User:Leez/Academic Writing notes

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Academic Writing Notes

Writing Notes


Few years ago, the education was one way directed. Students were receiving all the information; they were not able to produce. This is what we call Instruction Paradigm. “Now however, we are beginning to recognize that our dominant paradigm mistakes a means for an end”. (Barr and Tagg, 1995. P.1) People nowadays have changed their minds because they realized that in order to check if the students are learning they must make them produce language not just getting information but modifying it in order to take advantage of it.

Education is the base of society and students have to apply what they learned sooner or later. “We now see that our mission is not instruction but rather that of producing learning with every student by whatever means work best”. (Barr and Tagg, 1995. P.1) It is important for teacher to direct their teaching in terms to make students produce their own language.



it is a road map of the paper in a single sentence. boil your entire topic down to a single question. it must focuses on the one big idea of paper, do not crowd this with details. should also express your conclusions on the subject you are writing about.

EXAMPLE: "Fossilization has many cognitive and social causes, that is why to know some of them so we can find if there are solution and which ones they are."

  • The identification of most common cognitive and social causes of fossilization in L2 acquisition: a way to increase L2 teaching techniques.


narrow the topic. write down a list of relevant questions that interest you. narrow down your list of questions depending on the length requirement of you paper. conduct a preliminary search for information related to your question. make sure you have enough sources to work with. refine your research question to give it a clear direct focus based on your preliminary research. it will guide you in writing a thesis statement for your paper.

EXAMPLE: "How fossilization affects in a cognitive way?, How does social factors affect it? why social factors affects fossilization?, why fossilization affects in a cognitive?, are there any solutions for both causes? which are the solutions?,


DEPENDENT:measured by the researcher , which is expected to change as a result of the independent variable manipulation. Is the one which change as a result of the independent variable being changed and it is is put on the Y axis in graphics. characteristics: a period (when it starts and stop), pattern (daily, weekly, ad-hoc, etc.), detail(a review through to in depth), lateral (time between measuring dependent and independent).

INDEPENDENT: is done as manipulated by the researcher. It is like the knob on a that the researcher turns. in graphs, it is put on the X axis.


Annotated Bibliography

Wei, X. "English Language Teaching". CCSE journal. June 2008.

The Wei's journal includes the main aspects concerned to the social and cognitive factors that cause fossilization the way that if affects when learning a second language and some examples of them.

Hang ZhaoHong and Odlin Terense. "Studies of Fossilization in Second Language Acquisition" Book. 2006.

This book includes some researches that have been done previously and each one has a different point of view about fossilization. Also it includes empirical evidences and things regarding to when we can say that fossilization occurs and when it is not.

Ushioda, Ema. "Acculturation Theory and Linguistic Fossilization: A Comparative Case Study". CLCS Occasional Paper No. 37. 1993.

This book contains information about the fossilization in advantages stages of second language learning and the examination of two Japaneses in a English context and exoplains the sociological and psichological roles on second language acquisition.

MacLaughlin, D. "Second Language Acquisition and the Subset Principle". October 1993.

This paper has more information about fossilization and some aspects that can cause that also decribe the subset principle.


Nowadays is very common that people learn at least a second language. It seems to have become a necessity for people that wants to work, and all people need to work. When learning a second language, learners usually face some problems one of the problems is fossilization. According to Han S. & Odlin (2004: 1-2) fossilization is, in linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA), refers to the often-observed loss of progress in the acquisition of a second language (L2), following a period where learning occurred. If the causes of fossilization and what does it affects are detected teachers and also students will start to do something in order to fix, to avoid or to diminish this problem that many people can suffer. In this way we can help people who are learning a second language to reach the adequate performance in second language and make them keep on progressing in their L2 learning process.