# User:Graeme.dixon/Quantitative Methods

## School of Occupational Therapy-Quantitative Methods

PG403

Research in Practice

Post Graduate Diploma in Occupational Therapy Otago Polytechnic

This material has been prepared by:

Dr Graeme Dixon Senior Lecturer School of Occupational Therapy, Otago Polytechnic, 2008. (I am indebted to Samson Tse who developed the original template for this course)

## Contents

### Introduction to Research in Practice

#### Introduction to the paper

This paper aims at introducing you to a wide range of research methods. You may notice that this paper is called "Research in Practice" as opposed to a paper called "Research Methods". There are several reasons and implications for such a name. First, this paper is aimed at assisting you to identify research questions that have arisen in your practice. In other words, this paper will be neither totally theoretical, nor delivered in a vacuum. Quite the opposite, it requires you to relate the contents covered in this paper to your practice and identify and develop research questions which interest you. Second, the word "practice" refers to occupational therapy practice. This will be achieved by:

• Citing many examples of occupational therapy scenarios, using occupational therapy literature when introducing basic concepts, discussing research issues etc. • Examining the research issues such as the trends in current and future occupational therapy research, common methodologies used in occupational therapy research.

For details, please see the paper outline on the next few pages.

PAPER TITLE Research in Practice

NUMBER

EFTS

POINTS VALUE

EXPECTED HOURS

DURATION

CO-ORDINATOR Graeme Dixon

Introduction


 Course Outline

This is a largely online course. The main subject content of the course is outlined in the Wiki you are now reading and the topic headings roughly approximate the weeks of the course. The course will also be contained in a Blackboard shell.

The course is self paced so you can proceed at the speed that best suites your style though you should note that there are some Assessment milestones that must be met at certain weeks of the course and you cannot proceed further with the course unless you pass these (see below for assessment and assessment criteria)

For those of you who prefer a more directive approach the course is also offered in BlackBoard format and can be accessed at Blackboard link - use log on as

In order for you to access the course we suggest that you have a computer running Windows 2000 or its equivalent. We suggest that you have a broadband connection and that you have a microphone and speakers or headphones.

We suggest that you have Powerpoint, Elluminate, Word 2000 or better, Adobe Acrobat.

We suggest that you have set up an email system, an RSS feed, a Blog, and that you understand how to edit a Wiki.

It is also a good idea to brush up on your keyboarding skills - nothing more frustrating than being a one-fingered typist.--bron 23:38, 28 October 2007 (CET) I use the laptop by christinaT [1] I use the laptop by christinaT [1]  Computer Skills

You should be familiar with the above software and how to read and write with it. You should be able to set up and monitor a Blog You should be able to edit a Wiki. You should be able to work Elluminate. You should be familiar with Blackboard

Resources for all of these are found under Working online or Resources

Course communication

The prime source of communication for this course will be through Blackboard. Course content for each week will be posted on the Blackboard site and extra resource will be posted as required. You are expected to carry out the online exercise and if feedback is required use the Digital Drop Box facility in Blackboard to post your response. The tutor will return any assessments within two working weeks.

If you wish to proceed at your own pace you will find identical resource on the course Wiki.

The primary source of communication about personal issues is with the course facilitator graemed@tekotago.ac.nz

He will monitor email daily and you can expect a reply in 24hrs. Discussion work will be posted through the Discussion board on Blackboard.

We suggest you also setup and use a Blog on a regular basis where you can discuss the course and issues surrounding it. Although there is no assessment attached to your Blog I would expect that you make an entry at least weekly and no less than fortnightly.

Working Online

Wikipedia has some excellent resources for Working online and how to use the various tools that appear on this site.

Computer Literacy Resources

Study skills

Resources for e-Learning Orientation Warm ups

Go to Week One on Blackboard and work your way through the exercises posted there. Put your answers etc in the Digital DropBox, Course structure

Email Digital Drop Box Personal Blogs [2]

Other computer resources [3]

PURPOSE: This paper is aimed at assisting students to identify research questions that have arisen in practice, explore relevant literature and work through the research process to the production of a research proposal. A range of research designs will be studied in order to justify the methodology chosen.

OUTCOMES: After satisfactory completion of the paper, students will be able to

1. Apply principles of research to an issue or a problem related to the student’s clinical practice.

2. Evaluate research conducted by others.

3. Complete a full research proposal to the required standard.

4. Critically evaluate, reflect, and integrate knowledge with appropriate referencing.

CONTENT: • Research Process Reading and understanding research Identification of a research question and its practice implications Reviewing the literature: Procedures and pitfalls Refining the questions and develop the background Designs and methodologies used in occupational therapy research Research designs: Data collection, data analysis and reporting results Planning research: Resources, time frame, and supervision Ethical considerations Final preparation before implementing the research plan

• Research Methodologies Quantitative traditions and their applications: Major theoretical framework, research designs, techniques of data collections, rigour in quantitative research, principles of analysis in quantitative inquiry

Quantitative traditions and their applications: Research designs, control of error and confounding variables, choosing statistical tests, descriptive and inferential statistics, sampling procedures, hypothesis formation and testing

Research Related Issues Occupational therapy research in practice: Traditions and directions, basic concepts for understanding research, disability research, issues related to cross cultural research

TEACHING/LEARNING METHODS: 1. Whole Class Paced Learning Packages: These are packages provided by lecturers that may include readings, further references, and study questions to assist students to explore and develop an understanding of a body of factual knowledge with the associated issues. The packages may also assist students, through guided questions to explore an area in depth or consider the application of the key concepts to a case study or given scenario. These packages may be used in conjunction with tutorials/group learning or one-one tutorials, either in person or by using technology.

2. Regular teleconferences: Learning via technology will allow for material to be applied, clarified, discussed and related to other areas of learning in such a way that students will utilise problem-solving skills, challenge beliefs and values held or obtain feed-back about the progress of learning. Learning may be focused as tutorials/group learning where one or more students will interact with a lecturer, or lecture format, where information is given and students have the opportunity to ask questions of the lecturer, or self and peer evaluation, where students will enter into academic debate.

3. Off Dunedin-Campus Based Learning: Students may be involved in any of the teaching/learning methods given below. Particular examples may include seminars/peer group presentation, workshops/ practicals, tutorials/group learning, lectures, one-one tutorials or self and peer evaluation.

4. One to One Tutorials: These are individual consultation sessions between lecturer and student. They will provide opportunities for challenging and supporting students at an individual level either in person or using the technology such as e-mail,Blog, or any media that the student and the facilitator can use.

5. Seminars/Peer Group Presentations: Students will prepare material, present it to their peer group and defend their arguments. This will give them practice not only in preparing material but also in presenting it to colleagues, thus increasing their confidence in their ability to present material verbally in a formal setting.

ASSESSMENT:

ASSESSMENT:

Summative assessment is by: This assignment requires students to demonstrate the ability to evaluate two quantitative research methodologies that could be used within a piece of research. The research topic should be related to current practice and have sound justification that supports the relevance of the proposed study, and the selected methodologies.

Formative assessment is provided through: a) Terms: Students will be expected to review the literature relating to their research proposal presenting this in a written format to the lecturer for comment. Guidelines will be provided. b) Present their study design (Blackboard/teleconference) to their peers, the methodology and the plans for collecting and analysing the data. Focusing on the justification of the research design chosen. Guidelines will be provided.

The above will allow students to receive early feedback about the progression of their work leading to the production of the research evaluation.

6. COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS: To pass this paper students must: a. Complete the terms requirement, literature review. b. Submit a written assignment c. Achieve a minimum of 50% for their research evaluation.

Assessment criteria:

   * Understanding and interpretation: Demonstrate understanding of acquired knowledge, to identify relationships and to interpret ideas.

   * Enquiry: Locate and research material from a range of sources.

   * Reflection: Discuss the information or data in relation to the topic and their own experiences.

   * Analysis and synthesis: Analyse and use information, ideas and their own experiences critically.

   * Presentation: Use appropriate means of expression (language style, organisation, sentence structure, referencing etc).

   * Discrimination: Pick out the essence of the literature, summarise it concisely and relate it to the topic.


PASS REQUIREMENT: In order to pass this paper, students are required to meet the following requirement: 1. Meet the term requirements. 2. Complete all three assessments according to the guidelines given. 3. Achieve a cumulative mark of 50% over the three assessments.

REFERENCES: Bailey, D. M. (1997). Research for the health professional: A practical guide. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.

Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative injury and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

De Poy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (1998). Introduction to research: Multiple strategies for health and human services. St. Louis: Mosby.

Gravetter, F. J., & Wallnau, L. B. (1995). Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences. Minneapolis: West Publishing Company.

Hicks, C. M. (1999). Research methods for clinical therapists: Applied project design and analysis. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. California: Sage Publications.

Rioux, M. H., & Bach, M. (1994). New Research paradigms in disability. Ontario: L'institut Roeher.

Royeen. C. B. (1997). A research primer in occupational and physical therapy. Maryland: American Occupational Therapy Association. Prescribed readings will be supplied for this paper and other texts may also be recommended.

There are three objectives stated on the paper outline. 1. Apply principles of research to an issue or a problem related to the student’s clinical practice.

Upon satisfactory completion of the paper, it is hoped that you will be able to frame a researchable question, choose and then justify an appropriate research design.

2. Evaluate research conducted by others.

Apart from helping you to become an emerging researcher, hopefully this paper will also equip you to become a more effective consumer of research. The reading, actual understanding and evaluating of research will be done repeatedly throughout the paper even though this topic only appears once in the contents page.

3. Complete a full research proposal to the required standard. "Well, this is the moment of truth!" Towards the end of the paper, you will be required to produce a full research proposal, which has to meet the standards set by National Ethics Committee, New Zealand. The purposes for this exercise are two fold. First putting a research proposal together is a good learning experience. It will provide you with opportunities to write concisely, to gain experience in producing a full proposal with the guidance of myself. Second, having had a proposal completed, it may improve your chances of gaining approval and funding, and give you more confidence in your ability to implement the study in the future.

#### Structure and topics covered

Structure and topics covered

Please refers to the paper contents on the next few pages. We will spend the first month examining the meaning of research and how research is related to the world of knowledge. This section may sound a bit theoretical, but it really aims at setting the tone for the whole paper. Then we will start to follow the process of how a research or research ideas are developed. The two main topics are: Framing a research problem and literature review. During that time, the first assignment outline on framing the research problem and a full literature review will be given to you, so that you can start the searching for appropriate literature and organise inter-loans of articles and books that you cannot access in your local library facilities. Please allow 1-2 months for inter-loans to arrive. A last minute rush is not very helpful for your stress levels. The next logical topic is to examine how the research articles are evaluated.

The first workshop will introduce you to experimental and naturalistic research methods. However, the focus will be on the experimental research methods . There are two reasons for this. First, I have assumed most of you may not have much exposure to experimental research methods. Therefore the face-to-face classroom situation may help alleviate anxiety and deal with questions. Second, the workshop situation will provide you with hands-on experiences, such as the use of computer programs for mathematical computations.

#### Elements of the paper

Elements of the paper Required text There is a required text for this paper, which is:

De Poy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (1998). Introduction to research: Multiple strategies for health and human services. St. Louis: Mosby.

You may notice that roughly the paper contents are mapped out according to the chapters of the required text. This book costs about \$70 dollars and you can purchase the book through University Bookshop, Dunedin.

This book is chosen as a required text because it covers a good range of topics, providing a clear conceptual framework to examine experimental and naturalistic inquiry. It is written at a level that will possibly suit people from a variety of background and experiences in health research. I will use additional readings to supplement the chapters to tune the level up for post-graduate students and explore certain topics in more depth. Lastly I believe this book will continue to be a useful reference on your bench or desk in the future, following the completion of this paper.

Workbook and readings The packages include study questions and readings to assist you to explore and develop an understanding of a body of factual knowledge with the associated issues. The packages may also assist you through guided questions, to explore an area in depth or consider the application of the key concepts to given scenario. It is extremely important that you complete the workbook and readings according to the two-week schedule. The material covered in the workbook in each fortnight will serve as the guideline for each teleconference.

You may notice in the workbook, I always start each block (equates to two weeks time) with an introduction to outline the background, the linking across different topics and the learning objectives for that block. It is followed by the readings section. Under the readings section, there are two sub-headings: Essential readings and recommended readings. The former are readings that you have to do in order to complete the learning activities or study questions. The latter are readings that may be useful for your future reference or you wish to explore the topic in greater depth.

Teleconference sessions This will be an opportunity for you to ask questions, share learning related to the designated tasks in the workbook, and obtain feedback about the progress of learning. Personally I think you will gain most from teleconference if you can:

• Complete the readings, workbook and tasks required before the teleconference • Find a spot to join the teleconference that your pet(s), children or something equivalent to that will not disturb you • Take notes while we discuss various topics as we progress through the teleconference

Workshops There will be two workshops. During the workshops, you will be involved in seminars, peer group presentations, self and peer evaluation, practicals and exercise, and one-one tutorials with lecturer. These will be interactive sessions, which will facilitate your learning through reflection and sharing with others.

Assessments

One-to-One contact The distance-based mode of learning should not stop you contacting me for clarifying questions, expressing your concerns or simply wanting to catch up with me. I can be contacted via the following contact details. If I am busy I will let you know how long it will take me to get back to you.

Dr Graeme Dixon School of Occupational Therapy Private Bag 1910, Dunedin Tel 03 479 6035 Fax email graemed@tekotago.ac.nz

#### Timetable (2008)

(to be modified . The following timetable is an example of a past course) (Each box equates to two weeks)

Workbook Ch 2 Oct 2 – Oct 13 Workbook Ch 3 Oct 16 – Oct 27 Work book Ch 4 Oct 30 – Nov 10 Workbook Ch 5 Nov 5 – Nov 24 Xmas and New Year Holiday Identifying your research history, skills & your research aspirations

"What is research?" Essentials of research - Philosophical foundations and Theory in research (part I) Philosophical foundations and Theory in research (part II)

Framing a research problem Developing a knowledge base through review of literature

Refining the question and developing the background Evaluate research conducted by others

Workbook Ch 6 Jan 22 – Feb 2 Feb 5 – Feb 16 Workbook Ch 7 Feb 19 – Mar 2 Workbook Ch 8 Mar 5 – Mar 16 Research in occupational therapy

Workshop I: 3-6 February 2001 (Saturday-Tuesday)

Language and thinking process- experimental-type and naturalistic inquiry Experimental-type research design in occupational therapy

First assignment – due 23/2/2001 Naturalistic languages and thinking processes Workbook Ch 9 Mar 19 – Mar 30 Workbook Ch 10 Apr 2 – Apr 6 and Apr 23 – Apr 27 Mid-semester break Apr 9 – Apr 22 Workbook Ch 11 Apr 30 – May 11 Workbook Ch 12 May 14 – May 25 Participatory action research in practice Use of grounded theory in occupational therapy research Phenomenological research in occupational therapy Ethnography: A methodological approach for occupational therapy research

Workbook Ch 13 May 28 – June 8 Workbook Ch 14 Jun 11 – Jun 22

Workshop II: 16-17 June 2001 (Saturday – Sunday)

Putting it together – presentations of students work in the workshop Semester Break Jun 25 – Jul 15 Jul 16 – Jul 27 Use of case study designs in OT research

No teleconference this block

Second assignment- due 25/6/2000 Ethical considerations in health research Jul 30 – Aug 10

Follow-up issues from last workshop

Time frames & budgets Third assignment- due 24/8/2001

## What is Research?

### Introduction

We’ll start this paper by examining what research is. The readings required for this block (it equates to two weeks on your teaching timetable) may look a bit daunting. But they are certainly very useful. They are useful in terms of laying down some major fundamental concepts about the nature of knowledge and how knowledge is understood and accumulated. The implication is: doing research is not about simply throwing a bunch of questions or doing some sort of experiment, gathering the results we want. Doing research is related to your assumption about the nature of knowledge under investigation. It is also related to the "preferred methods" because of the kind of knowledge you wish to explore.

The learning objectives for these two weeks are to:

• Describe what research is • Discuss why research is necessary in the context of New Zealand society • Identify the philosophical base of research • Evaluate the link between research and theory

## Framing a Research Problem

### Introduction

In the next two weeks, we'll move on to examine how the research problem is framed. In this context, research problem refers to a general area or issue, rather than an exact research question/hypothesis or statement that one wishes to investigate.

Going through a proper procedure of framing a research problem will help you decide if the research problem is "meaningful and appropriate for scientific inquiry" (DePoy & Gitlin, 1998, p.38. Indeed the notion of what is meaningful and appropriate can take up the whole evening for a debate in the teleconference!). Careful framing of a research problem will set a good grounding for further work and it will save a lot of trouble implementing your research.

Framing a research problem usually takes a long time. For instance, our Honours students took almost 3-4 months to decide on a topic/problem that they felt comfortable with. That is, the topic was interesting for them, had some sense of significance and there was sufficient literature to guide the work. Therefore, what we will achieve in the next two weeks is to get the concept of how to frame a research problem right. But the actual framing of the problem or making decisions on the exact topic/problem for your research proposal assignment will most likely take longer than two weeks. "But I don't mind seeing a few exceptions!"

The learning objectives for these two weeks are to:

• Identify and apply the knowledge of how a research problem is developed and framed • Analyse the domain of occupational therapy research- "what are the most meaningful and appropriate research problems for occupational therapy?"

Essential readings: DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (1998). Introduction to research: understanding and applying multiple strategies. St Louis: Mosby. (Chapter four)

Ross, L. M., Hall, B. A., Heater, S. L. (1998). Why are occupational therapists not doing more replication research? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 234-235.

Parham, L. D. (1998). What is the proper domain of occupational therapy research? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 485-489.

Recommended readings: Finlay, L. (1998). Reflexivity: An essential component for all research? British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 453-456.

Essential readings: DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (1998). Introduction to research: understanding and applying multiple strategies. St Louis: Mosby. (Chapters One to three)

Royeen, C. B. (1997). A research primer in occupational and physical therapy. Mayland: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Bray, A. (1998, September). Research: Being creative in to-day's environment. Paper presented at the national conference of the New Zealand Association of Occupational Therapists- Common Threads, Dunedin.

Recommended readings: Cusick, A., & Franklin, A., & Rotem, A. (1999). Meanings of "research" and "researcher"- the clinician perspective. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research. 19, 101-125.

### Learning activities/study questions

1. “Close your eyes and think of research. What do you see?”

2. With reference to Royeen (1997, p. 5-19) and chapter one of the required textbook (DePoy & Gitlin,1998), jot down what you believe as the key adjectives used to describe research.

3. Discuss the ways in which treatment planning is similar and different to research process.

Similarities Differences

### Learning Activites and Questions=

1. IMAGINE you were asked to present at the in-service training session on the topic of defining a research problem. In order to aid your presentation, you decide to make a one-page handout on the topic using the work by DePoy and Gitlin (1998) as the primary reference. The potential audiences are occupational therapists who have little practical experience in research but as a group, they are keen to initiate some occupational therapy research activities in the local area.

Please produce the handout and fax or email it to me (fax: 03-474-0238) not later than 25 October 2000.

I would encourage you to reference your handouts (both in the text and reference section of the handout) properly by referring to American Psychological Association (APA) format. The idea is for you start using APA format for your referencing.

The headings for the handout (one page only, font size-10, in points form is fine) are:

• Defining research problem? • Why bother? • What do you have to consider? • References

2. List the reasons for doing replication research as identified by Ross, Hall & Heater (1998). Do you agree there is a need to replicate research? Why or why not?

3. Parham (1998) strongly advocated that the study of occupation should be the key domain for occupational therapy research. i.e., the study of

• therapeutic applications of occupation via occupational therapy • influence of occupation on the person • occupational nature of the human being.

Do you agree that the study of occupation should be the key element of occupational therapy research? In your practice, please describe 2-3 “studies of occupation” that may interest you.

4. Keep a journal over the next two weeks (see next page),

• write down every potential research problem (a general area or issue, rather than an exact research question/hypothesis or statement) that arises from your clinical practice • identify the research experiences and skills you have already • what you would like to achieve related to the learning of research

Journal: Potential research problem(s) arise from your practice

Identify you research experiences and skills

Your learning objectives related to research

## Literature Review

Anne Bray (1998) presented a very thought-provoking keynote paper on “Research: Being creative in today’s environment” in the NZAOT 1998 national conference. Based on the paper and your observations, identify what the threats (future), challenges (now), opportunities (future) and helping factors (now) are for health professionals including occupational therapists to conduct research in New Zealand. This discussion will lead to the next question: “Why is research necessary?”

threats (future):

challenges (now):

opportunities (future):

helping factors (now):

5. One of the reasons I choose DePoy and Gitlin (1998) as the required textbook for this paper is that they provide a good philosophical base of research and attempt to relate research to the development and validation of knowledge/theories. In other words, research has a linking to the world of knowledge, the assumption about knowledge, and the preferred way to acquire certain knowledge.

Believe me, it will help lay down a solid foundation to articulate and defend your research project in the future. Don’t worry if you do not understand every sentence or every single word of the chapters. What is important to realise is:

• There are different ways to acquire knowledge, develop and refine theories • There are assumptions associated with different ways of knowing the world

Read chapters two and three of the required textbook (DePoy & Gitlin,1998). List the words that you don’t understand.

### Introduction

Introduction

Reviewing the literature is certainly one of the important steps in the development of a research project. It is a step which people start with very mixed feelings. Many regard it as time consuming, confusing and unproductive. Others find it useful and necessary. The reasons for doing the literature are three fold:

• Forces clarification of the researcher’s thinking • Helps justify the need for the study. It gives reassurance to the researcher that it is indeed worth carrying out the research study in terms of time, effort and money. • Gives ideas of previous studies completed or published to date. It helps identify gaps in the body of literature, how the methods can be improved, and what instruments were used in the past.

Chapter five of the required textbook (DePoy and Gitlin, 1998) gives an excellent overview of why and how the literature review is conducted. They suggest six stages of conducting the literature review:

1. When to do a search 2. Delimit the search 3. Mechanics of a search

It is important to record the key words you are using for the search. It helps define the scope and limitations of your review. Also chapter 2 from Bailey (1997) elaborates on this stage in practical detail.

4. Organise the information 5. Critically evaluate the literature

The literature review is not simply to find out and record what has been done to date. It is not about copying from textbooks into your work. The literature review should cover the breadth of the field related to your research topic, report on and evaluate a few selected studies, and relate these to the topic/ research problem under investigation.

In the next two weeks, we will spend more time learning how to evaluate research studies. So don’t worry if you are not sure how to go about evaluating a research study now.

6. Write the literature review

You may notice I have used this section as the guide to develop your first assignment. You will practice writing literature reviews when you complete your first assignment. In fact, the literature review assignment will wrap up the material covered to date.

Please read chapter five of the required textbook (DePoy & Gitlin, 1998) for details. Chapter 3 from Bailey (1997) is a good reminder of how you can make use of the results of the literature review to refine your research problem, firm up your research questions or purpose for the research.

The learning objectives for these two weeks are to:

• Explain why the literature review has to be carried out • Conduct a literature review effectively • Evaluate a given literature review according to the prompts

Essential readings: DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (1998). Introduction to research: understanding and applying multiple strategies. St Louis: Mosby. (Chapter five)

Bailey, D. M. (1997). Research for the health professional: A practical guide. Philadephia: F. A. Davis.

Clark, C. A., Corcoran, M., & Gitlin, L. N. (1995). An exploratory study of how occupational therapists develop therapeutic relationships with family caregivers. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49, 587-594.

Recommended readings: Ernest, M., Burton, H., & Keenleside, J. (1978). The literature review: An integral part of the research process. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45, 107-109.

### Learning activities/study questions

Learning activities/study questions

1. Read chapter five from the required textbook (DePoy & Gitlin, 1998) and chapters 2 and 3 from Bailey (1997).

This exercise is about searching the literature. It has been modified from the worksheet in Bailey (1997, p.21-23).

Write down your research problem and main subject areas that you want to conduct a literature review on.

Locate a convenient library, may be the hospital library, public library or university library.

Visit the library and familiarise yourself with the following:

Card catalogue Reference librarian Reference section (where the indexes and abstracts are held) Periodical/ journal section List of periodicals/ journals (those are related to your research problem) held by that library Location of photo-copying machines Location of CD Rom database section (where you may do the computer search)

Do a hand search (Bailey, 1997, p.13-16) on the research problem and main subject areas: Decide which indexes and abstracts are the most appropriate for your topic. Briefly record the results of the search here.

Do a computer search (Bailey, 1997, p.16-17): Decide on the database most appropriate for your topic. Record the terms used for the searching Briefly record the results of the search. It is useful to learn how to print or download the results.

2. Evaluating the quality of a literature review (we’ll evaluate the quality of the whole research article or report in the next two-week block).

Please read the whole article by Clark, Corcoran & Gitlin (1995) and critically evaluate the section on literature review (pp 587-588) using the following prompts: • Is the research problem clearly described? Comment. Problem is the larger issue that need to be addressed.

• Are the purposes for the research clearly indicated? Comment. Purposes are what the researcher hopes to accomplish as a result of the study. Does the researcher want to review and change the practice? Or does the researcher intend to gain a better understanding of something or do they want to gain insights which will help them interpret things differently?

• Is the significance for the study clearly stated? Comment. Significance is related to the “why bother doing it” question. What are the potential benefits if the study is done?

• Is the research question clearly indicated? Comment. The question or hypothesis is the statement that contains all the specific variables the researcher wishes to study. The research question places the variables in a relationship to one another that is supported by the literature.

• How is the methodology of the study informed and guided by the literature review?

5 Evaluate research done by others

## Evaluate research done by others

### Introduction

Introduction

The last two weeks showed why and how the literature review should be completed. In this block we will move on to examine how a research work or report can be critically reviewed. Critically evaluating the literature is included as part of the literature review process (DePoy & Gitlin, 1998).

When evaluating research conducted by others, it is important to realise that:

1. The criteria used to critique experimental study are different from that used for naturalistic inquiry. 2. The criteria used to critique naturalistic inquiry or qualitative research are strongly related to the concept of “rigor” (the term was used by Krefting, 1991 and Gliner, 1994). 3. The criteria used to critique experimental studies tend to be more technical and require understanding of some statistical concepts. This paper is aimed at understanding the concepts rather than the mathematical computation as such. The statistical concepts will be dealt with again in more depth in the workshop in February next year.

The learning objectives for these two weeks are to:

• Explain key concepts used to critique experimental study and naturalistic inquiry. • Identify key strategies used to critique research conducted by others. • Apply the strategies to critically evaluate given research articles.

## Evidence Based Research

There are a number of evidence based databases that are easily accessed on the Internet.

The most well known one is the Cochrane [3]database.

There is also the Pedro database for Physiotherapy [4]althouggh it does have some topics which apply to Occupational Therapy.

Essential readings: DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (1998). Introduction to research: understanding and applying multiple strategies. St Louis: Mosby. (Table 5-3: Questions for analysis of research, page 58)

Royeen, C. B. (1997). A research primer in occupational and physical therapy. Mayland: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Cohen, H. (1988). How to read a research paper. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42, 596-600.

Finlay, L. (1997). Evaluating research articles. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 60, 205-208.

Gliner, J. A. (1994). Reviewing qualitative research: Proposed criteria for fairness and rigor. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 14, 78-89.

Kopelowicz, A., Wallace, C., & Zarate, R. (1998). Teaching psychiatric inpatients to re-enter the community: A brief method of improving the community of care. Psychiatric Services, 49, 1313-1316.

Recommended readings: Jerosch-Herold, C. (1998). Evidence-based practice-how to critically appraise a research paper part I. Assessing the purpose and methods of a study. Journal of Hand Therapy, 3, 18-20.

Jerosch-Herold, C. (1998). Evidence-based practice-how to critically appraise a research paper part II. Interpreting the findings and their applicability to practice. Journal of Hand Therapy, 3, 8-9.

Krefting, L. (1991). Rigor in qualitative research: The assessment of trustworthiness. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45, 271-222.

### Learning activities/study questions

Learning activities/study questions

1. When reading Royeen (1997), List the words that you don’t understand. Please bring this list of words to the first workshop and we’ll spend time in clarifying these terms.

2. Using the work by Royeen (1997, p.66) as the main guideline, critically evaluate the research conducted by Kopelowicz, Wallace, and Zarate (1998). Cohen (1988) and Finlay (1997) are useful references here for additional prompts.

Please fax or email your critique (fax 03-474-0238) to me before 22/11/2000. I am happy for you to complete your critique in point form as opposed to essay.

3. Using the work by DePoy and Gitlin (1998, p.58 evaluations of naturalistic study or qualitative research) as the main guideline, critically evaluate the research conducted by Clark, Corcoran & Gitlin (1995) in this workbook Chapter 4 (see page 25). Gliner (1994) is a useful reference here for additional prompts.

Please fax or email your critique (fax 03-474-0238) to me before 22/11/2000. It is fine by me if you do the critique in point form.

A final note before we all run away for our summer break… in your leisure time during the holiday, it will be useful if you can think and decide on the research problem or topic that you will write your proposal on. Think about it if you can!

## Research in Occupational Therapy

### Introduction

Introduction

 We will start by examining the trend of qualitative (or naturalistic inquiry used in DePoy and Gitlin, 1998) and quantitative methods in occupational therapy research.


I invite you to think about a research problem or topic that interests you. I hope by now, you are fairly clear about the research problem you wish to investigate, and you will write a research proposal on that topic. When we meet in the workshop, we will spend some time to talk about it.

The learning objectives for these two weeks are to:

• Identify the research methods commonly used in occupational therapy research • Assess the matching of research questions and methods in occupational therapy research.

Bird, S., Nicholls, G., & White, E. (1995). An overview of the research methodologies available to the occupational therapist and an outline of the research process. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58, 510-516.

Wright, R. (1998). Research pathways for occupational therapists: Taking our own road. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 418-422.

Ottenbacher, K., & Petersen, P. (1985). Quantitative trends in occupational therapy research: Implications for practice and education. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 39, 240-246.

Recommended readings: Tse, S., Yeats, M., & Walsh, A. E. S. (1999). A single case study: Striving for stability and work- “it’s a real bastard of a disease”. Work, Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. 12, 151-157.

Magill, J., & Barton, L. (1985). Single subject research designs in occupational therapy literature. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 53-58.

### Learning activities/study questions

Learning activities/study questions

This learning activity is about identifying factors which may shape the selection of research methods/designs in occupational therapy research or indeed, in any health research.

Literature sources Factors that shape the selection of research methods/designs Bird, Nicholls & White (1995)

Wright (1998)

Ottenbacher & Petersen (1985)

Any other factors that may shape the selection of research methods. Try to stretch your imagination. Widening to the field of health and educational research may help. For example, from your impressions when scanning through occupational therapy literature, experiences/observation at work, government policies, newsletters from research funding agencies etc.

## Experimental-type designs in occupational therapy practice

and for a more detailed breakdown see [5]

### Sampling Methods

#### Sample size

There is a very good discussion of sample size here [6]

and some sample size calculators at [7] [8] [9]

## Preparing a Research Proposal

You should be think now about what you would like to research and putting together a proposal.

I suggest that you have a look at the Health Research Council (HRC) website to see how they like a request for funding to be set out as it provides a good template for setting your thinking out in a formal way. [10]

You might also look at these other resources.

Insert resource materials for tools, power sample, basic stats programs.

### Surveys

#### Sampling

c

DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (1998). Introduction to research: understanding and applying multiple strategies. St Louis: Mosby. Chapter 8, pp. 100-105; Chapters 10 and 14

Wright, R. (1998). Research pathways for occupational therapists: Taking our own road. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 418-422.

### Learning activities/study questions

Learning activities/study questions

I think I want to leave you in peace and quiet to do the assigned readings. DePoy and Gitlin are good writers, they express their ideas very clearly, and have a easy to follow writing style. EXCEPT...

The only task is to complete the following table for quick reference in the future (Read chapter 10 of the required text). The table in DePoy and Gitlin (1998) p.129 is too brief and vague, you can do better than that!

Fax your work, (workbook pages 39-41) to Samson Tse, School of Occupational Therapy, Otago Polytechnic by 2.00 pm, Tuesday 13 March 2001. Fax number: 03 474-0238

Key features Endogenous research Participatory action research Critical theory Phenomenology What is the theoretical origin of this design? (this is a very pertinent question to ask if you want to develop a good understanding of the design) What are the specific purposes of this design? (use your own words)

How participants are selected?

How the information/ data is collected?

What are the roles of researcher? (Also read DePoy & Gitlin, 1998, pp. 212-213)

Any other critical features?

Key features Heuristic Life history Ethnography Grounded theory What is the theoretical origin of this design? (This is a very pertinent question to ask if you want to develop a good understanding of the design) What are the specific purposes of this design? (Use your own words)

How the participants selected?

How the information/ data is collected?

What are the roles of researcher? (Also read DePoy & Gitlin, 1998 pp. 212-213)

Any other critical features?

## Use of case study designs in occupational therapy research

### Introduction

Introduction

Case study (I use this term in a generic way, later on I will clarify the terminology used in case study designs) is a detailed description and analysis of a single event, situation, person, group, and organisation within its own context. A case study can involve a unit such as an individual or an entire community which is made up of many individuals. Case study was the most popular mode of clinical investigation during the first half of the twentieth century but it fell into dispute because it was regarded as unscientific (French, 1997). However as I argue throughout this paper, no particular research methodologies are inferior or superior to others and this argument applies to case study too. Case study is particularly useful for development of a theory, posing a hunch on a phenomenon or newly proposed clinical treatment, investigating how a person with an unusual background or health condition responded to occupational therapy.

Case study is a strategy that belongs to both methodological domains - experimental study or naturalistic inquiry. Therefore it is timely to introduce you to this method after we have just finished the study of experimental and naturalistic study.

Case study has a lot of variations in its designs and there is confusion over the terms used in the field. Some clarification of terminology is necessary here (Royeen, 1997):

Clinical case study or case study research: In-depth and systematic reporting on a single case or cases. It has few features: • no baseline measurement prior to intervention • little control on variables or confounding factors • a qualitative, expanded description of the case(s) under study

Single subject research (or single subject design): Single subject research has a long tradition in the discipline of behavioural psychology. The original meaning of this term ONLY refers to experimental-type study. It never includes narrative, descriptive study or naturalistic inquiry.

CONFUSION arises when authors use the term of single subject research or case study to include experimental and non-experimental study. This is classified as a form of quasi-experimental research. It has few features: • 'n=1' research (one case/person or one unit of behaviour involving multiple cases) • applied behavioural observation/ analysis • time series methodology (ie., follow up the individual over time, with manipulation in the treatment and measurement procedures) • take baseline measurement provide treatment take another measurement (known as ABA design) OR • take baseline measurement provide treatment & take measurement stop treatment & take measurement re-start treatment & measure again (known as ABAB design)

The learning objectives for these two weeks are to: • Understand the terminology used. • Describe the research procedures (data collection and analysis) of this design. • Evaluate critically the strengths and limitations of this design. • Discuss how case study designs (generic term) can be applied in students' daily practice.

Royeen, C. B. (1997). A research primer in occupational and physical therapy. Mayland: American Occupational Therapy Association. (pp. 163-168)

DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (1998). Introduction to research: understanding and applying multiple strategies. St Louis: Mosby. Chapter 11

Please bear in mind the clarification of terminology I made in the 'introduction' of this block when reading DePoy and Gitlin (1998) and the rest of the readings assigned here.

Colborn, A. P. (1996). A case for case study research. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50, 592-594.

DeSouza, L, H. (1997). One case at a time. Physiotherapy, 83, 107-108.

Christie, A., & Robertson, S. (1993). Katie, a child with autism: An occupational therapy case history. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 3-10.

Robertson, S. (1993). Commentary: Katie, a child with autism. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 11-12.

These two articles are the classical pieces of work in using case study method in New Zealand occupational therapy literature. It provides a detailed, extensive description on the child and interventions provided. The data collection and analysis was carried out in a meticulous fashion.

### Learning activities/study questions

Learning activities/study questions

1 During the tele-conference, we'll have a debate on this topic:

'In the twenty-first century, there is no place for case study method in health research'

2. Please describe how a case study as a research methodology can be used in your work.

2.1. Describe the research question. Be specific.

2.2. Outline how the case study methodology will be applied in this situation.

2.3. What are the measurements involved – describe how data will be collected?

2.4. What are the pros and cons of using case study methodology for the research question that you state in 2.1?

## Statistical Methods

This part of the course will examine some basic statistical concepts and then proceed to explore some common tests used in quantitative methodology

## Ethical considerations in health research

### Introduction

Introduction

This block of learning, as the last but not the least topic of this study guide focuses on the aspect of ethics in health research. The readings provided here are fairly comprehensive covering different ethical issues. Sandy Elkin, a lecturer in the department of occupational therapy who has completed post-graduate studies in health ethics will join us in the tele-conference.

The learning objectives for these two weeks are to: • Describe the basic ethical codes in health research • Be able to draft consent form and information sheet according to the standard required (the standards are detailed in the essential readings) • Discuss how the ethical issues are relevant to different research designs • Discuss ways to work with vulnerable groups of research participants.

Seale, J. K., & Barnard, S., (1999). Ethical considerations in therapy research. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62, 371-375.

Scullion, P.(1999). Critiquing the ethical aspects of research. British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 6, 540-544.

Beaver, K., Luker, K., & Woods, S. (1999). Conducting research with the terminally ill: Challenges and considerations. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 15, 13-17.

DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (1998). Introduction to research: understanding and applying multiple strategies. St Louis: Mosby. Chapter 12

Rumrill, P. D., & Bellini, J. (1999). Ethical considerations in reporting and publishing rehabilitation research. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 12, 71-74.

This article examines ethics in reporting research findings which is not very often mentioned in literature. But I believe this topic will be relevant to you sooner or later once you are in the publication mode- either as a theoretical or research piece of work.

### Learning activities/study questions

Learning activities/study questions

1. What are the ethical concerns that may be apparent in the following research designs?

• Action research (see Scullion, 1999 as a starting point)

• Ethnographic research

• Single subject study- involving three cases recovered from traumatic head injury, time series study over six months, ABAB design to investigate the effectiveness of 'friendship enhancement program' run jointly by a occupational therapist and clinical psychologist.

2. What are the ethical concerns and solutions when trying to recruit and involve participants who are (for a starting point, see Beaver, Luker & Woods, 1999)

2.1 adults affected by severe psychiatric illness, in inpatient setting 2.2 children under seven with special needs (physically and/or mentally), living with parents or carers 2.3 beneficiaries on invalid benefit were invited to take part in a trial of work capacity assessment conducted by WINZ (I have had first-hand experience for this one as the 'official' from WINZ, so I am curious as to what you think!)

Ethical concerns: Solutions: Scenario 2.1

Scenario 2.2

Scenario 2.3