Types of Academic Writing
* NARRATION: Tells an experience
Tells a story
it moves you through time
* DESCRIPTION: Gives details
Attract the reader by describing feelings and emotions
Moving through space
* EXEMPLIFICATION: Writing with examples Representative To convince and be amused To inform
* ANALYSIS BY DIVISION: Explains things by dividing the topic
Unit is explained by steps and/or parts
*PROCESS ANALYSIS: Writing about doing
Directive and Informative
Responds to the questions: How do I do it? How is/was it done?
* CAUSE AND EFFECT Determine reasons and outcomes
Deal with reasons and results
Discusses together or separately
Usually explains a cause and its effects.
*CLASSIFICATION: Put people, places, things or ideas into groups or classes
Based on their characteristics
* COMPARISON AND CONTRAST: Similarities and contrasts
Comparison is concerned with organizing similarities
Contrast is concerned with organizing differences
To inform or to persuade
*ARGUMENTATIVE: Writing to persuade
To influence people to think in a certain way
Brandon, Lee (2001) Paragraphs and Essays. Houghton Miffin Company. USA
There is a new shift that is changing in some institutions. This change is called "Learning Paradigm" And it is causing a comparison between instructional learning and producing learning. Producing learning is focused in doing whatever it means that students work best. The idea of learning paradigm is to "liberate intitutions from a set of difficult constraints"; in other words, an institution has to increase its productivity by developing its class sizes end educational quality. (Bar & Tagg, 1995 p. 1)
The Learning Paradigm has begun to be recognized as more effective as intructional learning. So this way, college students skills are measured while their stay in school and not only, but in entrance and again upon gradution. And also at intermediate level of in the beginning and completition of major programs. (Bar & Tagg, 1995 p. 1)
Research Questions: it is important to formulate good research questions. Research questions are part of the first step in writing a research paper. They help guide you to create a thesis with a direct, specific focus. Some steps to write research questions are the following:
1. Pick a general topic for your paper. It should be broad so that you can narrow it down to examine a specific issue relating to it. 2. Write down a list of relevant questions that interest you about the topic. If you're not very familiar with your general topic, do a little reading to get an idea of the issues that relate to it. 3. Narrow down your list of questions to topics that aren't too narrow or general, depending on the length requirement of your paper. 4. Conduct a previous search for information relating to your question. 5. Refine your research question to give it a clear, direct focus based on your preliminary research. 6. Ask your teacher or professor to look over your research questions. He or she will be able to help you decide if you're heading in the right direction.
Szulecki, D. (2009) How to Write a Research Question for Research Papers Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_4873808_write-research-question-research-papers.html#ixzz13etRiYEv October 28th, 2010
Types of variables: A variable, as opposed to a constant, is simply anything that can vary. There are two types of variable. the Independent and Dependent.
Dependent Variable: or outcome variable, is dependent on our independent variable or what we start with. In this study, college grades would be our dependent variable because it is dependent on work experience.
Independet Variable: is often thought of as our input variable. It is independent of everything that occurs during the experiment because once it is chosen it does not change. In our experiment on college performance, we chose two groups at the onset, namely, those with work experience and those without.
The Virtual Psychology Classroom. (1999-2003)Research Methods: Variables, Validity, and Reliability. Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/variables.html October 28th, 2010 Annotated Bibliography: is a bibliography with an explanation of what the each work cited is about. In this way it helps the researcher discover whether the material can be of use to him if he is not familiar with the work listed.
Gazenova College, (2009)Library Glossary of Library Terms. Retrieved from http://www.cazenovia.edu/Default.aspx?tabid=703 October 28th, 2010
Chambers, F. (1997) What do we mean by Fluency? University of Southampton, School of Modern Languages, Faculty of Arts. Elsevier Science Ltd. Great Britain.
What do we mean by fluency is an article that provides information about how fluency is considered a descriptor for the oral performance and how it can develop in the student enough production of the language. It also explains how it is view as a problem for some learners to teach fluency in their classes. and how this problem can have a solutiion.
Hinkel, E. (2005) Handbook of research in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Lawerence Eribaum Associate, Inc Publishers.
This book is about the meaning of fluency in the teaching and learning field. It provides information related to the importance of teaching a second language and how it influences the learning. The author provides a definition of fluency based in what some Linguists believe and how it can help to improve the speaking skill.
Schmilt, N. (2002) An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, Landon: Arnold
This book gives an introduction to Applied Linguistics and the importance of Linguistics in learning and Teaching a Language. But more important this book counts with a chapter that mentions how vocabulary can develop fluency and help to the learning of a second language make the best of it. This chapter also refers to the use of certain activities used in L2 classes can provide vocabulary and will increase fluency in the students.
Kumar, A. (2005-2010) Importance of English Language. Article Dashboard. Retrieved from http://www.articledashboard.com/Article/Importance-of-English-language/495646 October 28th, 2010
This article is about how the English language has become very important for the bussines world today and that it is more important to be fluent in English to demonstrate proficiency. It refers how confidence and practice can help the student to become very fluent in English and it gives some suggestions for students to achieve fluency.
Hoang, T. T. (2010) Teaching Culture in the EFL/ESL Classroom. Alliant International University California. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov.dibpxy.uaa.mx/PDFS/ED511819.pdf November 4th, 2010
This journal is about the importance of teaching culture to second and foreign language students. It defines the concepts of language and culture and their characteristics. It also shows the advantages and disadvantages of teaching culture in the language classroom and how culture is a big tool for students to learn a second language.
Rizvi, A. M. (2005) Effective Technical Communication. New Delhi. McGraw Hill.
This book counts with a chapter that is focused on improving fluency and self expression and how those components can help to have a good speech production. The chapter provides five factors that influence fluency and self expression in order to succeed in the oral performance.
Brumfit, C.; Broughton, G.; Roger, F.; Hill, P. and Pincas, A. (1978) Teaching Enclish as a Foreign Language. Routledge.
This books gives a clear defintion about the teaching of a English for foreing learners. And provides to the teacher ideas to understand the student to learn a second language. the book also has a chapter dedicated to the listening and speaking skill and how they can help the learner improve his or her speech production.
Brown, G and Yule, G. (1983) Teaching the Spoken Language. Cambridge Univeristy Press. United Kingdom.
This book is about the concerned of the teaching of a second language and how it is different the written and spoken language. It makes a comparison in how many teacher have focused in pronunciation and intonation in the spoken language and not be focused on grammar and vocabulary that is also part of the spoken language but many others think it belongs to the written area.
THESIS STATEMENT: The importance of teaching fluency in basic learners to improve the speaking skill.
HYPOTHESIS: Basic learners need to develop their speaking skill in order to be fluent and accurate when they become advanced learners. Teachers should teach fluency to help students achieve fluency.
1.Why is it important to teach fluency in the classroom?
2.How do teachers implement fluency activities in a class?
3.How teachers make students achieve fluency in the classroom?
4.How can students develop their speaking skill through fluency activities?
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: Teaching Fluency
DEPENDENT VARIABLE: Teaching fluency in basic learners to improve the speaking skill.
The learning of a second language is nowadays an important tool for developing a good position in a work or getting a place in a school abroad. The English language has become now one of the languages most learned in society because of the doors it opens to the world’s opportunities. Although master a second language is an advantage for many L2 learners, not all of them might use the language with an excellence proficiency in the speaking skill. People may be really good in reading, writing and listening but somehow they show difficulty in speaking. And this is a problem for the teaching field because there must be a way that teachers can implement the improvement of speaking fluently and accurately as well as the other skills. For this reason this research is important for me to help teacher use fluency activities since the basic courses to help students be fluent and accurate and for them to be good bilinguals when students are in advanced levels and to show a lack in their proficiency.
Some authors have researched about the importance of fluency in the classroom and how it is important in the oral performance. Lennon & Schmidt in Chambers’ (1997: p. 537) say that the oral performance is a phenomenon that is impacting the language teaching. It has become very famous because it places students in real time exercises where they will have to demonstrate their language proficiency and of course where fluency is an important aspect to evaluate. Then the term fluency becomes a discussion is which if it is considered a skill or as knowledge of the language. Schmidt (1992) argues that fluency is an automatic skill that was developed for the production of language. In other words, the most oral production they have the best fluent learners will be.
The importance of teaching fluency in intermediate learners; a way to improve the speaking skill.
1.Fluency and Accuracy
a.Definition of Fluency.
b.Definition of Accuracy.
c.Fluency vs. Accuracy.
2.Intermediate English learners fail in fluency and accuracy.
a.Factors that affect students in failing in fluency and accuracy in their speaking skill. i.Cognitive Factors
iii. Sociable Factors
b.Most Problems found in developing the speaking skill for intermediate students.
3.Methodologies to improve fluency and accuracy in intermediate learners’ classes.
a.The role of vocabulary in English classes to develop fluency and accuracy in the speaking skill.
b.The role of the EFL teacher to encourage and stimulate anxiety of developing fluency and accuracy in the speaking skill.