choose the journal

Check the instructions of the journal. This step is necessary at the beginning to help decide on the way the paper will be written

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Sections in a paper.Depending on the journal

Step 3. Sections in a paper

1. Title
2. Abstract
3. Introduction
4. Material and Methods
5. Results
6. Discussion
7. Conclusion
8. References
9. Acknowledgements

The sections in the paper will depend on the journal chosen. So be careful to comply.
Keep a copy of the instructions handy

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Key points
Where do you start?

== 4. Where do you start? ==
If you are thinking of publishing a paper you will have already done some experiments and also have results. To start the research you will have looked up other scientific papers.
Start with what you have
You have the title; write a preliminary abstract as an extension of the title.
Already you have
a. the references make sure you have a good system to keep them in order. The old cards in a box method is fine.
b. if you are starting to write
You already have done some experiments so you will have enough to write section 4 Material and Methods

Keep references in order

Start to write Material and Methods

Write up this section and make sure all the names of chemicals, companies, model number for equipments are included. Keep a file for that.
Write up the references for this section after checking how the references should be written in the journal chosen.

Write up the results

Make tables and graphs. Again consult the instructions of the journal.

Write the introduction

The introduction is what it is, to introduce one's work and similar work, why it is important, why this work is being done, in other words your objective.

Introduction/ history

In the introduction, one can give references of work that has been done before by oneself or others, references that are relevant to this paper.

Write the discussion

Discuss your results here. If they are new results it could be that the subject has not been published before. If it has then discuss the results in relation to other results published by yourself or by other researchers. For example if they are the same or not.

Write the conclusion

Your objective is written in the introduction, in the conclusion you show, how with your results you could come to that conclusion.


Acknowledge the people who helped but are not authors. Do not forget to mention grants.


Always keep the complete original data of the references before writing the references for the journal you have chosen. For example full name of all the authors and the complete name of the journal without abbreviations.

Final note

Keep a main trend and make sure you are writing for the audience of the journal. Some papers may touch on several subjects, make sure you know which one to emphasise. For example, if your work is on genomics in a clinical trial. If your paper is written for a medical journal the emphasis will be more on the patients and less on the scientific details. If the journal is a genomics journal then, vice versa, the clinical details may not be of primary interest, and the scientific data should be emphasised.

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Start with what you have

Material and methods

General web resources

Excellent list of Open Courseware and Open Educational Resources


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