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INDEX Unit-II Transistors 2.1 Introduction 2.2 History 2.3 Characteristic of n-p-n transistor in Common Emitter Configuration 2.4 Characteristic of n-p-n transistor in Common Bas Configuration 2.5 Characteristic of n-p-n transistor in Common Collector Configuration 2.6 Common Emitter Configuration

     2.6.1 Transistor parameters
     2.6.2 Transistor load line
     2.6.3 Transistor operating point
     2.6.4 Transistor input-output characteristics

2.7 Transistor biasing

     2.7.1 Base bias
     2.7.2 Voltage divider
     2.7.3 Operating point stability

2.8 Transistor as a switch 2.9 Illustrations Transistors

"The transistor was probably the most important invention of the 20th Century, and the story behind the invention is one of clashing egos and top secret research."

                                                                     Ira Flatow, Transistorized! 


The Nerve Cell of the Information Technology

The Transistor is one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. It has made it possible to send mankind to the moon, build small yet powerful computers, and construct small and efficient hearing aids. These inventions are just a few examples of everyday items containing transistors; the list of such objects can be made very long. The transistor radio was one of the first transistorized items that became a big commercial success. Today, one of the most common uses of the transistors is as a part of the integrated circuit (IC) that is vital for a computer’s function.The transistor is the building block of all modern electronics and computers (everything from a battery operated watch, to a coffee maker, to a cell phone, to a supercomputer). Microprocessors for modern personal computers, such as the Intel Pentium 4 Processor, contain around 55 million transistors each. Unless you printed this page and are reading it in the woods, there are millions of transistors within a meter of you at this time (and even in the woods you probably have a cell phone and are wearing a watch).Some even call it “the nerve cell of the information technology” and although the transistor is of great importance, few people know what it is and how it functions.A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of solid piece of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor’s terminals changes the current flowing in the another pair of pair of terminals. Because the controlled output power can be much more than the controlling input power, the transistor provides amplification of signal. Some transistors are packaged individually but many more are found embedded in Integrated Circuits(IC).