User:Alexandra1102/academic writiing notes

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september 23th





Are you tired that at school, the teacher is talking and talking and you just listen?

In the past, it was common to see the instructional paradigm in classes. now with the new paradigm that has been applied in classes, has been changing students. what does that mean? it is important for teacher, that students produce learning. "The shift to a learning paradigm liberates institutions from a set of difficult constraings" (Bar & Tagg, 1995, p. 1). For teachers, and all the education field, is important to consider the "learning paradigm" because with the application of this new paradigm teachers are helping students to develop their learning. Some years ago, it was commonly seen in classrooms and instructional paradigm, but now with the implication of the new paradigm


  • NARRATION: is an acount of inciden or a series of incidents that make up a complete a significant action. each narrative has fiver properties: sutiation,conflict, struggle , outcome and meaning.
  • DESCRIPTIVE: the use of words to represent the appereance of something. description is divided into two types:objective and subjective.
  • EXEMPLIFICATION: use of examples, convince, amuse
  • PROCESS ANALYSIS: if you need to exaplain how to do something, into stages. 2 ypes: directive and informative.
  • CAUSE AND EFFECT: the sequence of events in necesarily- exploiring.
  • COMPARISON AND CONTRAST: shhowing similarities, dis-similirraties between subjects, has to do with orgnizing and development, dissimilarity.

unit III

Thesis statement: whenever you are writing to explain something to your reader or to persuade your reader to agree with your opinion , there should be one complete sentence that expresses the main idea of your paper. That sentence is oftern called the thesis, or thesis statement. (some other names it goes by are the "main idea" and "the controlling idea"). Based on everything you've read, and thought and brainstormed, the thesis is not just your topic, but what you're saying about your topic. Another way to look at it is, once you've come up with the central question, or organizing question, of your essay, the thesis is an answer to that question. Remembe, though while, you are still writing your paper, to consider what you have to be a "working thesis" one that may still be "adjusted".As you continue to write, read and think about your topic, see if you working thesis still represents your opinion. example of argumentative thesis: high school graduated should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness. my thesis statement TITLE: Motivation is an important factor that is involved in learning process, where teachers must be aware when children learning english as foreign language at elementary school.

It probably may be like that: Children learning a second language at elementary school will not be an easy task because of many factor affecting the learning process and certainly teachers must be aware of those factors involved in childrens' learning process of a second language, in this case English.

research question: it's absolutely essential to develop a research question that you're interested in or care about in order to focus your research and your paper. It should not be too narrow or too broad. it is related to the thesis statement. It should guide you to get evidence:opinions and evidence. example: what areas need further explanations? is the question easily and fully researchable? my research question what is efl? efl children what is motivation? how do teachers should manage motivation inside a classroom? children learning a second language? Does motivation play an important role in the learning process for children?

annotated bibliography 'information sourcessources, article, web pages, references, bibliography to coolect your information.


A variable is something that can change, such as 'gender' and are typically the focus of a study. Attributes are sub-values of a variable, such as 'male' and 'female'. An exhaustive list contains all possible answers, for example gender could also include 'male transgender' and 'female transgender' (and both can be pre- or post-operative). Mutually exclusive attributes are those that cannot occur at the same time. Thus in a survey a person may be requested to select one answer from a list of alternatives (as opposed to selecting as many that might apply).Quantitative data is numeric. This is useful for mathematical and statistical analysis that leads to a predictive formula.Qualitative data is based on human judgement. You can turn qualitative data into quantitative data, for example by counting the proportion of people who hold a particular qualitative viewpoint.Units are the ways that variables are classified. These include: individuals, groups, social interactions and objects. Types Descriptive variables are those that which will be reported on, without relating them to anything in particular.

Categorical variables result from a selection from categories, such as 'agree' and 'disagree'. Nominal and ordinal variables are categorical.

Numeric variables give a number, such as age.

Discrete variables are numeric variables that come from a limited set of numbers. They may result from , answering questions such as 'how many', 'how often', etc.

Continuous variables are numeric variables that can take any value, such as weight. Independence

An independent variable is one is manipulated by the researcher. It is like the knob on a dial that the researcher turns. In graphs, it is put on the X-axis.

A dependent variable is one which changes as a result of the independent variable being changed, and is put on the Y-axis in graphs.

The holy grail for researchers is to be able to determine the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, such that if the independent variable is changed, then the researcher will be able to accurately predict how the dependent variable will change.

Extraneous variables are additional variables which could provide alternative explanations or cast doubt on conclusions.

Variables may have the following characteristics:

   * Period: When it starts and stops.
   * Pattern: Daily, weekly, ad-hoc, etc.
   * Detail: Overview through to 'in depth'.
   * Latency: Time between measuring dependent and independent variable (some things take time to take effect).

annotated bibliography

This book " Motivation and Second Language Learning" it has todo with my topic, becuase it covers from the top talkinb about what motivation means, the componenets that this factor in second langugage learning has. It also talks about some theories and approaches that use motivation inside an esl classroom. This book, contains a brief research about motivation, inside a classroom, how this affect to esl learners, and how motivation has to be managed. Lins, T.,(2005). Motivation and second language Learning. Auflage, Germany.

the article "motivation and motivating in the foreing language classroom" is like a little guide, where it talks about some strategies that teachers could apply inside an efl classroom. It mentions a process, that is in each classroom, were teachers must be aware of. Something that really like me about teacher's behaviour, and the rapport that teachers have with students. The atmosphere is an important factor, where this article explains why, and the different approaches regarding with motivation.

Juvonen, J. & Wentzel, K., 2002, social Motivation: understanding children’s school adjustment, Press syndicate of the university of Cambridge , USA.

This book, will help me to my paper because it talks about how students motivate at school, the motivation that is at school, how that environment affect to their learning process.


why is this research so important?

This research is so important specially for me, becuase i am working with children teaching them english as foreign language, and i have seen trhough my short experience that students need to be motivated to learn a second language.That is why teachers have to be aware, about how to motívate students to learn a second language, despite some factors that can infer in their learning process, in this case i’m interested about children. How teachers can apply strategies, the factors that involved this process, the theories that exist about motivation and models. This research, will help other teachers to find out how to motivate students in their English classes, what is the better way to do it. This research, also will include an instrument in which teachers may use to see how students are motivated about learning a second language, about how students can be motivated inside the classroom. Sometimes, motivation is not part of teachers’ tool,sometimes teachers may forget this important factor that affects children learning process.

what have other people done? some people have researched about this topic the motivation inside ane efl classroom. what have they done?people have done several instruments in which teachers may be aware about students' motivation inside an efl classroom.


Thesis statement: the use of effective techniques to increase motivation in children from primary school. OUTLINE

A. Philosoophical

       a.	Man
       b.	Person
       c.	Humanism

B. Epistemological

       a.	Knowledge
       b.	Learning
               b.1. jean piaget
               b.2 . assimilation
               b.3. accommodation
               b.4. balance

C. Psychological a. cognitive development 6-11years old a.1. concrete operational stage

               a.2. formal operational stage
       b. emotional development
               b.1. motivation
               b.2. theories of motivation
               b.3. motivation techniques

D. Pedagogical

         a. educational approach

a.1. teaching

               a.2. learning
               a.3. constructivism
               a.4. communicative approach