User:MNancy academic writing notes

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Problem Statement

The problem in this study is to identify that English learners have communicative weaknesses as a consecuense of methods, approaches and materials.

Purpose Statement

The purpose is to find methodologies, approaches and materials that help English learners to increase their communcicative competency.

Research Questions

What type of interactions and materials do the teachers use in classroom?

How do teachers apply methods and approaches for developing communicative competencies?

How often do teachers develop fluency in classroom?

Annotated Bibliography

Literature Review

Flewelling, J. (1992). Implications of the National Core French Study for FSL Teachers. Journal Articles: v11 pp.5

Janet Flewelling the author of this article was an assistant professor French at the Faculty of Education in 1992. She taught core French for 15 years where she included interests on language methodology, teacher training and computers in education. The article is mainly focus for FSL teachers whose would find important for designing curriculums and programs in language teaching. Also, it is significant because it talks about components that center not only on communicative or language syllabus but also with culture and general education syllabus. Nevertheless, what the articles says about the implication of syllabus, particularly with syllabus culture, states that is a semiotic part of language. On the other hand, Zhuang (2007) declares that teachers should keep in mind genre factors of motivation which involve communicative abilities and attitudes in L2. This work is meaningful for my bibliography because it talks about the management of syllabus and curriculums in FSL teachers. In addition, the information that the author present is related to communicative characteristics in L2.

Xin, Z. (2007). Reflective Thinking on communicative teaching in writing: Journals Articles: v4 pp.19-25

Zhuang Xin is a lecturer of College of Foreign Languages from the Zhejiang Gongshang University. Being an English teacher he presents some teaching techniques and strategies for teachers to help students’ communicative activities. The main goal of this article is to reflect on activities that foreign teachers use in writing activities which are linked with the rest of skills. The ways of exchanging information, the kind of audience, genre and content are important aspects in a foreign language because their work with both, language and social context. Besides teacher training such as syllabus design Flewelling (1992), teachers need to take into consideration students aspects of motivation: their needs and attitudes in L2 Xin (2007). Even this work talks about communicative teaching writing techniques and strategies it is beneficial because the author implies that genre used in literacy pedagogy is an aspect considered not only for writing still but also for communicative abilities.

McDonough, JO & Shaw, C. (1993). Materials and Methods in ELT. Teachers´Guide. USA: Blackwell Publishing.

JO McDonough and Christopher Shaw who have had a publication of their first book: Materials and Methods in 1993. As a consequence of the impact that caused in teachers of ESL they bring a new edition in which they present new methods and approaches that facilitate teachers’ classes. As we can see Materials and Methods in ELT is a teacher’s guide which is a beneficial book for any foreign teacher because it talks about practical tasks. Also, something important is that those practical tasks are focus for both, teachers and students, in which teachers identify the process and outcomes in designing and applying specific activities. In comparison with Flewelling and Xin works this books presents us how teachers with specific necessities can use their own material and gain advantages of that. Moreover, the way in which the authors explain considerations for material and methods is very clear because they show characteristics such as contextual factor and real educational needs for specific learners. Identifying in a easy way aspects that as future teachers need to know is interesting because it help me to see how we adapt our knowledge and resources according to education setting.

Mishan, F. (2004). Designing Aunthenticity into Language Learning Materials. U.S.A: Intellect Books.

Freda Mishan is the author of this book who is interested in designing teaching materials by using common and real tools. Authenticity of texts and media is the main goal that the author focus, as a consequence of the last methods used in last decades. The audience is merely focus in teachers that need guide or support in how using the authenticity of materials in ESL. However, teacher can notice that using real material such as media can be link to a certain approach that works efficiently to student’s needs and attitudes. As a complement of what JO McDonough and Christopher Shaw this author provides a wide explanation of the meaning of authenticity and the management of media and materials into language learning. Finally this work is beneficial for me because it focus in specifically in one of my research questions – the use of material in English learners.

Myles, J. (2009). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language: Oral Competency of ESL Technical in Workplace Interniships. Journal Articles: v13 pp.24

Johanne Myles is a teacher and designer for courses in TESL (Teaching English as Second Language) at the Faculty of Education, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada. She is currently co-writing a book about teaching adults and recently she has been teaching and coordinating an EAP program for international students. The article discusses characteristics about communication challenges which teachers need to care about. Besides oral competency it recommends a content – based pedagogy approach which promotes meaning activities that learners need to reinforce in their communicative competency. In contrast to other works such as David (1986) focus more in proficiency profiles which interact in diverse settings than only on scholar tasks. The factors that the author presents and the pedagogical implications on communicative competence provide me how other teacher are interested in how ESL learners require programs and materials for specific areas in L2.

Nunan, D.(1986). The Ghost of the Machine: An examination of concept of language Proficiency. Evaluative/Feasibility. Journal articles: v2, pp 15.

David Nunan is a doctor and English teacher who gives courses and lectures in different parts of the world. TESOL, MEXTESOL and KOTESOL are some of the events in which he participates and share his thoughts and views to related subjects for L2. This article clearly presents how foreign teachers need to know how language proficiency is graded according to certain parameters which make the students use the language for several purposes and not just teaching issues. Nevertheless, second language learners are the ones who need to be prepared for particular tasks in which they use scholar and contextual skills. The emphasis that the author highlights is the second part of what Mishan and Myles tell about teaching materials and oral competency. it is because he undertakes a deep analysis of proficiency in complex settings. Finally, this works is also necessary for my topic because as I mentioned it is another point of view from communicative competency.

Pearl, D. (2010). Retrieved on November 3,2010 from

In this web site the CAUSE web page is a national organization directed by Dennis K. Pearl who is the main director. This is a strategic initiative of the American Statistical Association that is interested focuses on give beneficial and usable statists about education. The ideal audience of this article is for both, teachers and students whose can find workshops, resources, literature readings, professional development, among others. In contrast with other resources such as articles and books, this web site contains different articles and extra links. One of this is useful for me because it talks about teaching tips related to methodologies.

Center for History and New Media. (2010). Teaching Retrieved on November 3, 2010 from

This web site was created by the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. In this web page teachers are the authors who design and provide ideas about teaching materials related to history education. Even the website is for teachers who focus on history materials it is also usable for English teachers. Besides to help teachers to use some presentations proposed by other teachers, it involves teachers to use multimedia materials and primary resources through practice and researcher. One example of this is an article in which the author mentions the importance of using blogs as teaching materials. As a complement of other works this source is a complement of the use of teaching materials. Nowadays, the necessity of multimedia, technology, and several resources besides textbooks is a requirement for English teachers.

Ellis, R. (2005). Planning and Task Performance in a Second Language. U.S.A: John Benjamin Publishing Company.

Rod Ellis is the editor of the book Planning and Task Performance in a Second Language which focus on subjects of language teaching and learning. Rod Ellis is a teacher from the University of Auckland, New Zealand who is interested in applied language studies and linguistics. The main audience of this book goes for teachers who need and want to care about the students’ performance. The deep explanation of planning and task based on performance is helpful because it tells us types of learning and planning conditions among other aspects. In contrast with other articles and books the author supports his information by showing theory and research which is very important. This resource book gives me the necessary information that I need for my topic of communicative competency because based on that I show factual information.

British Council BBC. (2010). Retrieved on November 2, 2010 from

British Council is a website in which you find information about new content for teaching English. In addition, it is a very interactive page in which teachers make comments about their classes. Blogs, forum topics, tags and most of resources can be found in this page. Because of the content, this site is for teachers who like to be interactive in their English classes, not only in one specific level but also for new topics and researchers about many contents. In contrast with other pages this site has extra tools which are important for English teachers. The use of facebook and twitter as a social networks is very significant because is a way in which teachers involve teachers and students into the universal knowledge and practice of English.

Considerations for an essay

main idea, evidence, analysis, linking idea

In academic writing we consider what we think and what we know and not what we feel.

Prefer active voice.

Avoid the phrase something.

Avoid slangs, collocations and idioms.

Avoid the word very.

When we are going to use abreviations firs we have to tell the reader what they mean and we can put the abreviations in the following paragraphs. So, in this way the reader will not get lost.

Do not use modals such as can, may, could, because it sounds insecure.

Conectors webpages

Here are some web pages in which you can see how to use differet conectors.,english/


Citations and references

Journal Reference

Last name, firs inicial. (year of the article). Title of the article in italics First word capitalice. Name of the journal italicize volume, section. page numbers and the DOI.

Books References

Last name, First inicial. (Year of the article). Title of the book italicize. Publish country: Publisher.

When the article does not have date we just put (n.d) If we have not author we start with the name of the article


Nancy, good start...I would add more information about the types of research papers and/or article reviews. --Benjamin Stewart 02:30, 12 October 2010 (UTC)

Editing Bibliography

Reference according to APA style

For the small paragraph you have to consider:

Evaluate the author or his/her background

Who is the audience (students, teachers)

Compare or contrast with other author, a different perspective

How does it help you in your literature review?