Today is : 28, September 2022

Ministry of Information
March 12, 2008

replacement of any radio equipment for the establishment of community radio. Associated organizations and institutions shall fulfill the conditions of BTRC in this regard. Broadcasting activities shall begin only after obtaining the final approval/license. Initially license will be provided for a two year period starting from date of approval as an experimental project. 4.2. Applicants for license must fulfill the following criteria: i. Proven record of community development work for at least five years in the area wished to be served in association of local people with a community radio station; ii. A broad outline of the type of program to be broadcast should be prepared and submitted to the licensing authority. iii. Indication of the level of community’s participation in management structure of the proposed station and its program preparation and broadcasting shall be spelt out in writing. iv. The criteria will also include the sources of funding for the Radio Station. If donor fund is obtained then necessary approval of the NGO Affairs Bureau as per existing law shall have to be obtained. v. Priority will be given to the applicants managed by and/or looking to serve the disadvantaged and backward sections of the population (with special consideration to women). 4.3. Licence Fee: Reasonable license and spectrum fees have been fixed by the government considering the fact that Community Radio is a development initiative and non profit entity. Initially license fee for each station has been decided to be 20,000.00 (Twenty Thousand Taka) [286 US $] and seize-able deposit is 1, 00,000 (One Lac Taka) [1429 US$]. The Government reserves all rights to redefine this fee and deposit at any time. Frequency fees shall be decided by Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC). 5. Technical Structure 5.1. Each Community Radio Station will cover a range of 17 km. from it’s centre. Maximum limit for transmitter power could be 100 watts. The permitted power could be decided on the basis of the licensee’s area of work and/or geographical dispersion of the target audience. In this case an ERP of maximum 250 watts can be considered. Requests for higher transmitter power above 100 watts and up to 250 watts will require approval by the Committee constituted under the Ministry of Information; 5.2 The antenna tower’s height from ground level will not exceed 32 meters. But in sparsely populated areas such as islands, the mentioned height can be restructured with prior approval of the licensing authority to achieve the desired coverage. In all cases antenna gain must be kept limited under 6 DB; 5.3 Frequency shall be allocated in F.M band as per National Frequency Allocation Plan after selecting the place of Community Radio station;

### Community Radio Performance Assessment System (CR-PAS)

Manual for the assessors and the community radios on the concept, tool and practical application

### Acknowledgments

Many people have contributed to develop Community Radio Performance Assessment System (CR-PAS) in different ways. The system would not have been in this form without their contribution. The authors wish to thank the following in particular.

## Performance Assessment System and Indicators

The tool is the core of the CR-PAS. Before describing the tool itself, it is deemed important to recon the major considerations taken into account while designing the system.

### Considerations of the performance assessment system

The CR-PAS is designed taking into consideration of the following:

Acceptance and credibility

The system is developed with intense consultation with the practitioners, experts and other stakeholders. The good practices, norms, and practical reality are included to enhance acceptance. The assessment will be done with independent professionals to ensure credibility.

Practicality and simplicity

The system and indicators are simple and easy to measure. The scoring system is objective to make it further simpler and understandable to all interested. The assessment can be done in a couple of days in a radio to make the system practical to carry out assessment radios across the country. As far as possible the system is designed in such a way that the assessment process is cost effective.

Comprehensive and focused

The system attempts to cover all performance areas of the community radios. At the same time it focuses on a few, but the key, indicators that are critical to development of a true community radio. Performance measures are realistic, achievable and objectively verifiable, i.e. clearly defined, but still sufficiently demanding to promote improvements.

Weightage based on importance

Scoring system is designed in such a way that the more important areas of performance and the more critical indicators are allocated higher scores than others. The importance is assigned by the people managing and promoting community radio themselves.

Positive reinforcement

The system is designed to provide incentive to better performers, and to show improvement areas for those who could not do well in the assessment.

Measurement of accountability

The system attempts to measure those aspects that are directly under the control of the radio station, and those that are directly associated to the accountability of the radios. Therefore there are more of process indicators for measurement – the areas of impact are intentionally left out since the impacts generally are not attributable to a single entity.

### The community radio performance measurement tool

The indicators are identified in seven composites that comprise the various key areas of performance. A total of 100 score is divided among the composites, which varies across the composites based on their importance. Total minimum score for the radio is 35 out of 100 scores, and a successful radio must obtain the specified minimum scores separately in each composite. The category of the radio is ascertained based on the total score obtained (with minimum score in each composite). The tool is described in the following section.

#### Composites and weightage

The table below gives the total score to different composites and minimum required score for each composite.

 Composite and Indicators Composite score Minimum required score Participation and ownership 20 7 Radio governance 15 5 Radio programs 25 8 Resource structure and resource management 15 5 Radio station management 10 4 Financial management 10 4 Networking 5 2 Total 100 35

The community radios will be categorized based on the following scores each secures in the performance assessment system.

 Category Score Comment Model Community Radio 80 and above Performing Community Radio 60 - 79 Progressing Community Radio 45 - 59 Evolving Community Radio 35 - 44 Failing to be Community Radio Less than score 35

Note:

• If a radio scores high in total but fails to secure minimum scores in one or two clusters will be grouped as the immediately lower category. For example if a radio obtains 65 as total score but fails get minimum score in a cluster will be categorized as “progressing”.
• If a radio secures minimum 35 marks but fails in one or some clusters then it will still be groped in “evolving” category.

#### Indicators and corresponding score

The following indicators are identified in each composite.

Composite 1: Participation and ownership (Total score 20)

 Indicators Score # The radio has defined, and publicly announced, its community for its broadcasting purpose. 2 # The provision of membership is open for all persons belonging to the defined community, and the radio publicly invites all to take membership from time to time. 2 # The structure of the general assembly members should be inclusive reflecting the composition of the target population in terms of their class, ethnic, linguistic, gender and geographic characteristics. 4 # The radio has put in practice the system and mechanism of deciding the membership fees in consultation with the people in the defined community. 2 # Radio organizes at least a public hearing event each year in different locations/clusters of the targeted geographic area. 3 # Radio has clearly defined the role, responsibility, and working guideline relating to volunteers and the amount of their contribution in radio operations such as program, accounting, resource mobilization, and station management, and the status of which is assessed in routine review meetings. 3 # A structural mechanism is designed to receive suggestion, feedback and comments on a continuous basis from different groups (ethnic, class, gender, occupation) of people, and it is functional. 4

Composite 2: Radio governance (Total score 15)

Composite 3: Radio programs (Total score 25)

Composite 4: Resource structure & resource management (Total score 15)

 Indicators Score # A separate unit is created for resource mobilization, and it is functional. 2 # CR has assessed local resource potentials and has prepared annual plan for resource mobilization. 2 # The actual volume of local resource mobilized should be equal to or more than 80 percent of the projected amount (target) set out in the annual plan. 3 # The radio’s income from advertisement from traditional commodity market is less than 50 percent of the total income from operations for the year. 2 # No any single source (individual or organization, company, or firm) has more than 15% share in the radio’s total income from operations. 2 # The income from innovative and creative sources is at an increase as compared to the average of the past three year’s income from such sources. 3 # Radio carries out an assessment of the structure of its resource and its mobilization status at least once every three months. 1

Composite 5: Radio station management (Total score 10)

 Indicators Score # A written manual (or guideline) for station management is prepared and is in operation. 1 # A written human resource development plan exists 1 # The radio has defined station management (departmental) structure, division of work, authority and responsibility in writing. 1 # The staff members (and volunteers) working at the station are provided with written appointment letter clearly specifying responsibility, authority, and compensation thereof. 1 # The radio station is running according to the annual plans prepared in at least three aspects – program, physical resource mobilization, and human resource development. 1 # A routine schedule for equipment maintenance is prepared and work is going on accordingly. 1 # A written system is developed and is in implemented in practice for providing incentive and opportunities to staff based on assessment of their performance. 1 # Personal file of staff members is maintained. 1 # Staff meeting takes place with pre-determined agenda regularly and timely as specified in the calendar of operations. 1 # Review and assessment should be done as to what happened with the decisions of previous staff meetings. 1

Composite 6: Financial management (Total score 10)

 Indicators Score # A clear financial policy is issued and is in force that clearly specifies where the income from operations and donations will be used. 2 # Inventory of goods and equipments are maintained, periodically inspected and regularly updated. 1 # Bank account is opened in the name of the radio organization and financial transactions are done through it. 2 # Cash flow plan is prepared and is effectively used (less deviance) 1 # Depreciation of the physical equipments, machinery and vehicles is accounted for and a reserve fund for the same is created. 2 # Radio publishes the status of its monthly incomes and expenditures. 1 # Radio analyzes its financial situation every month. 1

Composite 7: Networking (Total score 5)

 Indicators Score # A clear policy with regard to participating in networks is developed and practice of refining/improving it is done from time to time. 1 # For institutional strengthening, the radio has established partnership with a variety of network partners (advocacy, capacity development, resource mobilization, intellectual resource mobilization) and active working relation is maintained with them. 2 # Radio is pro-actively engaged in movements for social transformation in collaboration with different community and organizations 2

The performance assessment guideline with explanation of the indicators, source of information for assessment, means of verification and the basis of scoring is provided in following section.

## Chapter 3

### Performance Assessment Guideline

The process and the method of assessment with explanation of each indicator, the source of information, means of verification, and scoring table is provided in this section.

#### Composite 1: Participation and Ownership

1. The radio has defined, and publicly announced, its community for its broadcasting purpose.

Explanation of the indicator

As the concept of community radio implies Community radios are based on certain community and they are for them. A true community radio must therefore focus on the identified community, for which the radio should clearly define the target community. Some tend to claim that the target community for a radio is the area covered by the broadcasting signal, which is not correct definition of the community of a community radio. The community could be defined in terms of, for example, geographic area, gender (women focused, transsexuals), occupational groups (agriculture, tourism), excluded groups (Dalits, Tharus), and interest groups (human rights, and environment protection).

Source of information and basis of assessment

The target community should be reflected in the vision, mission, goal or similar statement in the constitution of CR, and in strategic plan if available, or in a publicly announced document (brochure, profile, bulletin or broadcast log). Assess whether it is comprehensively defined in terms of geographic and other stakeholder. For example, the definition is comprehensive if a radio says its community is dalit or women and specifies the geographic area as well.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The target community is clearly spelled out and defined specifically 2 It is spelled out but it is defined loosely or in general terms (not specific) 1 Not defined at all 0

2. The provision of membership is open for all persons belonging to the defined community, and the radio publicly invites all to take membership from time to time.

Explanation of the indicator

A true Community radio must keep the door for membership open to all interested persons belonging to the defined community of the radio. In this sense the radio should be a broad-based institution representing the community it intends to serve, or identify itself as a part. Therefore the membership should not be closed as it would result into exclusion of non-members, which suggests that the radio is not a broad-based institution. Similarly, as management good practice would suggest, it is the duty of the radio itself to inform community people that the membership is open, and request all to be a member.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Assess compliance of the indicator in operating manual (whether adequately the provision is mentioned in the manual, by-laws and policy), meeting minutes (if decisions are made to this effect), and communication media used (newspaper, notice board, letters to stakeholders, radio broadcast record etc to let people know) to announce the same. The Source of information is the station manager who can provide relevant document(s).

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Provision is made for open membership to all and announcement is made through various means 2 Provision is there but announcement is only nominal 1 Either there is no provision or the radio has not announced publicly 0

3. The structure of the general assembly members should be inclusive reflecting the composition of the target population in terms of their class, ethnic, linguistic, gender and geographic characteristics.

Explanation of the indicator

A representative media such as community radio should be broad based; and should be guided and controlled by the representative of the community it is serving. An internationally accepted norm is that radio becomes inclusive and owned by the broader community if its members come from different walks of life in the community. The radio general assembly should therefore include all types of stakeholders representing the class, ethnic, linguistic, gender and geographic characteristics of the target population. Ideally the composition of the target population should correspond to the composition of the members of the community radio. For example, if the CR is dedicated to women then it should be seen that whether the women members come from all community clusters, from different ethnic groups and the like. Similarly if it is Dalit focused CR then see if the council members come from all castes of Dalits, Dalit women, and Dalit people from nooks and corners should be represented as members.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the list of members (with name, age, sex, class, address, occupation, ethnic group), and the composition of the population in the defined community from community radio board secretariat. Analyze the composition of general assembly members to see whether they represent different stakeholders from far off and closer locations, age group, sex, ethnicity and occupational groups.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The general assembly is highly inclusive. This means the composition of the general assembly members corresponds to the composition of the stakeholders of different type (i.e., caste, class, ethnicity, geography, women, etc) 4 The general assembly is inclusive. This means at least some assembly members come from all the different types of stakeholders 2 Assembly does not represent the composition of the community 0

4. The radio has put in practice the system and mechanism of deciding the membership fees in consultation with the people in the defined community.

Explanation of the indicator

Membership fee can be exclusionary to certain groups of population; particularly poor people find the membership fees to be beyond their access when it is fixed by well off ones. Therefore the membership fee should be fixed after having a thorough consultation with different groups of stakeholders.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Check whether sufficient consultation has taken place before fixing the membership fees. The process can be termed as consultative if consultation with people at different geographic regions (settlements, villages inn east, west, south and north direction), with different groups of stakeholders (women, dalits, rich, poor, and indigenous people) as much as possible has been conducted. The radio should be able to provide document evidence (minutes of meetings and suggestions from different groups of stakeholders) that consultative process has been adopted.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The process is highly consultative (5 or more consultative events organized at different places) 2 The process is consultative (more than 2 to 4 consultative events organized at different places) 1 It is not consultative, or only one or two consultative events are organized 0

5. Radio organizes at least a public hearing event each year in different locations/clusters of the targeted geographic area.

Explanation of the indicator

Public hearing is a proven good-governance measure. It helps boost image, and win trust and confidence, of a community organization among public. Since community radios are for and from community regular public hearing is an effective tool to gauze (monitor) what the community wants. It also helps CR garner popular support for operation, maintenance and growth of CRs. Therefore CRs should divide the target group into appropriate physical areas to carry out public hearing. The minimum agenda of the public hearing should be whether and to what extent the radio has been raising pertinent issues (on holistic development such as social, economic, human, cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and others) and what issues it should take up in the future.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain document evidence that the radio has divided its community for this purpose in appropriate geographic clusters, and proof that public hearing exercise in those community segments have been carried out. Obtain evidence that the radio had informed the public well in advance. In addition, analyze whether the participants of the public had come from different walks of lives. Seek evidence such as meeting decision regarding the locations of public hearing, public announcement for public hearing, the minutes of the public hearing events, and suggestions obtained from the events.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Public hearing is duly done fulfilling all these conditions: a) were conducted in many locations; b) in presence of stakeholders from different interest groups; c) public is informed well ahead; d) the agenda is sufficiently discussed 3 Public hearing is done fulfilling two to three conditions 2 Public hearing is done fulfilling only one of the conditions 1 Public hearing is not done at all 0

6. Radio has clearly defined the role, responsibility, and working guideline relating to volunteers and the amount of their contribution in radio operations such as program, accounting, resource mobilization, and station management, and the status of which is assessed in routine review meetings.

Explanation of the indicator

Whereas community radios must mobilize volunteers in their operation, they must also distinguish volunteers from regular staff. Volunteers can be of different types (part time, full time; program producer, fund raising; etc). They have specific roles, responsibilities, authorities, tenure, and rewards. It is healthy to make a use volunteers differently in different aspects of management. For example in programs a heavier involvement of volunteers may be acceptable, but not as well in accounting. Therefore it is desirable to define the proportion of volunteers’ involvement vis-à-vis salaried staff in at least radio programs, accounting, resource mobilization, and station management.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Check for documented evidence from the station: a) the proportion of volunteers vis-à-vis paid staff; b) if a volunteer mobilization policy exists; c) where it exists how far the roles, responsibilities, authorities, tenure and remuneration are defined; d) whether the proportion of volunteers involvement in the said aspects of management defined; and e) if review is done about the involvement of volunteers in management of the station.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Proportion of volunteers is 20% or more (point a) and the radio fulfils 3 or 4 of the other conditions (point b to e) 3 Proportion of volunteers is 20% or more (point a) but the radio doesn't fulfil 3 or 4 of the other conditions (point b to e); or proportion of volunteer is 10 to 20% and the radio fulfils 3 or 4 of the other conditions 2 The radio fulfils less than the above conditions 0

7. A structural mechanism is designed to receive suggestion, feedback and comments on a continuous basis from different groups (ethnicity, class, gender, occupation) of people, and it is functional.

Explanation of the indicator

Community radio should be in close contact with the community it serves to obtain feedback, comments, and suggestions on the programs and activities of the radio. Radios should therefore establish a vibrant structural mechanism, and mobilize the mechanism actively to fulfill the envisaged role. The structural mechanism could be in the form of “Radio’s Friends”, “Radio Support Clubs”, “Resource Mobilization Groups”, “Local Monitoring Groups”, or in similar other name. Such a mechanism (groups/clubs) should be in place and active all the time for a good community radio.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Document related to the formation of the mechanism are the basis of measuring this indicator. The radio station should be able to provide information as to a) where these groups/clubs are with what membership strength, b) what do they do to be active, c) the role and relationship of the group/club and the radio, d) the system to feedback and comments, and if exchange of feedback, comments and suggestions are taking place regularly; and e) record of joint initiatives. Note that these groups/clubs are mostly independent (therefore not the structures under the radio) but they are the official ‘Eyes and Ears’ of the radio to constantly be in touch with the community it intends to serve. The indicator demands a formal structure (meaning that there are documented evidences) and does not accept informal mechanism to link with community. The evidences could be radio decision to acknowledge the formation of the mechanism, the decisions of the mechanism, and reporting of the activities of these groups.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Structural mechanism is in place in many locations (representing the different geographic and/or stakeholder representatives), and are active 4 Structural mechanism is in only few locations, and are active 2 Structural mechaism are there but not active 1 Structural mechanism are not established yet 0

1. A separate guideline for the operation of radio is prepared in participation, consultation and involvement of stakeholders and it is followed in practice.

Explanation of the indicator

A separate radio operational guideline should be prepared and made effective. The operational guideline should be prepared in participation, consultation and involvement of stakeholders. The stakeholders to be consulted are the radio clubs/groups in different locations, the civil society organizations, and professional groups.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Ensure that there is a separate guideline (or manual, or by-law) to carry out radio operation (it should be noted that the operational guideline prepared for the sponsoring agency cannot be termed as separate operational guideline for the radio unless the radio is the exclusive program of the sponsoring agency). Analyze documents that have records of stakeholder consultations done before finalizing the guideline. Look for evidence in the radio that the management consults the operating guideline (such as, reference to it in correspondence, or discussion in meetings about provisions of the guideline).

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Guideline exists, which was prepared in broad consultation 1 Either a guideline does not exist or is not prepared in broad consultation 0

2. General assembly of radio takes place in specified time and interval.

Explanation of the indicator

The general assembly takes place in specified time and interval as mentioned in the constitution or manual.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Study record of the previous general assembly, or plan for coming general assembly and tally the time with the provision mentioned in the constitution or manual. If the radio is new and the general assembly time has not exceeded then give the radio full marks for this performance measure.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score General assembly takes place in time (not more than 3 months overdue) 1 It does not take place in time 0

3. Office holders in the management board are elected following a democratic election process.

Explanation of the indicator

Radio managing board (or in any other name such as radio board or management committee) should be formed through democratic processes. That means most of the officials and members should be elected (not nominated) duly from the general assembly. The operational guideline should clearly mention about the democratic process.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Study the procedure in which the managing board is formed, and the constitution of radio management.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The board is democratically formed 1 Not democratically formed 0

4. At least 80 percent of the members of the radio management board should come from people who are not involved in partisan politics and who have no business interests.

Explanation of the indicator

Community radio should be free from undue influence of any group interests. There is high possibility of community radio getting gradually influenced by political power, and financial powers. Therefore a high majority of the board members of the community radio should come from non-partisan politicians and people having no business interests. For the purpose of this performance measure a person is not involved in partisan politics when s/he is not an active member working in political party committees at different levels, and considered to have no business interest when s/he is not active in chamber of commerce and industries.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain a list of the board members and seek evidence from the radio to prove that 80% or more members belong to groups having no partisan political and business interests.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score 80% or more board members have no partisan political and business interests 1 Less than 80% members have no partisan political and business interests 0

5. Different committees are formed according to the defined organization structure.

Explanation of the indicator

An accepted good practice in management of organizations is formation of committees for checks and balance. Especially finance and audit committee, fund raising committee, volunteer mobilization committee, planning and programming committee, and monitoring and evaluation committee are some common examples. This indicator intends that Radio organization structure includes the formation of committees, and that these committees are active.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Formation of committees can be confirmed by the decision of the Board, and copies of appointment letter given to the committee members. To ensure that these committees are active their meeting minutes should be checked – if the committees sit at least two times a year, and inform their decisions to appropriate official, then they should be regarded active for this purpose.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score At least two committees are formed, and they are active 2 Committees are formed but they are not active 1 Committees are not formed at all 0

6. A code of conduct for office bearers in leadership positions and staff members is announced and reviewed at least twice a year to see whether it is duly implemented in practice.

Explanation of the indicator

Code of conduct is a means to discipline the behavior of management and staff of an organization. Therefore the radio should define code of conduct and review or assess at least twice a year whether the concerned individuals are following the code of conduct.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Existence of the code of conduct, and document confirming that review and assessment takes place to document whether it is followed as intended.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Code of conduct is issued and review and assessment is done at least twice a year 1 Either a code of conduct is not prepared or an assessment is not done as required 0

7. Radio management board meeting takes place with pre-determined agenda regularly and timely as specified in the calendar of operation.

Explanation of the indicator

Meeting of the radio management board should take place regularly. As good practice it is desirable to have a meeting calendar. The meetings should take place a) according to the meeting calendar, and b) the agenda of the meeting is shared to the members well in advance of the meeting.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Study the meeting dates, and correspondence regarding the meeting agenda to confirm whether meeting agenda is circulated in advance.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Board meeting of the radio: a) takes place in regular intervals and b) agenda is circulated in advance 1 Any one or both of the two conditions are not met 0

8. Plan is formulated based on vision, mission and strategies, and it is in implementation.

Explanation of the indicator

Organizations are effective if they have defined their vision, mission and strategies, and when plans are prepared taking these as guidelines. Therefore CR should also have annual plans based on longer term vision, mission, and strategies.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain annual plan and ask for its link with the vision, mission and strategies.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Annual plan reflects the direction and spirit of the vision, mission and strategies 2 Annual plan does not reflect the direction and spirit 1 Either vision, mission and strategies are not defiined or annual plan not prepared 0

9. Annual workplan is approved with allocated budget for the line items and work is being done accordingly.

Explanation of the indicator

A workplan helps an organization with targets and activities to be accomplished in a given year. It is also motivator to staff. Therefore the radio must prepare annual workplan, and it should clearly set aside budget for envisaged activities.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the annual workplan and budget for analysis, and see whether the conditions are complied with. The annual workplan and budget should be approved by board or general assembly as per the radio constitution or management guideline.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Workplan is issued and budget for envisaged activities is allocated 1 Workplan is not prepared or activities are planned without allocating budget 0

10. A system is developed, and is functional, to inform the public about the policies and decisions within 24 hours of their adoption.

Explanation of the indicator

Community radios must be open-books to its public. Therefore, the decisions and policies it has taken should be in public knowledge. The radio itself should make such arrangements that the policies and decisions are made publicly transparent as soon as they are adopted.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Review two meeting decisions in random and ask for evidence (copy of the published material, or record of broadcast etc) of making them public within 24 hours of their adoption.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Policies and decisions are made public within 24 hours of their adoption 1 They are not 0

11. Radio discloses its accounts and financial status to public at least twice a year.

Explanation of the indicator

Community radio must disclose their financial status to public it serves. Therefore CRs should assess the actual financial position at least twice a year and then make it public. It serves two purposes – a) the management knows their financial status and where they should focus for resource mobilization, and b) the tendency for the uninvolved community member to question whether incoming funds are actually spent for proper and agreed purposes, is regularly responded to in this way, making an end to justifiable public worries; c) the public becomes more supportive when it knows how the radio is meeting its financing needs, which generates confidence and community ownership.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain evidence (copy of the published material, notice, or record of broadcast) that the CR has assessed the financial status and made the status known to public. There should be meeting minutes that confirms that financial position is assessed, and evidence that the financial position is disclosed to public through various means such as radio broadcasting, press release, notice boards etc.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The financial status is made public twice a year 1 It is not made public 0

12. Radio has adopted a policy that it sticks with the principle of inclusion and positive discrimination and is work is being done accordingly.

Explanation of the indicator

Community Radio should be inclusive and adopt a policy of positive discrimination. This policy of inclusion and positive discrimination should be reflected in the way in which the board is composed, in human resource management policy, and policy regarding program production and broadcasted. Stipulation of the policy in writing alone would not be considered sufficient therefore there should be mechanism wherein the radio itself scrutinizes how far the policy is applied in practice.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain evidence from the radio. There should be statements to this effect in policy documents such as directives, program production and broadcasting policy, and human resource management policy). Obtain if there is any evidence that the policy is reviewed and discussions take place in these aspects. Then analyze to what extent the policy is reflected in the composition of board, human resource, and programs.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Conducive policy is formulated and followed as seen in board, HRM, and programs 2 Policy is formulated but the board, human resource and programs do not reflect the same 1 Policy is yet to be formulated 0

1. Radio should dedicate in general 15 to 25 percent of its broadcasting time for news and informative programs, 25 to 35 percent for educational and 40 to 60 percent for musical programs.

Explanation of the indicator

Community radios should observe the established norms with regard to the mix content and proportion of different types of programs they broadcast.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Analyze the program grid and the record of 7-days programs broadcast by the radio

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The air-time of the radio programs are within the range as specified 2 One type of programs is out of the range 1 More than one type of programs are out of range 0

2. Radio regularly holds a review meeting at least once every four months for taking program decisions, their monitoring and improvement.

Explanation of the indicator

Formation of a mechanism for program decisions, monitoring and improvement alone is not sufficient; it should also be actively delivering its duties. An important measure of active mechanism is review meetings it holds and decisions it makes. Therefore at least a meeting in four month time is considered necessary given the socio-economic and environmental situation in Nepal.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Seek evidence (such as meeting minutes, circulars, suggestions it has given) to confirm that the mechanism is active.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The mechanism has hold meetings regularly in 4 months’ intervals 2 The mechanism meets but the meetings are not hold in regular intervals 1 Such a mechanism is not formed at all 0

3. Radio has announced its program code of conduct and carries out an assessment of the same in review meetings.

Explanation of the indicator

The stakeholders (management, staff and general public) must know the type of programs the radio broadcasts, and what it doesnot. Therefore radio should prepare the norms (code) for programs, and adhere by it. Therefore there is the importance of a program code of conduct.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Analyze the minutes of the review meeting. Make sure that review meeting has taken up review of the program norms (code) as an agenda for discussion and evaluation at least twice a year.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Program norms (code) is issued and review is done at least twice a year 2 Program norms (code) is issued but review is not done as specified 1 Either program norms is not prepared or it is not reviewed 0

4. Radio has publicly called for suggestion from stakeholders and revise program schedule (grid) at least twice a year with their involvement.

Explanation of the indicator

Mechanism set up for program decision, monitoring and improvement should publicly call for suggestions about radio programs from stakeholders. Based on the suggestionsreceived, and in involvement of the stakeholders, it should review and revise the program-grid at least twice a year.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Collect relevant evidence such as radio or published materials, record of the suggestions obtained, minute and improved program grid, etc. Assess whether a) program grid is reviewed and revised twice a year; b) that a public call is made; c) the suggestions are analyzed based on the station’s overall policies, including those ensuring participation by “all communities within the community”; and d) stakeholders are involved in the process of reviewing and revising program grid.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Program is revised twice a year (point a), and other three conditions are met 3 Program grid is revised twice a year (point a) and only two conditions are met 2 Program grid is revised twice a year (point a) and only one condition is met 1 Either program grid is not revised twice a year or it is without meeting any of the other conditions 0

5. Radio carries out impact survey of its programs.

Explanation of the indicator

Community radios must know if they are contributing to social change as intended. Impact evaluation is a means to gauze the contribution of radio programs to bring about positive change in society. Therefore, CRs must carry out one or another kind of impact assessment on a periodic basis.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Document showing that impact assessment is carried out on a periodic basis. It must contain information as to who conducted the impact assessment, how it was done, what were the information source, and what results and conclusions are drawn from it, resulting in which action.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Program impact evaluation is done on a periodic basis 1 Either impact evaluation is not done at all or it is not done on a periodic basis 0

6. With regard to news and information related programs the news policy has clearly specified proportion of broadcasting matters in terms of subject or spatial matters and assessed the same in review meetings

Explanation of the indicator

There are certain norms as to how to design news and information program of a good CR. Therefore the news policy must define the ratio and proportion of the content in terms of subject-matter (political, social, economic, cultural etc) and spatial matters (local, regional, national and international), and that this should be reviewed and assessed in meetings

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the news policy and see whether the ratio and proportion of the news content is defined. Similarly, seek evidence (such as meeting minutes) that the same is discussed, assessed and appropriate action taken.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The news policy specifies the proportion of the content and it is reviewed in meetings 2 The news policy does not specify but evidence are found to show that there are norms relating this 1 It is not complied 0

7. With regard to news and information related programs less than 20 percent of the total time is given to any subject matter out of the total time available for news and information materials

Explanation of the indicator

The news and information materials of a community radio should be balanced. Therefore no any single issue (agriculture, health, education, women, economy, children, employment, forest and environment, human rights, democracy, ethnic righs, Dalits, and so on) should be allocated more than 20% of the total content on news and information.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain broadcasting log of a week in random and analyze the content of the news and information programs in terms of the issue the radio has picked up. Calculate the proportion of the issues to total time.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score No any single issue takes up 20 or more percent of the total time allocated for news and information programs 1 One or more issues cross the limit 0

8. With regard to news and information related programs the station itself produces and broadcasts 100 percent of the news bulletins

Explanation of the indicator

News bulletins of community radio should be tailored with the local interests, priority and identity. Therefore a radio should itself produce and broadcast 100% of its news bulletins (the materials however could be borrowed from different sources).

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain evidence from the radio showing that the editorial policy of the radio mentions about this, and is followed in practice. For this purpose the news magazine programs of other stations broadcast should not be considered as direct broadcasting of news bulletin, therefore take account of only the news bulletin directly broadcasted without editing as per the editorial policy of the radio.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score News bulletins are produced 100% by the radio itself following its editorial policy 2 Not done so 0

9. With regard to educational programs: a) educational program policy has clearly specified proportion of broadcasting matters (such as ideological/theoretical, technical, practical, good practices) and assess the same in review meetings

Explanation of the indicator

There are certain norms as to how to design educational programs of a good CR. Therefore educational program policy must define the ratio and proportion of the content in terms of theoretical, technical, practical and good practices, and that this should be reviewed and assessed in meetings

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain and analyze the educational program policy and see whether the ratio and proportion of the educational program content is defined. Similarly, seek evidence (such as meeting minutes) that the same is discussed, assessed and appropriate action taken.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The educational program policy specifies the proportion of the content and it is reviewed in meetings 2 The ducational program policy does not specify but evidence are found to show that there are norms relating this 1 It is not complied 0

10. With regard to educational program less than 20 percent of the total time is given for any subject matter of the total time for news and information materials

Explanation of the indicator

The educational program materials of a community radio should be balanced. Therefore no single issue (agriculture, health, education, women, economy, children, employment, forest and environment, human rights, democracy, ethnic righs, Dalits, and so on) should be allocated more than 20% of the total content of educational programs;

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain and analyze the educational program policy, program-grid, and program broadcast of a week taken in random.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score No any single issue takes up 20 or more percent of the total time allocated for news and information programs 1 One or more issues cross the limit 0

11. With regard to educational program the radio has specified the proportion of the programs in local languages and assessed the same in review meetings

Explanation of the indicator

Impact of radio program is maximized if they are broadcast in local languages. Radio should specify the ratio of educational programs produced and broadcasted in local languages and the basis upon which the distribution / selection of languages has been carried out.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the educational program policy of the radio and see whether it has specified the proportion of programs broadcast in local languages, and get evidence from program grid or broadcast log that the policy is abided by.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The policy specifies the proportion of programs in local languages and it is followed in practice 2 There is no such policy but the radio produces educational programs in local languages 1 No educational programs are produced in local languages nor such a policy exist 0

12. With regard to musical programs at least 20 percent of the total musical programs is dedicated to folk and traditional programs created by local artists

Explanation of the indicator

There are certain norms as to how to design songs and musical programs of a good CR. Community radio should work to preserve, promote and develop local music and folk songs. Therefore it must broadcast at least 20 percent of the total musical programs is dedicated to folk and traditional programs created by local artists.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the program grid and broadcast log of a week taken in random. Analyze the total amount of broadcast time for local music and folk songs and calculate its proportion to the total time allocated for songs and musical programs.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Radio broadcasts 20 percent or more of songs and musical programs created by local artists 2 The proportion is less than 20% but the radio broadcasts 10 percent or more 1 Either not done or done less than 10% 0

13. With regard to musical programs at least 25 percent of musical programs is produced and broadcast on the local languages

Explanation of the indicator

Good practices and accepted norms of community radio say that community radio should give emphasis in broadcasting its songs and musical programs in local languages. Therefore at least 25% of the songs and musical programs should be in local languages.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the program grid and broadcast log of a week taken in random. Analyze the total amount of broadcast time of music and folk songs in local languages and calculate its proportion to the total time allocated for songs and musical programs.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The broadcast time for songs and musical programs in local languages is equal to or more than 25% of the total time for songs and musical programs 2 The time is between 10 to 25% 1 It is less than 10% 0

14. With regard to musical programs radio has set aside broadcasting time for musical programs in the local languages proportionate to the population.

Explanation of the indicator

Since community radios are by the community and for the community its programs should also be proportionate to the composition of the community as far as possible. Therefore the broadcasting of songs and musical programs in local languages should be proportionately allocated to the population of different linguistic groups.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the program grid and broadcast log of a week taken in random. Analyze the total amount of broadcast time for local music and folk songs and calculate its proportion to the population of the different linguistic groups. If the proportion of linguistic groups as compared to the proportion of songs and musical programs in corresponding language matches highly (deviation of less than 20%) then the radio will be considered to have complied with this indicator.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The radio complies with the indicator 1 Does not comply 0

#### Composite 4: Resource Structure and Resource Mobilization

1. A separate unit is created for resource mobilization, and it is functional.

Explanation of the indicator

A separate unit responsible for resource mobilization should be set up, which is given a target, authority and resources required for fundraising and resource mobilization.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the organization structure and the terms of reference given to the unit responsible for resource mobilization

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score A responsible unit for resource mobilization is set up and it is provided with mandate, responsibility and authority 2 A separate unit is established but it is not given with necessary mandate and resources 1 Such a separate unit is not established 0

2. CR has assessed local resource potentials and has prepared annual plan for resource mobilization.

Explanation of the indicator

CRs should know what amount of resource is possible to mobilize at the local level for which an assessment of local resource potentials should be done. Similarly the radio must prepare annual plan to collect resources from the local resources so that the efficiency of the operation can be established.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain and see in the annual plan whether an estimation of the local resource potentials is done or not, and if the radio has local resource mobilization plan and target. For the purpose of the assessment take resources generated by the radio with its own efforts at the local market are local resources.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Annual plan contains resource mobilization plan with assessment of resource potentials 2 Resource mobilization plan is prepared without proper assessment of resource potentials 1 Either resource mobilization plan is not made or an assessment of resource is not done 0

3. The actual volume of local resource mobilized should be equal to or more than 80 percent of the projected amount (target) set out in the annual plan.

Explanation of the indicator

A resource mobilization plan should be realistic and achievable. Therefore achievement should be higher compared to what has been planned. An important aspect to assess and analyze in this respect is whether the annual projected budget is realistic.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain resource mobilization plan and compare it with the actual amount of local resource mobilized in the last year.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Achievement is 80% or above as compared to planned target 3 Resource generated is between 65 and 79% as compared to planned target 2 Resource generated is between 50 and 64% as compared to planned target 1 Less than 50% achieved (or there is no target at all) 0

4. The radio’s income from advertisement from traditional commodity market is less than 50 percent of the total income from operations for the year.

Explanation of the indicator

Radios should minimize its dependency of its resources on advertisements of traditional commodity market; rather it should be able to generate a higher amount of its resource from social marketing campaigns, partnerships and sponsorships of similar kinds. Therefore its income income from operations should not be dominated by traditional commodity markets.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Analyze the composition of radios income sources. Calculate the income from operations (for this, deduct the income from non-operational sources such as donation from the total income). Calculate the incomes incomes from advertisements of commercial commodity products (this does not include advertisements for brand images) as traditional commodity markets. Then find out the ratio of advertisement income from traditonal source to the total operational income of the radio.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Radio’s income from traditional commodity market is within the specified range 2 Radio’s income from traditional commodity market exceeds the range 0

5. No any single source (individual or organization, company, or firm) has more than 15% share in the radio’s total income from operations.

Explanation of the indicator

Domination of a single source over the income of a community radio poses a threat of it being carried away with the interest of the source. Such a tendency eventually leads to capturing of the radio by the interests of few. Therefore, community radios should diversify its sources as much as possible. Therefore a limit is set on the contribution of a single source (individual, organization, company, firm etc) on the resource generated by a radio.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the amount of income by source of funding (in the form of advertisement, sponsorship, donation etc) for the past year, and analyze the percent of highest contributing source to total annual income.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Income from a single source is within the specified limit 2 Income from a single source exceeds the specified limit 0

6. The income from innovative and creative sources is at an increase as compared to the average of the past three year’s income from such sources.

Explanation of the indicator

Radio should focus its efforts in mobilizing innovative and creative sources. Such sources, for example, could be organizing events, different schemes for donors, sponsored information service to stakeholders or other sources not falling under advertisements, promos, regular sponsorships and the like. A radios continued innovations and creativity is reflected by such incomes, therefore income of the radio from such sources should be in increase.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the source wise income and classify the income by sources for the previous years. Analyze the increase in the resource from creative and innovative sources.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The income from creative and innovative sources has increased by 10% or more 3 The increase is between 5 and 10 percent 2 Increase is between 0 to 5 percent 1 No increase or no income from such sources 0

7. Radio carries out an assessment of the structure of its resource and its mobilization status at least once every three months.

Explanation of the indicator

Radio management should frequently and regularly review the status of resource mobilization and resource composition.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Look for evidence (review meeting) that management has conducted resource mobilization status.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Review of resource mobilization status is conducted every three months 1 This is not done as specified 0

#### Composite 5: Radio Station Management

1. A written manual (or guideline) for station management is prepared and is in operation.

Explanation of the indicator

Community radio should prepare station management manual that elaborates routine operations and procedures. The manual should contain relevant provisions relating to human resource management, inclusion of sex/ethnicity, financial management and accounting and accountability measures, performance assessment and so on.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Ascertain the existence of the station management manual/guideline document in written form. Also assess if the manual contains arrangements for the mentioned aspects.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Station management manual exists with the mentioned provisions 1 A written manual does not exist 0

2. A written human resource development plan exists

Explanation of the indicator

Community radio should have prepared human resource development (HRD) plan annually and implemented accordingly. The plan should cover skill and competency development of existing staff, orientation to in-coming staff members, and volunteers.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain HRD plan of the radio. Ascertain whether it is annually prepared and duly implemented.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score A written human resource development plan exists and is duly implemented 1 A written manual does not exist or is not implemented 0

3. The radio has defined station management (departmental) structure, division of work, authority and responsibility in writing.

Explanation of the indicator

The management structure (Units or Departments) of the radio station should be determined in writing, and the functions, resources, targets, authorities, and responsibilities of each unit should be defined for a given year.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Document describing the management structure, functions, authorities and responsibilities of the units; and written letter given to the respective units showing the targets, resources, authorities, and responsibilities.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Management structure is determined and the functions, authorities, targets and responsibilities of the units or departments are defined 1 The functions and responsibilities of the units or departments in the management structure are not defined 0

4. The staff members (and volunteers) working at the station are provided with written appointment letter clearly specifying responsibility, authority, and compensation thereof.

Explanation of the indicator

Human resource (staff and volunteers) working at the station should be given with appointment letter that clearly describes roles and responsibilities of the individual as well as what s/he can claim as rights and benefits (if any) from the station.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain copies of the appointment letters and analyze if the roles, responsibilities, rights and benefits are clearly described

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Appointment letter clearly describes the roles, responsibilities, rights and benefits 1 Appointment letter is not given, or the roles responsibilites are not made clear 0

5. The radio station is running according to the annual plans prepared in at least three aspects – program, physical resource mobilization, and human resource development.

Explanation of the indicator

Community radio should be running in a predictable manner, and in a well organized way. Therefore annual plans on at least programs, physical resource mobilization, and human resource development should be prepared and the works being done accordingly.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain and analyze the annual work plan of the radio station.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score All the mentioned plans are mentioned 1 None or less than three plans exist 0

6. A routine schedule for equipment maintenance is prepared and work is going on accordingly.

Explanation of the indicator

Radio equipments are sensitive that need regular preventive maintenance, and different equipments have different maintenance cycle. Therefore radio must prepare an equipment-maintenance schedule and equipments are maintained accordingly. A record should be kept of such regular routines.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain annual schedule for equipment maintenance, and related records to check if it is followed.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Equipment maintenance schedule is prepared and is followed 1 Equipment maintenance schedule is not prepared or not followed 0

7. A written system is developed and is in implemented in practice for providing incentive and opportunities to staff based on assessment of their performance.

Explanation of the indicator

Radio should provide incentive and opportunities to its staff, volunteer, and officials based on the performance assessment. Such a system of availing incentives and opportunities tied up with individual performance and contribution to radio should be designed in writing and should be practiced in reality.

Source of information and basis of assessment

The system of availing incentives and opportunities tied up with individual performance and contribution, and its application in practice. For application in practice, take two or three cases where radio officials and staff have attended a training program for study. Radio should be able to provide evidence that the nomination of the person was done according to the system.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Written system of availing performance based opportunities and incentives exists, and it is applied in practice 1 A system does not exist and or staff reward and sanction is done in ad hoc manner 0

8. Personal file of staff members is maintained.

Explanation of the indicator

A well manged organization must keep individual file of each staff. The file should contain appointment letter, academic qualifications, skills and competencies, performance assessment results, training provided, changes in positions and responsibilities and the like. It is good but not as necessary to maintain individual files of volunteers.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Observation of the individual files maintained, and the content in the individual files of all staff members.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Individual staff files are maintained and the files contain relevant information 1 Individual files are not maintained or do not contain all relevant information 0

9. Staff meeting takes place with pre-determined agenda regularly and timely as specified in the calendar of operations.

Explanation of the indicator

Radio station management should set a meeting calander for staff meetings (in which all staff members are expected to participate), and such meetings should take place with prior information of the major agenda to the staff members.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the staff meeting calander and verify whether the meetings are conducted according to the calander. Study documents related to 2/3 staff meetings taken palce in the past 12 months, and see whether the staffs are informed about major agenda in advance (at least 24 hours).

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Staff meetings are held according to the calander with information of the agenda in advance 1 Either meetings are not held regularly, or a schedule for staff meetings is not prepared, or the agenda is not circulated in advance 0

10. Review and assessment should be done as to what happened with the decisions of previous staff meetings.

Explanation of the indicator

Staff meetings should review about the implementation status of the decisions made in the past meetings. This should be a permanent agenda of any staff meeting.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Study the agenda and discussion notes of 2 or 3 staff meetings, and confirm that the review of past decisions is adequately done

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Review of past decisions are made duly in staff meetings 1 Review of past decisions are not done in staff meetings 0

#### Composite 6: Financial Management

1. A clear financial policy is issued and is in force that clearly specifies where the income from operations and donations will be used.

Explanation of the indicator

Radios should specify the use of money obtained from different sources in its financial policy. The policy should elaborate what kind of income source will be used for what purposes. For example, which income sources (grants and operational incomes) will be primarily used for investment purpose (e.g., land, building, equipments), and what sources will be used primarily in operation and maintenance purpose (e.g., salary, utilities, incentives, HRD, OD).

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the financial policy that has specified the use of resource by its origin. Seek evidence that separate accounts for the money from grants and operating incomes are maintained for the income in the previous year. Confirm that the 80% or more expenses are made according to the policy.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Financial policy sets out that sources of the resource are identified for investment and operational purposes, and the policy is adhered to in 80% or more expenses is made according to the policy 2 Policy sets out the sources and purposes but due attention is not given about its use according to the policy 1 No such policy is set out 0

2. Inventory of goods and equipments are maintained, periodically inspected and regularly updated.

Explanation of the indicator

Radios must keep inventory of its properties, physical assets and store, which should be inspected and updated periodically

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain a copy of the inventory, and verify whether it is inspected by responsible authority, and updated in a specified interval

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Inventory is maintained, inspection is done, and inventory is updated in specified time 1 Inventory is not maintained or no inspection is done and updated periodically 0

3. Bank account is opened in the name of the radio organization and financial transactions are done through it.

Explanation of the indicator

An organization must conduct is business transaction through bank account(s). Therefore, radios should open a separate bank account and financial transactions should be done through this account.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain documents showing that a bank account is in place, and analyze the amount of transaction done through the account as compared to the annual transaction.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score More than 80% of transactions are done through bank account 2 Between 50 to 89% is done through bank account 1 Either a bank account is not open or less than 50% transaction done through it 0

4. Cash flow plan is prepared and is effectively used (less deviance)

Explanation of the indicator

Cash flow plan should be prepared for the year and it should be functional. Cash flow plan helps the station management to forecast and manage situations of possible cash shortages.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the cash flow plan, and check if there is huge unanticipated deviance (particularly deficit) in the cash situation.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Cash flow plan is prepared and there is no huge unanticipated cash shortages 1 Cash flow plan is not prepared or there is huge cash shortages at times 0

5. Depreciation of the physical equipments, machinery and vehicles is accounted for and a reserve fund for the same is created.

Explanation of the indicator

An established institution should have a plan for physical equipment replacement at the time when they are obsolete or out of order. CRs too cannot afford to rely on donor support for replacement of equipment and machinery at the right time when it is required. Therefore a reserve fund should be created with the depreciation amount and from other sources of incomes.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain evidence of establishment of a reserve fund for replacement of physical equipment and machinery, and make sure that the fund is growing each year.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score A reserve fund is established for machinery and equipment replacement and it is growing 2 Either such a fund does not exist or it is not growing 0

6. Radio publishes the status of its monthly incomes and expenditures.

Explanation of the indicator

A community radio should be transparent, and its financial position should be known to the stakeholders. Therefore, it should publish its monthly income and expenditures.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain evidence that the CR publishes its income and expenditures monthly on a regular basis.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Monthly income and expenditures are regularly published 1 Not published or not published 0

7. Radio analyzes its financial situation every month.

Explanation of the indicator

Radios should carry out analysis of their financial situation every month. The analysis should contain relevant the cash flow situation, plan and actual achievement in resource mobilization targets, and expenses.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain a copy of financial analysis of 2-3 months

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Financial analysis is done every month 1 It is not done, or done only once a year or so 0

1. A clear policy with regard to participating in networks is developed and practice of refining/improving it is done from time to time.

Explanation of the indicator

Radio should have formulated a clear policy as to what sort of network it participates in and the policy should be evaluated, reviewed and revised from time to time.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Study the radio’s policy and obtain evidence that the policy is evaluated and reviewed in an interval of at the most 3 years.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Policy for participating in networks is formulated and it is evaluated as specified 1 Either such a policy is not formulated, or it is not evaluated for revision 0

2. For institutional strengthening, the radio has established partnership with a variety of network partners (advocacy, capacity development, resource mobilization, intellectual resource mobilization) and active working relation is maintained with them.

Explanation of the indicator

Radios should have variety of networks in terms of their subject matter of action (human rights, social and economic right, women and childern rights etc) and geographic scope of action (local, regional, national, international), and radios should be actively working with them. Note that the networking with community radios is not included in this list.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain existing list of network organizations the radio is actively working with, and compare it with the number of network organizations in the past year. By actively working with it should be understood that there is collaborative action with them (participating in forum, joint actions, and sharing of information and knowledge, etc) in the past two years.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score The number and variety of active network partners has increased by 2 or more in the past year 2 Increase in number of similar types of network partners has occurred but there is no increase in the variety 1 Neither number or variety has increased 0

3. Radio is pro-actively engaged in movements for social transformation in collaboration with different community and organizations

Explanation of the indicator

Radio should have defined policy as to working in partnership with movements for social change, and should be working accordingly. Radio should establish working relationships with relevant other organizations or agencies (such as indigenous peoples organizations, civil society organizations, human rights organizations, social and community organizations, and labor organizations) in the defined target area and should be working together in collaboration with them in movements aiming for social transformation.

Source of information and basis of assessment

Obtain the evidence that the radio is pro-actively involved in movements aimed at social transformation. There should be evidence that the radio invites different agencies in social movements it initiates, and is invited by others as well in the social movements they initiate.

Scoring table

 Basis of scoring Score Radio actively organizes programs for social movements and involves others 2 Radio participates in programs organized by others 1 Radio is not active, or is not invited as an active partner 0

## Chapter 4

### Management of the performance assessment system

Overall management

Coordination

A coordination committee will be responsible to manage the assessment process. The coordination committee will consist of representatives from key stakeholders (radio stations, associations, collective mechanism of CRs, concerned authorities), other civil society organizations, and experts. Initially CRSC will be the focal point for this process.

It is envisoned that an independent radio regulatory authority will be established in future. The authority will use the tool to regulate community radios, classify them, provide support and subsidies to them accordingly. Once established, the authority itself will coordinate the process.

Consultant

In order to ensure objectivity and high quality of the output of the assessment, the assessment will be carried out through independent assessors. As far as possible consulting firms with demonstrated capacity to provide personnel with relevant expertise and experience will be awarded the task. Measures will be taken to ensure full impartiality of the assessment in order to preserve the integrity of the assessment process.

The assessment team

A team of two assessors will be fielded to carry out the assessment of a radio. The team should have sufficient exposure or experience on the areas such as community radio, journalism, management and finance. One of the two members will work as team leader.

Depending on the number of radios to be assessed and their geographic spread, the coordination committee will decide on the number of assessment team to be fielded. The assessment team will carry out the assessment, compile the result, and prepare a report.

The assessment team will carry out the assessment of a radio in two days.

The assessment team will work closely with an internal team or a person designated by the radio as the focal person for assessment. The focal person will work as the link person for the external assessors and support the assessment process as the internal assessor.

The annual assessment process

Timing of the Assessment

The performance assessment will be conducted annually as far as possible between the month of September and December.

CRs to be included in the assessment list

The local radios that have declared themselves as community radios, renewed their license, and are willing to be assessed will be included in the assessment list. The radios will be asked whether they are willing to be assessed in the month June, and by the month of July each year their response should reach.

Preparation

The assessment teams will be given a thorough training/orientation to ensure uniformity of understanding and to ensure that a uniform assessment method is applied for all radios. It will be done through a days’ workshop/training to make the assessors clear about the assessment indicators, language of the manual, the assessment process and procedures.

The Radios will also be given information about the assessment system (the performance indicators, scoring system, basis of categorization and implications). Participating radios will be provided with a copy of the manual for reference and necessary preparations. This will help the radios to prepare themselves for the assessment.

The radios will be informed two to four weeks in advance about the time of the actual assessment and the arrival of the assessment team. It is expected that the focal person in the radio collects necessary evidences for the use of the assessors to decide on the score.

Scoring and Reporting

The assessment system is a joint effort of the radio, the focal person, and the external assessors. In this sense this is a participatory method. But it is also strictly objective and mechanical as the assessors will follow the manual for measuring and giving score for the performance of the radio. While the performance of the radio will be ascertained from evidence, the non-availability of information and or materials will be taken as non-performance leading to lowest possible score.

Prior to departure, the assessment team will give information about the initial result of the performance of the radio. As appropriate the team will also give an indication as to the areas of improvement and possible ways to improve.

Grace period

The assessors may find a situation wherein they believe that the radios has fulfilled the performance requirement but could not produce document evidence to prove the same. In such cases the assessors can give the radios a grace period of 15 days to produce or submit the evidence so that they can revise the performance scores.

Quality control

As mentioned the system should be highly standardized, uniform, credible and impartial. An elaborated manual, selection of competent assessors, and their orientation and training are measures taken to ensure the quality of assessment. Besides since that the coordination committee will award the assignment to responsible firm instead individual experts this will help maintain quality.

In addition there will be an annual review of the functioning of the system. The coordination committee may decide to carry out field monitoring and checking of the performance quality of the assessors.

Compilation and endorsement of the results

The assessment team will prepare a report as shown in the format (Annex-I) for each radio. Both team members will have to sign off on the actual assessment results. Then the consulting firm will prepare a comprehensive report of their assessment with their observations.

The coordination committee will compile all the performance reports of the radios and produce a synthesis report with comparison of the results and key lessons learnt. Before widely disseminating the results the coordination committee will first disclose the result to the participating radios. There is provision for appeal if the radios disagree with the result.

Appeal procedures

If the radios do not agree with the results, then they can file an appeal within a-month time of the first disclosure of the result. This should be done through a formal written letter to the coordination committee documenting the factual errors in the assessment. Moreover the radios should also deposit an equal amount of money that will be required to carry out an assessment.

The coordination committee will decide as to what to do with the appeal. The coordination committee will disregard the appeal if it obvious that the appeal is baseless and does not have documented proof. If the coordination committee finds that further investigation is deemed necessary, another team of assessors will be fielded to carry out another assessment.

In case the appeal leads to new revised results in favor of the radio then the coordination committee will cover the costs of the re-assessment, and also that the first team of assessor will be blacklisted before considering awarding other similar assignments. In case the appeal appears to be not genuine then the deposit money will be confiscated.

Wider dissemination and use of the result

Dissemination of the result

The result of the performance assessment will be disseminated through various means. The radios themselves, newspapers, workshops and dissemination seminars are the possible means.

Use of the result

There is multiple use of the result. Government authorities, donors, support agencies, radios themselves and CRSC are the primary users. The key uses of the assessment results are:

CRSC- FreeVoice will take the performance assessment result as a guide to consider, select, and prioritize the radios to obtain its support. As such the radios faring well in the assessment will get grant supports, capacity building and other supports.

CRSC- FreeVoice will also use the result of the assessment to design appropriate programs (guidelines, manuals, advocacy and lobbying, reference materials development and training packages) for strengthening the radio.

CRSC- FreeVoice will also recommend, advocate for and promote the use of the result by other agencies as well. It is expected that the development and government agencies will take the result to prioritize the radio to provide incentives (such as donation support, custom exemption, subsidies on renewal fees, royalties, electricity and telephone tariff, etc), provide access to public funds, and channel their programs and resources. As community radios are heritage of communities and people, the result will also be a basis to provide immunity to community radios from anti-volunteerism clauses of the Working Journalist Act of Nepal.

The Community Radios themselves will find the categorization as an important means for them to assert for their rights, positioning themselves and propose for taking joint initiative with different agencies and organizations. This result will also help community radios to analyze the gap within the organization.

To insure the sustainability of community radio in Nepal it is also envisoned that Community Radio Development/ Revolving Fund will be estabilished and this fund will tie-up with this results to obtain its support.

#### Annex–I: Performance Assessment Form

Composite: Participation and ownership (Total score 20)

 Indicators Score Radios' score Justification for the score 1. The radio has defined, and publicly announced, its community for its broadcasting purpose. 2 2. The provision of membership is open for all persons belonging to the defined community, and the radio publicly invites all to take membership from time to time. 2 3. The structure of the general assembly members should be inclusive reflecting the composition of the target population in terms of their class, ethnic, linguistic, gender and geographic characteristics. 4 4. The radio has put in practice the system and mechanism of deciding the membership fees in consultation with the people in the defined community. 2 5. Radio organizes at least a public hearing event each year in different locations/clusters of the targeted geographic area. 3 6. Radio has clearly defined the role, responsibility, and working guideline relating to volunteers and the amount of their contribution in radio operations such as program, accounting, resource mobilization, and station management, and the status of which is assessed in routine review meetings. 3 7. A structural mechanism is designed to receive suggestion, feedback and comments on a continuous basis from different groups (ethnic, class, gender, occupation) of people, and it is functional. 4

Comments of the assessors on this composite:

Composite: Radio governance (Total score 15)

Comments of the assessors on this composite:

Composite: Radio programs (Total score 25)

Comments of the assessors on this composite:

Composite: Resource structure & resource management (Total score 15)

 Indicators Score Radios' score Justification for the score 1. A separate unit is created for resource mobilization, and it is functional. 2 2. CR has assessed local resource potentials and has prepared annual plan for resource mobilization. 2 3. The actual volume of local resource mobilized should be equal to or more than 80 percent of the projected amount (target) set out in the annual plan. 3 4. The radio’s income from advertisement from traditional commodity market is less than 50 percent of the total income from operations for the year. 2 5. No any single source (individual or organization, company, or firm) has more than 15% share in the radio’s total income from operations. 2 6. The income from innovative and creative sources is at an increase as compared to the average of the past three year’s income from such sources. 3 7. Radio carries out an assessment of the structure of its resource and its mobilization status at least once every three months. 1

Comments of the assessors on this composite:

Composite: Radio station management (Total score 10)

 Indicators Score Radios' score Justification for the score 1. A written manual (or guideline) for station management is prepared and is in operation. 1 2. A written human resource development plan exists 1 3. The radio has defined station management (departmental) structure, division of work, authority and responsibility in writing. 1 4. The staff members (and volunteers) working at the station are provided with written appointment letter clearly specifying responsibility, authority, and compensation thereof. 1 5. The radio station is running according to the annual plans prepared in at least three aspects – program, physical resource mobilization, and human resource development. 1 6. A routine schedule for equipment maintenance is prepared and work is going on accordingly. 1 7. A written system is developed and is in implemented in practice for providing incentive and opportunities to staff based on assessment of their performance. 1 8. Personal file of staff members is maintained. 1 9. Staff meeting takes place with pre-determined agenda regularly and timely as specified in the calendar of operations. 1 10. Review and assessment should be done as to what happened with the decisions of previous staff meetings. 1

Comments of the assessors on this composite:

Composite: Financial management (Total score 10)

 Indicators Score Radios' score Justification for the score 1. A clear financial policy is issued and is in force that clearly specifies where the income form operations and donations will be used. 2 2. Inventory of goods and equipments are maintained, periodically inspected and regularly updated. 1 3. Bank account is opened in the name of the radio organization and financial transactions are done through it. 2 4. Cash flow plan is prepared and is effectively used (less deviance) 1 5. Depreciation of the physical equipments, machinery and vehicles is accounted for and a reserve fund for the same is created. 2 6. Radio publishes the status of its monthly incomes and expenditures. 1 7. Radio analyzes its financial situation every month. 1

Comments of the assessors on this composite:

Composite: Networking (Total score 5)

 Indicators Score Radios' score Justification for the score 1. A clear policy with regard to participating in networks is developed and practice of refining/improving it is done from time to time. 1 2. For institutional strengthening, the radio has established partnership with a variety of network partners (advocacy, capacity development, resource mobilization, intellectual resource mobilization) and active working relation is maintained with them. 2 3. Radio is pro-actively engaged in movements for social transformation in collaboration with different community and organizations 2

Comments of the assessors on this composite:

Overall comment on the radios performance

Assessors Signature

#### Annex-II: Synthesis Reporting Format

Executive Summary

This should contain a brief overview of the assessment made, the timing, the duration, the people met, the process, the constraints for the assessment teams, and the overall environment for the assessment as well as the overall results and recommendations.

1. Introduction

Background of the performance based grant system
Overview of the system
Time of assessment
Organization of Assessment

2. Result of the performance assessment and analysis

Assessment of performance by composites and indicators
Interrelationship between composites and indicators
Summary of the PM Assessment results and its grant implication

3. Observations and Suggestions

On the CR-PAS