# TRAINING OF TRAINERS

## Overview

Welcome to the programme: Training of Trainers. The observation that nothing changes like change is particularly applicable to all twenty-first century corporate organisations. Delegates participating in the Training of Trainers course will agree that there are rapid changes in every organisation that is mandated to provide a service or product. The changes are predominantly in the area of skills and competencies required by company employees to dispense of their duties efficiently, thereby maximising production. Cultivation of such skills takes a conscious effort, and is realised through interventions by the trainer.

This course is, therefore, concerned with the systematic preparation of trainers for the crucial role of cultivating skills and competencies. The primary aim of the course developers is to develop a relevant, credible, and coherent programme that is structured in accordance with nationally agreed framework, as well as nationally and internationally accepted outcomes.

In turn, by virtue of its practical nature, the aims of the course are to: equip trainers with requisite competencies that are in the form of knowledge and skills transferable to leadership of individuals and groups in the various departments of the organisation.

• enhance the capacity of trainers to help personnel to improve work performance, and to keep up-to-date in their fields of

specialisation.

• facilitate a culture of organisational efficiency in which new abilities replace obsolete ones.
• amalgamate theory and practice in the psychology and sociology of adult learning.
• upgrade coaching and guidance skills of trainers.

The programme of study is benchmarked against comparable corporate organisation courses, both nationally and internationally. The programme also recognises that job-related interventions are best handled systematically for them to satisfy the ever-evolving ethos of companies. The major challenge is to determine what areas of knowledge the trainer should be exposed to in order to manage training with a reasonable degree of success. For one reason, there are constraints of time that defy prolonged training. As an example, where a schoolteacher might take one or more years to do an in-service course, a delegate from the corporate world is not likely to have that latitude. This directly implies that there be judicious selection of essential topics that can be condensed within the time made available for training. The following areas have, therefore, been identified as the basis for training:

• Trainer skills and competencies
• Learning theories
• The adult learner
• How to design a course
• Strategies for delivering a course
• Managing adult learners
• Media used for training
• Assessment of learning

## Mode of delivery

The course is adaptable to three modes of delivery. Option 1 In this option the programme can be delivered as a short course for a period requested by an organisation. This could range between two to four days. Option 2 The course can be delivered in two to three weeks of intensive face-to-face interaction. This will lead to the award of a Botswana Training Authority (BOTA) accredited intermediate certificate. Option 3 The course will be delivered by distance mode over a period of three months. This will also lead to the award of a BOTA accredited intermediate certificate.

## Assessment

There is no formal assessment for Option 1. For Option 2 and Option 3, delegates will be required to work on tutor marked assignments (TMAs), then sit an examination at the end of the course. The coursework (TMAs) will account for a certain percentage towards the final grading, and the same applies to the final examination.

The grading scale is as follows: 80% and above Distinction 70 – 79% Merit 60 – 69% Credit 50 –59% Pass 40 – 49% Supplementary range 0 – 39% Fail

## UNIT 1: What are Education, Training, and Development?

### Introduction

If you watch television, read newspapers, or listen to radio speeches by cabinet ministers and members of parliament, you will probably have noticed that education and training are being discussed frequently. In particular, these are mentioned and closely linked with Vision 2016, by which date it is envisioned that Botswana will be an educated and informed nation. It is, therefore, important that we explore the concepts of education, training, and development (ETD) at national level (to begin with), then relate that to the organisation we work for.

Trainers, the world over, take it upon themselves to have a clear understanding of the three concepts so as to dispense of their training responsibilities with efficiency and effectiveness. In this short unit, we discuss the connection between education and national success, then using your personal experience from the organisation you work for, determine how you want to see yourself propping up the organisation, using the ideas discussed presently. =

Objectives
 After studying this Unit, you should be able to: define education, training, and development differentiate one concept from the other demonstrate an understanding of the link between ETD and national development suggest factors influencing ETD relate ETD to the Vision and Mission of your organisation

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### 1.1 Education Training and Development

Prior to this course, you have, no doubt, come across the terms ETD. In one-way or the other, you are also involved in furthering ETD. It is, therefore, important to have your personal understanding as the starting point for our discussion.

Activity
 1AWhat do you understand by the terms ‘education’, ‘training’, and development’? Education……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Training ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Now, compare your response with the following ideas: Education According to Harrison (1989:12), education directly and indirectly affects the development, not only of knowledge and skills, but also of character and culture, aspirations and achievements.

Van Dyk, Nel and Loedolff (1992:147) define education as activities aimed at developing the knowledge, moral values, and understanding required in all aspects of life, rather than knowledge and skills related to only a limited field of activity.

Education is, therefore, a more comprehensive term that includes the concepts of training and development. Education has become increasingly important in all aspects of life in our country, as well as in the sub-region as a whole.

Training Van Dyk et al. (1992:148) define training as the systematic process of changing the behaviour and attitudes of people in a certain direction to increase goal achievement within the organisation. It is seen as an essential component of the organisation , and is considered an important management tool used to develop the full effectiveness of the organisation’s most vital resource: its employees.

Development Harrison (1989:12) defines development as the primary process through which individual and organisational growth can achieve their full potential over time.

Bernadin and Russell (1993:297) hold a similar view as they state that development refers to learning opportunities designed to help individuals grow. These opportunities are not limited purely to improving employees’ performance in their current jobs, but also help them cope with rapid changes in the world.

Paul Martin cited in Baume, Martin and Yorke (2002:13) makes reference to the scenario in the Western world and observe that the story of National Educational Development project initiatives in the UK has been one of bold innovation in response to powerful socio-economic imperatives caused by the pressure of capitalism and the rapid speed of technological change.

The following points are worth noting:

• It is, therefore, essential to see the concepts of education, training, and development in relation to one another if both the organisation and employees are to benefit from training.
• Education is essential for every individual, both for life in general and the workplace in particular.
• Training and development will succeed only if an individual has received an adequate standard of education.
• Training is necessary to correct work procedure and to improve poor performance in the individual’s present job
• Development, on the other hand, should enrich, not only the individual, but also the group, the organisation, and the nation.

For the foregoing reasons, the three concepts are inter-twined. Now, go back to your definitions, and those you have just read. Read them very carefully again. This time, underline what you think are key words, then tackle the next activity, which is based on the definitions.

Activity
 Innovate animal breeding

{{activityWrite brief answers in Column B. A B How does education directly affect development?

What one example of understanding does education develop?

Give one example of change of attitude that can result from training?

Training is described as a process. What do you understand by ‘a process’?

Suggest one learning opportunity that is designed to enhance individual growth. What do you understand by socio-economic imperatives?

How does technological change influence individual development?}} |Innovate animal breeding}}

It is now time to share what each one of us has written. The procedure is to get the different views expressed, comment on each one of them, and relate the comments to the nation as a whole, and the organisation in particular.

1.2 What is the relationship between ETD and national success? Education has for long been identified as the key to the success of any country. To be a “winning nation”, the following attributes or characteristics should be evident:

• Social harmony
• A sound work ethic in every organisation
• A high level of education
• Maximisation of capital
• The ability to be a global player, involving participation in international affairs, economic, cultural, political, social and otherwise
• A dual economy, which involves the interrelationship between both large and small businesses

It is essential to look at each of the characteristics, and answer these questions: a. How does my organisation contribute to the attributes of a winning nation? b. In what ways can ETD enhance the role played by my organisation in national development? From the characteristics, raised above, it will be patently clear that education takes priority if a country is to become a winning nation. In that respect, there is a critical relation between the prosperity of our country and a sound ETD basis. Now that we know there is a critical relation between ETD and national success, suggest any three factors that you think influence ETD at national level in Botswana. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… There are many of these, including:

• increase in the population,
• unemployment
• supply and demand of commodities
• the impact of drought
• rapid technological development
• instability in some parts of the sub region
• limited resources
In Botswana, like in other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries, there is a clear tendency to employ more skilled rather than unskilled people in the labour market. As the economy becomes less and less labour intensive, the situation suggests a growing surplus or oversupply of unskilled labour. There are more unemployed people without skills, than those who have skills. Hence the need for undertaking ETD as a national project cannot be overemphasised.


1.3 Technological development and ETD It is a fair observation to say that there is no country that has not been affected by technological development, for that reason the world is often referred to as the global village. Guns replace bows and arrows, tractors replace ox-drawn ploughs, computers replace typewriters, combine harvesters replace so many men and women, and so the story goes on and on. What used to be done by many people, today only requires one person manipulating some technology. Sometimes this comes as a disadvantage to those environments that are still developing. Technological change, nevertheless increases the importance of ETD. Not only must people entering the job market for the first time be trained, but technological change also leads to turnover in jobs and occupations, which makes additional training necessary.

Two types of skills are involved in the speed-up in technological development, namely, basic skills and job-related skills. a. Basic or fundamental skills refer to literacy that is, problem solving, numerical reasoning, written, and oral communication. These are normally acquired in the formal education system. However, it may well be the case that in your organisation you will be called upon to train some employees in those basic skills. b. Job-related skills or work-applied skills refer to cognitive and technical aspects of a specific job and are normally acquired through on-the-job training. This is where you as an ETD trainer are expected to provide informed leadership by instructing workers in specific areas.