## Problem

Students of B.A in E.L.T tend to use English collocations not quite properly because of interference they have form their mother tongue (Spanish).

## Purpose

To know about performance of Mexican University Students of ELT from the UAA in comparison with students from the UAT who study the same B.A. concerning learning collocations in English and so to analyse the effect that L1 (Spanish) have on their native-like selection and native like choice.

## Research Questions

How collocation patterns from Spanish interfere with learning collocations in English in Mexican Students of B.A. in E.L.T from the UAA in comparison with learners from UAT?

How can the use of strategies that help to understand that word order patterns in Spanish are different from English help to improve accuracy among mexican students of B.A in E.L.T from UAA and UAT concerning learning collocations?

## WHAT TO CONSIDER WHEN WRITING AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

- EVALUATE THE AUTHORITY OR BACKGROUND OF THE AUTHOR

- COMMENT ON THE INTENDED AUDIENCE

- COMPARE AND CONTRAST WORK WITH ANOTHER

6-8 SENTENCE PER EACH SOURCE

10 REFERENCES IN TOTAL

3 WEBSITES MAXIMUM

IDEALLY 3 WEBSITES, THREE JOURNALS, FOUR BOOKS

## Annotated bibliography

Brown, D. (2002). Strategies for success New York, E.E.U.U., Pearson Education

This book contains a wide array of interesting activities to help the reader to improve strategies concerning learning English. Even though the author pays special attention to American English, he does not forget to consider the readers' mother tongues because he also mentions the interferences that either French-speaking or Japanese-speaking and of course Spanish-speaking learners can have when learning English as a Foreign Language. The book is mainly addressing self-studying non-native learners of English who want to know the kind of learners they are, the multiple intelligences that fit well with them and many other psychological and pedagogical aspects that are important to achieve their individual goals when learning English. For teachers, it is quite useful to test their students to develop self-studying abilities and also to learn important strategies at the same time. This book is not exactly a textbook because it does not include theory at all; however, it can be even more useful if it is additionally used with an English vocabulary book or textbook. For teachers, it does not provide too much helpful strategies concerning planning a lesson because it is not actually too much academic in comparison with The practice of English Language Teaching by Jeremy Harmer, a book that is more specialized. In my opinion, it is helpful to carry out my project because it has to do with learning English as a Foreign language, taking into consideration the interferences of the mother tongue. Also, because of the strategies that can be helpful to improve learning English, especially vocabulary since my research project will be about learning English collocations in non-native speakers of English that are training to be teachers of English as a Foreign Language.

Cook, G. (2001). “Principle & practice in Applied Linguistics”, Hong Kong, China. Oxford University Press.

Guy Cook and Barbara Seidlhofer published this book in honour of H.G. Widdowson; Applied Linguistics adviser to the ELT Division at the Press, and as a scholar and author who promoted the development of professionalism in English Language teaching in so many years. Additionally, many other authors such as; Rod Ellis, Peter Skehan, Alan Davies and Guy Aston have enriched this book with their findings.The intended audience is mainly specialist in Applied Linguistics either researchers or teachers. In addition, both students of B.A and M.D in linguistics or similar can find in this book a quite complete source of information to carry out research in this area.In comparison with Swan (2005), this book is very specific and technical so it can be a bit difficult for students of B.A in E.L.T rather than Students of B.A or M,D in Linguistics. Moreover, the topics are rather advanced; therefore, a quite strong theoretical background in that respect. I selected this book in order to find information with more detail concerning Learning vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language. Also, because since my formation topic is mainly Linguistics, I consider that is really important to be a bit deeper in order to find stronger arguments to answer my research questions.

Fan, M. (2008). An exploratory study of collocational use by ESL students: A task based approach, Science Direct, Vol. 37, pp 110-123

May Fan is a Hong Kong teacher of English as a Foreign Language who carried out a study that attempted, "from the perspective of L2 learners, to have a deeper understanding of collocational use and some of the problems involved, by adopting a task based approach, using two highly comparable corpora based on the writing of Hong Kong ESL and native-speaker British students" (Fan, 2008). The participants were students from a secondary school in Hong Kong and the data was collected through writing tasks. The paper is mainly addressing both pre-service and in-service teachers of English as a Foreign Language who are also interested in carry out research in the classroom concerning Learning vocabulary, particularly collocations. In this study, the most important variable was performance rather than knowledge. In comparison with a similar study that was carried out in Iran by Karim Sadeghi, a paper that I will also include in my bibliography, Fan goes a bit further and what she cares about the participants language development when being in a task. However; in contrast with Sadeghi's study, the paper does not include the instrument that was used in order to carry out the research project. To carry out my research, Fan's study is helpful because it has included a quite complete theoretical framework concerning English collocations. In addition, it complements the data that I will take from the books I will also include in the current bibliography.

Fuscoe, K., Garside B., Prodromou, L. (2006). Attitude Student's Book 3, México D.F, Mex., Ed Mc. Millan

Editorial McMillan de Mexico is a branch of the international printing house McMillan. This source is a textbook and it does not provide too much information about the authors; however, it includes the syllabus of the course at the beginning of the book so the student becomes more independent when using it. The book is specifically addressing students of intermediate level of English who are learning English as a Foreign Language. Attitude is a complete course of English that includes also a teacher's book, a CD-ROM for the class and a workbook which includes a CD as well, so each part of the course was designed either for the teacher or for the learner. In comparison with other textbooks, "attitude" is a bit more practical because in each lesson learners can develop the four abilities: 1)listening, 2) reading, 3)speaking, and 4)writing, most of the lessons follow this order. Also, it includes several visuals and pictures, tests, quizzes and extra activities. I selected this source because it includes several diagrams concerning word patterns classification activities. Also because it mentions a short and concrete definition of what a collocation is.

Lewis, M. (2000). Teaching Collocation, Zagreb, Croatia. Ed. Thompson

Michael Lewis has edited this book in association with Jane Conzett, Peter Hargreaves, Jimmie Hill, Michael Hoey, Morgan Lewis and George Woorland, all of them reflect their special interest in Lexical approach through sharing their further developments throughout the 10 chapters the book has. The book is a quite complete guide to understand the applications of Lexical Approach in English Language Teaching (E.L.T) concerning teaching English collocations. The intended audience is basically linguists and teachers of English as a Foreign Language who feel strongly about the usage of Lexical approach when carrying out research in the classroom. Also, both native and non-native speakers of English who are students of B.A in E.L.T can use this book to have a wider idea of the further developments that Lexical Approach have concerning teaching English collocations. In comparison with Sinclair (1995), Lewis is a bit more specific in the sense of highlighting the importance that developing Lexical Approach has concerning teaching English collocations because he explains thoroughly the different phenomena that both collocations and idiomaticity have in common. He also provides some suggestions concerning sources and materials to teach collocations. It fits well in my bibliography because of the theoretical aspects that are included in the book. Also, because of the explanations of the different phenomena that can help students to raise awareness concerning learning collocations in English.

Nation, I.S.P (2001). Learning Vocabulary in another language, London, U.k., Cambridge University Press

Paul Nation is Professor in Applied Linguistics at the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (LALS) at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. He supervises MA and PhD research on vocabulary. He has taught in Indonesia, Thailand, the United States, Finland and Japan. The intended audience is either teachers or researchers in English Language Teaching. Also, students of B.A. in E.L.T or linguistics can understand the book. In comparison with a Cook (2001), Nation is quite more specific concerning vocabulary. The part of his book that I considered relevant and meaningful is a table of content with the most common collocations in English, taken from the British National Corpus. It adds pretty well to my bibliography in the sense of getting useful pieces of information concerning corpora and vocabulary in English. Also, because of the way that the information is presented.

Sadeghi, K. (2009). Collocational Differences Between L1 and L2: Implications for EFL Learners and Teachers, TESL Canada Journal/Revue TESL Du Canada, Vol. 26, No. 2

Scholdfield, P.J and +Gitsaki, C. (1996). What is the advantage of private instruction? The example of English vocabulary learning in Greece, Science Direct, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 117 d.o.i: 0346-251X

Unfortunately, Christina Gitsaki is already dead; however, he has left a fairly important legacy at the University of Queensland, Australia, where her main research developments were on quite essential fields of linguistics such as; Second language acquisition, ESL/EFL pedagogy, CALL, the use of technology for teaching and learning, second language lexical acquisition, online materials design, and teacher education. As well as Gitsaki, P.J Scholdfield conducts research in the same topics but at the University of Essex, in the United Kingdom. The intended audience of the paper is basically teachers of English as a Foreign Language who are interested in conducting research in the classroom concerning learning vocabulary. Also, the paper can be also consulted by Students of B.A in E.L.T who want to conduct research as well. In comparison with Fan (2008), it is more specific when talking about student's performance in vocabulary through the combination of both Scholdfield's and Gitsaki's visions concerning carrying out research in the classroom, in this case, in both public and private schools in Greece. Even though it does not include the instrument to collect data as in Sadeghi (2009), the research line is quite complete in order to reproduce the study if necessary. Even though it does not mention too much the topic "Collocations" as in the books, the methodology is quite useful to have a wider idea of how learning vocabulary is measured in the classroom either in Public schools or private ones. In addition, P.J Scholdfield was the thesis tutor of my dear professor Rosalina Dominguez Angel, one of my best teachers in Tlaxcala, so I think I can learn more from her concerning the methodology that is used in order to carry out research in the classroom.

Sinclair, J. (1995). Corpus Concordance Collocation, London, U.K. Oxford

John Sinclair teaches Modern English Language at the University of Birmingham. He conducts research mainly in discourse (both spoken and written)and computational linguistics. The intended audience is basically both native and non native speakers of English who are studying a B.A. in E.L.T in order become teachers of English as a Foreign Language. Also, it is adressed to teachers of English as a Foreign Language who want to carry out research in the classroom, concerning learning English collocations. In contrast with Lewis, M. (2000), Sinclair is a bit deeper in the sense of paying special attention to the frequency that some collocations have concerning both written and spoken language. Also, in the appendix, Sinclair has included several diagrams in which he specifies the co-ordination of sense and syntax that collocations have. It is one of the most important sources to carry out my research project concerning collocations due to it provides very especialized explanations to the phenomena of English collocations. Also, because of the theoretical knowledge that Sinclair has included in all of the 9 chapters the book has.

Swan, M. (2005). “Grammar”, Beijing, China, Oxford University Press

Michael Swan is a writer specializing in English language teaching and reference materials. He is a Visiting professor at the St Mary’s College, University of Surrey. He has published his findings in other series such as Guy Cook: Applied Linguistics (1995) that is also included in this bibliography. The intended audience is either linguists who are interested in studying vocabulary or teachers of English as a Foreign Language who want to raise awareness of phenomena concerning teaching vocabulary. Also, students of English as a Foreign Language who want to become teachers can read the book in order to have a wider idea of what learning vocabulary in English is. In comparison with Cook (1995), Swan (2005) is not really specialized because it does not get too much deeply into linguistics; however, it provides an easier explanation about the different phenomena concerning learning English vocabulary. In addition, it also includes some readings that complement theory that is included at the beginning of the book. I selected this book because of the simplicity to extract data from it, the chapters are nicely organised so it is not a difficult task to choose the topics that fit well with my theoretical framework. Finally; I would really like to recommend it because it is useful for both pedagogical and linguistic purposes.

## OUTLINE

1. TITLE PAGE

UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE TLAXCALA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE AGUASCALIENTES "TEACHING COLLOCATIONS COMMUNICATIVELY TO MEXICAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF ENGLISH"

2. ABSTRACT

3. CONTENT TABLES

4. TITLE OF THE PAPER

"LEARNING COLLOCATIONS COMMUNICATIVELY IN MEXICAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF ELT"

5. METHODOLOGY

THE APPROACH IS MAINLY QUANTITATIVE IN THE SENSE OF MEASURING THE FREQUENCIES OF MISTAKES STUDENTS MAKE WHEN ANSWERING A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED ON A SIMILAR STUDY THAT WAS CARRIED OUT BY SADEGHI (2009). THERE WILL BE ALSO CONSIDERED MANY IMPORTANT FACTORS SUCH AS; PREVIOUS LEARNING EXPERIENCE AND STUDENTS' PROFILE. THE PARTICIPANTS WILL BE STUDENTS OF B.A IN E.L.T FROM THE UAA AND THE UAT. THEY WILL BE 21 - 24 YEARS OLD. MANY OF THEM WILL BE TEACHING ENGLISH.

6. RESULTS

7. CONCLUSION

8. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS

9. REFERENCES

## PARTS OF AN ACADEMIC PAPER

1. TITLE PAGE

- Name of the University

- Name of the author

- date

- Running head (A short introductio of the topic)

2. ABSTRACT

-A little bit of the entire review (120 words average).

-The abstract is not indented (it is justified to the left)

- Double spaced (Both the abstract and the entire paper)

3. CONTENT

- it includes the numbers of each page with the names of the sections

4. TITLE OF THE PAPER (complete)

- do not type "introduction, or "literature review"

- in the body, every paragraph is indented

- change into inches (each paragraph must have a 0.5 inches space between each other)

5. METHODOLOGY

6. RESULTS

7. CONCLUSION

- No more than one page

8. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS

- It is not a separate section

9. REFERENCES

NOTES:

- A literature review is not about what you say

- You just talk about what other people has said

- Level I headings are in Bold text

## ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

ANNOTATIONS VS ABSTRACTS

Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they expose the author's point of view, clarity and appropriateness of expression, and authority.

THE PROCESS

Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

- First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic.

- Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

- Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

- Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that

(a) evaluate the authority or background of the author,

(b) comment on the intended audience,

(c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or

(d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

## LITERATURE REVIEW

ARIAL 12 OR TIMES NEW ROMAN 12 DOUBLE SPACED DO NOT HAVE TITLES LIKE "LITERATURE REVIEW" OR "INTRODUCTION"

THE ABSTRACT JUST CAN HAVE 120 WORDS

A LITERATURE REVIEW MUST HAVE 2500 WORDS

BOTH LITERATURE REVIEW AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY MUST BE BASED ON THREE ASPECTS:

- RESEARCH QUESTIONS

- PUROPOSE OF THE STUDY

- THE PROBLEM

HEADINGS IS THE ONLY TEXT THAT IS BOLD

== BY NEXT WEEK ==

november 4th

- the annotated bibliography will be done on wiki educator

- the literature review must be written in Microsoft word

## How to Write a Three-Paragraph Essay

Parts of a Three-Paragraph Essay:

A three-paragraph essay contains:

1. An introduction topic paragraph that introduces the main topic of the essay.

2. A supporting paragraph that backs up the main topic with supporting ideas, details and examples.

3. A conclusion paragraph that sums up the main topic and bring the essay to a close.

The Introduction Paragraph:

States the main idea in the first one or two sentences, proceeds to supporting sentences, and then reinstates the main idea with a conclusion sentence. The introduction paragraph builds the reader's interest for the topic you will explain next in the supporting paragraph.

The Supporting Paragraph:

Gives details for the topic stated in the introduction paragraph. Each supporting statement provides a new piece of information. You can also provide specific examples.

The Conclusion Paragraph:'

The conclusion paragraph reinforces the ideas given in the introduction and supporting paragraphs in a more general and concise language than supporting paragraphs. A well-written conclusion paragraph provides the essence of the essay.

## Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement

1.Determine what kind of paper you are writing:

•An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience. •An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience. •An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided. If you are writing a text which does not fall under these three categories (ex. a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.

2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.

3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

HOW TO WRITE A REFERENCE OF A WEBSITE

Davies, B. (1999). Movitating Students. Retrieved on September 7, 2010 from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/motiv.htm

When we write an essay, we have to write about what we know or what we think instead of what we feel.

• Avoid contractions • Avoid phrasal verbs • Avoid emphasising with CAPITAL LETTERS or being too direct. • Avoid exclamation marks • Avoid expressing emotions. • Avoid repeating the same vocabulary • Change the structure of the sentence • Use academic jargon • Avoid connectors like “but”, use “however” of “In contrast” • Avoid adverbs like “very” or “a lot of”

Academic Writing Tips: How to Write a Paragraph

- Think about a paragraph as a mini essay - A paragraph has to be a self-contained entity - Include introduction, body and conclusion - In has to be three sentences long.

== What is an academic paper? ==

How It Differs From Writing in High School

...college student is different from writing in high school. ...a lot of what your high school writing teachers taught you will be useful to you as you approach writing in college...

1. Academic writing is writing done by scholars for other scholars.

As a college student, we are in contact with complex knowledge, so we read about, think about, argue about, and write about great ideas that we are constantly modifying and increasing

3. This brings us to our final point: Academic writing should present the reader with an informed argument. To construct an informed argument, you must first try to sort out what you know about a subject from what you think about a subject. Or, to put it another way, you will want to consider what is known about a subject and then to determine what you think about it. If your paper fails to inform, or if it fails to argue, then it will fail to meet the expectations of the academic reader.

MEAL PLAN

## Capitalisation rules

Capitalize the beginning of a sentence.

•This hub is about when to use capitalization.

Capitalize the pronoun "I" •My friend and I are going to a musical.

Capitalize proper nouns: specific people, places, and organizations •Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County, Kentucky in 1809.

•Women for Women International is a fantastic organization supporting women all over the world.

Capitalize religious figures, holy books, and God •The Bible has many stories of the Virgin Mary and Jesus. •Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty, was the daughter of Zeus and Dione.

Capitalize days of the week, holidays, and months of the year but not seasons •I love the fall because of Halloween and Thanksgiving. •My favorite month of the year is November.

Seasons are capitalized when used in a title.

•The catalog for Spring 2006 will be out in February.

Capitalize countries, languages, and nationalities •We went to Spain to learn Spanish.

Family relationships only when used instead of proper names •I went on a trip with Father. (Father could be replaced with my father's name.) •Your father is six feet tall. •When we go to the movies with my aunts, my Aunt Marlie always has to be reminded to be quiet.

Capitalize titles that precede names, but not titles that follow names •Senator Dianne Feinstein was first elected in 1992. •Diane Feinstein was the first woman mayor of San Francisco.

Capitalize North, South, East, and West when used as sections of the country, but not as compass directions •We lived in the Pacific Northwest for four years. •Our house is northwest of Fremont.

Capitalize letter salutations and closings Only capitalize the first word in the salutation and closing.

•My dear Ms. Taylor, •With much love,

Capitalize the first word in a quote even when in the middle of a sentence •My Uncle Bob use to say, "The last time I said no was when they asked me if I had enough."

Capitalize major words in titles of books, written works, or songs. •A wonderful grammar book is Eats, Shoots and Leaves by Lynne Truss. (The Italics are not working for me, so I underlined the title of the book.)

Short prepositions ("the," "a," or "an") are not capitalized if they aren't the first word.

Capitalize the first word in each line of poetry or verse Two roads diverged in a wood, and I-

I took the one less traveled by,

And that has made all the difference.

"The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost

Capitalize members of a group •Many California Democrats will likely vote for Phil Angelides. •Barry Bonds plays for the San Francisco Giants.

Capitalize events and periods of time •The Roaring Twenties were a period of affluence. •The Democratic Convention is a nationally televised event.

Capitalize company trademarks •My infant eats Earth's Best baby food.

•We prefer Coke over Pepsi.

Capitalize words and abbreviations of specific names Katie Couric recently switched from NBC to CBS.

She studied Jungian psychology which focuses on the collective unconscious.

Capitalize solar system names •The fourth planet from the sun is Mars.

We usually don't capitalize sun, earth and moon.

•The moon revolves around the earth.

Capitalize Outlines I. Food Pyramid

A. Whole grains

1. Breads, cereal, crackers, rice, and pasta

Punctuation rules

Quoting rules

## APA rules

JOURNAL:

Last name, First initial (year) Name of the article, Name of the journal. Volume, Pp. D.o.i

BOOK

Last name, First initial (year). Name of the book, City, State, country: Publisher

WEBPAGE

Author's last name, First initial. (Year). Name of the article. Retrieved on /date/ from: /website/

'When it does not have an author:

name of the article (year) Retrieved on: date from :webpage

'When it does not have date

Author's last name, First initial. (N.d.). Name of the article. Retrieved on /date/ from: /website/

## HOW TO WRITE AN ARTICLE REVIEW

Criteria for writing an article review

• Before writing

The questions your article must answer are: What is this trying to say?

How clearly is the message getting through?

How readable (word choice, language etc) is it?

How accurate is the information?

How useful did you find this information?

• In the introduction: - Cite the source - Give a brief sketch of what it was about. - Going through a few main points is fine.

• In the review - Explain why the article is relevant. - Move on to your critique of the article. - Refer back to the questions in step 1. If you have answered all of them, this part should be easy. Simply use them as support for your argument.

• In the conclusion: - Mention why you would or would not recommend this article…

Fwoom (n.d.) “How to Write an Article Review” Retrieved on: September, 28th, 2010 from:http://www.ehow.com/how_5383592_write-article-review.html

First two paragraphs: Summary of the article

Second two paragraphs: Implications of the article (the meaning)

Last paragraph: Conclusion

## Feedback

Good job Luis on your notes page! Keep it up! --Benjamin Stewart 02:28, 12 October 2010 (UTC)

## HOMEWORK OCTOBER 19th - OUTLINE OF MY LITERATURE REVIEW

Title: (no more than ten words) Learning Collocations in Mexican University Students of ELT

Purpose (what you want to know): To know about performance Mexican University Students of ELT from the UAA in comparison with students from the UAT who study the same B.A. concerning learning collocations in English and so to analyse the effect that L1 (Spanish) have on them.

Problem (the problem is this because of this): Students of B.A in E.L.T tend to use English collocations not quite properly because of interference they have form their mother tongue (Spanish).

Research Questions:

When you ask a question, everybody benefit.

Ask accurate questions so everybody can take them as a reference to solve problems, especially when they do not ask.

Avoid YES/NO Questions. The most accurate ones are WH (e.g. who, where, how, etc.)

In the study, the questions will be:

- * How can technology help Learning collocations in Students of modern languages from the UAT?

- * How can being concerned about phenomena concerning English collocations enhance motivation to teach them?

## OUTLINE

1. TITLE PAGE

UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE TLAXCALA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE AGUASCALIENTES "TEACHING COLLOCATIONS COMMUNICATIVELY TO MEXICAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF ENGLISH"

2. ABSTRACT

3. CONTENT TABLES

4. TITLE OF THE PAPER

"LEARNING COLLOCATIONS COMMUNICATIVELY IN MEXICAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF ELT"

5. METHODOLOGY

THE APPROACH IS MAINLY QUANTITATIVE IN THE SENSE OF MEASURING THE FREQUENCIES OF MISTAKES STUDENTS MAKE WHEN ANSWERING A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED ON A SIMILAR STUDY THAT WAS CARRIED OUT BY SADEGHI (2009). THERE WILL BE ALSO CONSIDERED MANY IMPORTANT FACTORS SUCH AS; PREVIOUS LEARNING EXPERIENCE AND STUDENTS' PROFILE. THE PARTICIPANTS WILL BE STUDENTS OF B.A IN E.L.T FROM THE UAA AND THE UAT. THEY WILL BE 21 - 24 YEARS OLD. MANY OF THEM WILL BE TEACHING ENGLISH.

6. RESULTS

7. CONCLUSION

8. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS

9. REFERENCES

## PARTS OF AN ACADEMIC PAPER

1. TITLE PAGE

- Name of the University

- Name of the author

- date

- Running head (A short introductio of the topic)

2. ABSTRACT

-A little bit of the entire review (120 words average).

-The abstract is not indented (it is justified to the left)

- Double spaced (Both the abstract and the entire paper)

3. CONTENT

- it includes the numbers of each page with the names of the sections

4. TITLE OF THE PAPER (complete)

- do not type "introduction, or "literature review"

- in the body, every paragraph is indented

- change into inches (each paragraph must have a 0.5 inches space between each other)

5. METHODOLOGY

6. RESULTS

7. CONCLUSION

- No more than one page

8. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS

- It is not a separate section

9. REFERENCES

NOTES:

- A literature review is not about what you say
- You just talk about what other people has said
- Level I headings are in Bold text


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

## References

Sadeghi, K. (2009). Collocational Differences Between L1 and L2: Implications for EFL Learners and Teachers, TESL CANADA JOURNAL/REVUE TESL DU CANADA, VOL. 26, NO 2

Sinclair, J. (1995). Corpus Concordance Collocation, London, U.K. Oxford

## ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

ANNOTATIONS VS ABSTRACTS

Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they expose the author's point of view, clarity and appropriateness of expression, and authority.

THE PROCESS

Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

- First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic.

- Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

- Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

- Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that

(a) evaluate the authority or background of the author,

(b) comment on the intended audience,

(c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or

(d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

## ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY NOTES - OCT 26TH

- WRITE THE REFERENCE First you have to follow APA rules

- Evaluate the theory and background of the author

- comment on the intended audience

- compare or contrast this author with another author (In the annotated bibliography you must have at least 10 authors)

- say the how it helps in carrying out research

A LITERATURE REVIEW MUST HAVE 2500 WORDS

BOTH LITERATURE REVIEW AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY MUST BE BASED ON THREE ASPECTS:

- RESEARCH QUESTIONS

- PUROPOSE OF THE STUDY

- THE PROBLEM

## BY NEXT WEEK

november 4th

- the annotated bibliography will be done on wiki educator

- the literature review must be written in Microsoft word

== What is the difference between citation and reference? ==

the citation is always on the body whereas the reference is a the end of the whole text